I. Collations on the Six Days







A. Contents



II. First Collation



100. FIRST COLLATION On the Qualities Required of Hearers of the Divine Word, and on Christ as the Center of All Knowledge


1. On the Qualities Required of Hearers of the Divine Word, and on Christ as the Center of All Knowledge



1. IN THE midst of the Church the Lord shall open his mouth, and shall fill him with the spirit of wisdom and understanding and shall clothe him with a robe of glory. In these words the Holy Spirit teaches the prudent man to whom he should address his speech, from where he should begin it, and finally where he should end it. First, to whom he should address it, that is, to the Church: for what is holy should not be given to dogs nor should pearls be thrown to the swine. Second, from where to begin, that is, from the center (medium), which is Christ: for if this Medium is overlooked, no result is obtained. Third, where he should end, that is, in fullness, in the complete fulfilling of the spirit of wisdom and understanding.
1. In medio Ecclesiae aperiet os eius et adimplebit eum Dominus spiritu sapientiae et intellectus et stola gloriae vestiet illum, Ecclesiastici decimo quinto =|1|= . In verbis istis docet Spiritus sanctus prudentem, quibus debet sermonem depromere, unde incipere, ubi terminare.$Primo, quibus debet loqui: quia Ecclesiae; non enim dandum est sanctum canibus, nec margaritae spargendae sunt ante porcos =|2|= .$Secundo docet ubi debet incipere: quia a medio, quod est Christus; quod medium si negligatur, nihil habetur.$Tertio ubi terminare: quia in plenitudine sive adimpletione spiritus sapientiae et intellectus.


2. But first, we must speak of ourselves and consider what qualities we must possess. For a ray of light offered to a weak eye blinds it instead of enlightening it. Hence we should speak of the Church which is the assembly of rational men, while the synagogue is the gathering of herds and of men living animal lives. =|1|=  We should speak of the Church which is a union of rational men living in harmony and uniformity through harmonious and uniform observance of divine Law, harmonious and uniform adherence to divine peace, harmonious and uniform concelebration of divine praise. Now these three are in logical order, for there can be no praise without peace, nor divine peace without observance of divine Law.
2. Sed primo loquendum est de nobis ipsis et videndum, quales esse debemus. Si enim oculo infirmo apponatur radius, potius excaecatur quam illuminetur. Loquendum est igitur Ecclesiae, quae quidem est convocatio rationalium; synagoga autem est congregatio gregum et hominum brutaliter viventium. Ecclesiae loquendum est, quae quidem est unio rationalium concorditer et uniformiter viventium per concordem et uniformem observantiam divinae legis, per concordem et uniformem cohaerentiam divinae pacis, per concordem et uniformem consonantiam divinae laudis. Haec autem ordinata sunt: quia laus esse non potest, ubi non est pax, nec divina pax, ubi non est observantia divinae legis.


3. Concerning the first item, let us quote St. Paul: "I write these things to thee, my son Timothy,... in order that thou mayest know ... how to conduct thyself in the house of God, which is the Church of the living God, the pillar and mainstay of the truth. The Church is called pillar and mainstay because it both enlightens the mind and strengthens virtue. Those who come to it are enlightened by faith and strengthened by the constancy of virtue. And divine Law brings about these two effects. Hence it is the column of the sons of Israel, whose motion indicated clearly how they were to act and how to rest. For on this point all Churches are in agreement, on how to observe God's Law, as in olden days the whole people kept their eyes on the moving column. He who does not look upon it does not belong to the unity of the Church, for instance if he does not understand this Law, or understanding it, refuses to obey it.
3. De primo in prima ad Timotheum: Haec tibi scribo > fili Timothee, ut scias, quomodo oporteat te conversari in domo Dei, quae est Ecclesia Dei vivi, columna et firmamentum veritatis =|3|= . Ecclesia dicitur columna et firmamentum, quia mentis illustrativa, et quia virtutis stabilitum. Venientes autem ad eam illustrantur per fidem et stabiliuntur per virtutis constantiam. Et haec duo facit lex divina. Unde est columna filiorum Israel =|4|= , ad cuius motum apparet omnino, quomodo agendum et quomodo quiescendum. In hoc enim omnes Ecclesiae concordant, ut custodiant legem Dei, sicut olim totus populus motum columnae aspiciebat. Qui ad hanc non aspicit semper non est de unitate Ecclesiae, ut si eam non intelligas, vel si intelligis, eam non sequaris.


4. Now we should speak of the Church of rational men united in harmonious and uniform adherence to divine peace. Of this it is said in Ecclesiasticus: The sons of wisdom are the Church of the just: and their generation, obedience and love. For the Church in return loves itself. And love is born of obedience to the Law. And the Law itself commands love: Now the purpose of this charge is charity, or love, from a pure heart and a good conscience and faith unfeigned. And again, he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the Law. And this can be proved in the Saviour's own words: "On these two commandments depend the whole Law and the Prophets." And so it is fitting that those who obey the Law be loving also. "By this will all men know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another." And the Apostle writes: For God is a God of peace, not of disorder.
4. Item loquendum est Ecclesiae rationalium unitorum per concordem et uniformem cohaerentiam divinae pacis. Unde dicitur in Ecclesiastico: Filii sapientiae ecclesia iustorum, et natio illorum obedientia et dilectioEcclesia enim mutuo se diligens est. Dilectio autem nascitur ex legis impletione. Lex enim praecipit dilectionem, in prima ad Timotheum: Finis praecepti est dilectio seu caritas de corde puro et conscientia bona et fide non ficta =|6|= . Et idem Apostolus: Qui diligit proximum legem implevit =|1|= . Et probat per verbum Salvatoris: In his, inquit, duobus universa lex pendet et Prophetae =|8|= . Oportet ergo, ut legis Observatores sint amatores, Ioannis decimo tertio: In hoc cognoscent omnes, quia discipuli mei estis, si dilectionem habueritis ad invicem =|9|= \ et Apostolus: Non est Deus dissensionis, sed pacis =|10|= .


5. Finally, we should speak of the Church of rational men united in harmonious and uniform concelebration of divine praise, according to the Psalm, with Thee is my praise in a great Church. As a sweet chant results from a great number of voices united in a certain proportion and harmony, so also a spiritual harmony pleasing to the Most High comes forth from the harmony of the love of many. Hence the Psalm: Bless the Lord, you of Israel's wellspring! To such observers of divine Law, to such lovers of divine peace, to such singers of divine praise, and to no others, is this speech to be addressed: and such are men of the Church. As for the man who has been snatched away from this Church, this speech does not have to be addressed to him.
5. Item loquendum est Ecclesiae rationalium unitorum per concordem et uniformem consonantiam divinae laudis; in Psalmo: Apud te laus mea in ecclesia magna =|11|= . Sicut enim ex multitudine vocum unitarum secundum quandam proportionem et harmoniam dulcedo cantus fit; sic ex multorum affectione harmonia spiritualis, placens Altissimo; unde in Psalmo: In ecclesiis benedicite Deo domino de fontibus Israel =|12|= . -- Talibus igitur observatoribus divinae legis, amatoribus divinae pacis, persolutoribus divinae laudis, et non aliis, debet fieri sermo; et tales sunt viri ecclesiastici. Qui autem rapitur extra hanc Ecclesiam =|13|= , illi non debet fieri.


a. Evils That Dispose Badly



6. For a man is snatched away by the spirit of carnality and cupidity which oppose the first perfection. For these are the two vices that turn man away from God's Law. Indeed, this Law of God prescribes the common good and the spiritual good and recoils from impure love which is carnality and from exclusive love which is cupidity. For the Law is hateful to carnal and covetous men: never do they want to listen to it. They are like the dog and the swine. The dog is always covetous and never wants to share, and the swine always wants to live in the mire.
6. Rapitur autem homo per spiritum carnalitatis et cupiditatis, contra primum. Hi duo sunt, qui avertunt hominem a lege Dei et excaecant duos oculos mentis. Lex enim Dei praecipit bonum commune et bonum spirituale et retrahit ab amore foedo, qui est carnalitatis, et ab amore privato, qui est cupiditatis. Lex enim odiosa est carnali et cupido; nec unquam eam audire volunt. Sunt enim sicut canis et porcus. Canis enim semper est cupidus et nunquam communicare volens, porcus autem semper in luto esse vult.


7. Opposing adherence to peace, we have the spirit of malice and cruelty, of hatred and anger, and these two lead to complete perversion: the malicious man turns every good into evil, while the angry man turns every evil into good and considers good the actual rendering of evil. Hence they change darkness into light, and light into darkness. Such as these are unqualified to listen to God's Law.
7. Item, contra cohaerentiam pacis est spiritus malignitatis et crudelitatis, invidus et iracundus; et hi duo totum pervertunt: invidus omne bonum convertit in malum, iracundus omne malum in bonum et ipsam redditionem mali reputat bonum. Et ideo ponunt tenebras lucem et lucem tenebras, Isaiae quinto =|14|= . Unde tales non sunt idonei ad audiendum legem Dei.


8. Again, opposing the concelebration of divine praise, we have the spirit of presumption and curiosity, in the sense that the presumptuous does not glorify God but praises himself, while the curious is lacking in devotion. There are many men of this kind, empty of praise and devotion although filled with the splendors of knowledge. They build wasps' nests without honeycombs, while the bees make honey.
8. Item, contra consonantiam divinae laudis spiritus praesumptionis et curiositatis, ita quod praesumptuosus Deum non magnificat,$sed sese laudat; curiosus autem devotionem non habet, Unde multi sunt tales, qui vacui sunt laude et devotione, etsi habeant splendorem scientiarum. Faciunt enim casas vesparum, quae non habent favum mellis, sicut apes, quae mellificant.


9. To such as these this speech is not to be addressed, for they are a rebellious house; and sometimes, because of the inadequate disposition of the listeners, the Lord makes the tongue stick to the palate. But the brothers should be spoken to, hence, the Psalm: I will proclaim your name to my brethren; in the midst of the assembly I will praise you; and spiritual men also, in order that they may be drawn from worldly knowledge to Christian knowledge. For theologians have attacked the life of Christ as related to morals, and the teachers of the School of Art have attacked the doctrine of Christ by their false statements. That is no sufficient reason to return to Egypt by seeking vile food, garlic, scallions and pumpkins, while rejecting heavenly food. And so the first point is made clear.
9. Talibus itaque iam dictis non est faciendus sermo, quia sunt domus exasperans =|15|=  ; et aliquando propter indispositionem auditorum facit Dominus linguam adhaerere palato =|1|= **-, sed loquendum est fratribus, unde in Psalmo: Narrabo nomen tuum fratribus meis, in medio, ecclesiae laudabo te =|17|= , et viris spiritualibus, ut a sapientia mundana trahantur ad sapientiam christianam. Praecessit enim impugnatio vitae Christi in moribus per theologos, et impugnatio doctrinae Christi per falsas positiones per artistas. Non itaque redeundum est in Aegyptum per desiderium vilium ciborum, alliorom, porrorum et peponum =|18|= , nec dimittendus cibus caelestis. -- Et sic patet primum.


b. Begin with Christ the Medium and Mediator



10. As regards the second point, note that a beginning should be made from the center (medium), that is, from Christ. For He Himself is the Mediator between God and men, holding the central position in all things, as shall be seen. Hence it is necessary to start from Him if a man wants to reach Christian wisdom, as it is proved in Matthew: for no one knows the Son except the Father; nor does anyone know the Father except the Son, and him to whom the Son chooses to reveal Him. It is also manifest that a beginning should be made from the One from whom the two greatest Wise Men began: Moses, the originator of wisdom, and John, its consummator. The former said: In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth, and, in Augustine's opinion, =|2|=  this means the Son. And John said: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God; and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through Him. If, therefore, it is impossible to understand a creature except through that by which it was made, it is necessary that the true Word go before thee.
10. Circa secundum nota, quod incipiendum est a medio, quod est Christus. Ipse enim mediator Dei et hominum =|19|=  est, tenens medium in omnibus, ut patebit. Unde ab illo incipiendum necessario, si quis vult venire ad sapientiam christianam, ut probatur in Matthaeo, quia nemo novit Filium nisi Pater, neque Patrem quis novit nisi Vilius, et cui voluerit Filius revelare =|20|= . -- Manifestum est etiam, quod ab illo incipiendum, a quo duo maxime sapientes inceperunt, scilicet Moyses, inchoator sapientiae Dei, et Ioannes, terminator. Alter dixit: In principio creavit Deus caelum et terram =|21|= , id est in Filio, secundum Augustinum; et Ioannes: In principio erat Verbum, et Verbum erat apud Deum, et Deus erat Verbum. Hoc erat in principio apud Deum. Omnia per ipsum facta sunt =|12|= . Si ergo ad notitiam creaturae perveniri non potest nisi per id, per quod facta est; necesse est, ut verbum verax praecedat te, in Ecclesiastico =|23|= .


c. 7 Dim of Px: Essence, Nature, Distance, Doctrine, Moderation, Justice, Concord



11. Our intent, then, is to show that in Christ are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, and that He Himself is the central point of all understanding. He is the central point in a sevenfold sense, in terms of essence, nature, distance, doctrine, moderation, justice and concord. The first is in the metaphysical order, the second in the physical, the third in the mathematical, the fourth in the logical, the fifth in the ethical, the sixth in the political or juridical, and the seventh in the theological. The first Center is first by eternal origin, the second is most strong through the diffusion of power, the third is most deep because of the centrality of position, the fourth is most clear by rational proof, the fifth is most important because of the choice of moral good, the sixth is outstanding because of the retribution of justice, the seventh is at peace through universal conciliation. Christ was the first center by His eternal generation, the second by His incarnation, the third by His passion, the fourth by His resurrection, the fifth by His ascension, the sixth by the judgment to come, the seventh by the eternal retribution or beatification.
11. Propositum igitur nostrum est ostendere, quod in Christo sunt omnes thesauri sapientiae et scientiae Dei absconditi =|24|= , et ipse est medium omnium scientiarum. Est autem septiforme medium, scilicet essentiae, naturae, distantiae, doctrinae, modestiae, iustitiae, concordiae. Primum est de consideratione metaphysici, secundum physici, tertium mathematici, quartum logici, quintum ethici, sextum politici seu iuristarum, septimum theologi. -- Primum medium est aeternali origine primarium; secundum virtuali diffusione pervalidum; tertium centrali positione profundum; quartum rationali manifestatione praeclarum;$quintum morali electione praecipuum; sextum iudiciali compensatione praecelsum; septimum universali conciliatione pacatum. -- Primum medium Christus fuit in aeterna generatione; secundum in incarnatione; tertium in passione; quartum in resurrectione; quintum in ascensione; sextum in futuro examine; septimum in sempiterna retributione sive beatificatione.


1) Essence


12. And so, the first center is in the order of essence. It is first by reason of eternal generation. Being can exist in only two ways: either as subsistent, self- modeled and self-intended, or as contingent, modeled on another and tending to another. Also, a subsistent being must necessarily be self-modeled and self-intended. Subsistent being is in the order of originating, self-modeled being in the order of exemplating, and self-intended being in the order of ending or terminating; that is, they are related to the origin, the center, and the end or terminal point. The Father is in the order of the originating principle, the Son in the order of the exemplating center, the Holy Spirit in the order of the fulfilling end. These three Persons are equal and of equal nobility: for it is of equal nobility for the Holy Spirit to complete the divine Persons as it is for the Father to originate them and for the Son to represent them all. =|3|=
12. Primum ergo medium est essentiae aeternali generatione primarium. Esse enim non est nisi dupliciter: vel esse, quod est ex se et secundum se et propter se, vel esse, quod est ex alio et secundum aliud et propter aliud. Necesse etiam est, ut esse, quod est ex se, sit secundum se et propter se. Esse ex se est in ratione originantis; esse secundum se in ratione exemplantis, et esse propter se in ratione timentis vel terminantis; id est in ratione principii, medii et finis seu termini. Pater in ratione originantis principii; Filius in ratione exemplaris medii; Spiritus sanctus in ratione terminantis complementi. Hae tres personae sunt aequales et aeque nobiles, quia aequae nobilitatis est Spiritui sancto divinas personas terminare, sicut Patri originare, vel Filio omnia repraesentare.


13. Although the metaphysician is able to rise from the consideration of created and particular substance to that of the universal and uncreated and to the very notion of being, so that he reaches the ideas of beginning, center and final end, yet he does not attain the notions of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. For the metaphysician rises to the notion of this being by seeing it in the light of the original principle of all things, and in this he meets physical science that studies the origin of things. He also rises to the notion of this being in the light of the final end, and in this he meets moral philosophy, or ethics, which leads all things back to the one Supreme Good as to the final end by considering either practical or speculative happiness. But when he considers this being in the light of that principle which is the exemplary of all things, he meets no other science, but is a true metaphysician. For from all eternity the Father begets a Son similar to Himself and expresses Himself and a likeness similar to Himself, and in so doing He expresses the sum total of His [active] potency; He expresses what He can do, and most of all, what He wills to do, and He expresses everything in Him, that is, in the Son or in that very Center, which so to speak is His Art. Hence this Center is Truth; and it is proved by Augustine =|4|=  and other saints that "Christ having His chair in heaven teaches inwardly"; nor can any truth be known in any way whatsoever except through this Truth. For the same is the principle both of being and of knowing. If, then, as the Philosopher says, =|5|=  the knowable is eternal as such, it necessarily follows that nothing can be known except through a truth that is immutable, undisturbed, and unconfined.
13. Metaphysicus autem, licet assurgat ex consideratione principiorum substantiae creatae et particularis ad universalem et increatam et ad illud esse, ut habet rationem principii, medii et finis ultimi, non tamen in ratione Patris et Filii et Spiritus sancti. Metaphysicus enim assurgit ad illud esse considerandum in ratione principii omnia originantis; et in hoc convenit cum physico, qui origines rerum considerat. Assurgit etiam ad considerandum illud esse in ratione ultimi finis; et in hoc convenit cum morali sive ethico, qui reducit omnia ad unum summum bonum ut ad finem ultimum, considerando felicitatem, sive practicam, sive speculativam. Sed ut considerat illud esse in ratione omnia exemplantis, cum nullo communicat et est verus metaphysicus. Pater enim ab aeterno genuit Filium similem sibi et dixit se et similitudinem suam similem sibi et cum hoc totum posse suum; dixit quae posset facere, et maxime quae voluit facere, et omnia in eo expressit, scilicet in Filio seu in isto medio tanquam in sua arte. Unde illud medium veritas est; et constat secundum Augustinum et alios sanctos, quod «Christus habens cathedram in caelo docet interius»; nec aliquo modo aliqua veritas sciri potest nisi per illam veritatem. Nam idem est principium essendi et cognoscendi. Si enim scibile in quantum scibile$secundum Philosophum aeternum est; necesse est, ut nihil sciatur nisi per veritatem immutabilem, inconcussam, incoangustatam.


14. This, by necessity, must be the central one of the Persons: for if there is one who produces and is not produced and another who is produced and does not produce, there must necessarily be a central one who is produced and produces. Such is a truth accessible to the mind alone, =|6 |= and in which angels, prophets and philosophers learn the truths they express.
14. Istud est medium personarum necessario: quia, si persona est, quae producit et non producitur, et persona, quae producitur et non producit, necessario est media quae producitur et producit. Haec est ergo veritas sola mente perceptibilis, in qua addiscunt Angeli, Prophetae, philosophi vera, quae dicunt.


15. Of this central Person, it is said in Genesis: The Lord God made to grow out of the ground all kinds of trees pleasant to the sight and good for food, the tree of life also in the midst of the garden. In reference to which Augustine writes that of all the things that were made, it was said: Let there be, He made it, and so it was—excepting light, of which God said "Let there be light," and there was light — for they were produced first in all eternity from Eternal Art, second in the intelligent creature, and third in the material world.
15. De isto medio dicitur in Genesi: Produxit Dominus Deus de humo omne lignum pulcrum visu et ad vescendum suave, lignum etiam vitae in medio paradisi =|23|= . Secundum quod dicit Augustinus, de omnibus productis dictum est: Fiat; fecit, et factum est, praeterquam de luce, de qua dixit: Fiat lux, et facta est lux; quia primo producta sunt ab aeterno in arte aeterna, secundo in creatura intellectuali, tertio in mundo visibili.


16. And this is opposed to the errors of those who believe the world to have been created in eternity. =|7|=  For arguing that our minds were born together with eternal lights, they believe that as things were brought forth or described by Eternal Art in all eternity, so also they were created in this world from all eternity; and as the world is written out from all eternity in the Eternal Art, so do they believe it to have been written out in matter. But this passage from Genesis concerning the earthly paradise is understood to refer to angelical, human, and eternal intelligence. For, as it has been said, the Father begot His own Likeness, that is, the Word coeternal with Himself, and expressed a similitude of Himself, and in so doing He expressed all that He could.
16. Et hoc est contra errores eorum qui credunt mundum ab aeterno creatum. Quia autem mentes nostrae cognatae sunt aeternis luminibus, putant, quod sicut res productae sunt seu descriptae in arte aeterna ab aeterno, sic ab aeterno in isto mundo creatae sunt; et sicut mundus ab aeterno descriptus est in arte aeterna, sic descriptum putant in materia. Hoc autem verbum Genesis de paradiso terrestri intelligitur de intellectu Angelico, humano et aeterno. Pater enim, ut dictum est, similem sibi genuit, scilicet Verbum sibi coaeternum, et dixit similitudinem suam, et per consequens expressit omnia, quae potuit.


17. Hence the Word expresses the Father and the things He made, and principally leads us to union with the Father who brings all things together; and in this regard He is the Tree of Life, for by this means we return to the very fountain of life and are revived in it. But if we stoop to a knowledge of things acquired by experimenting them,  investigating beyond what is conceded to us, we fall from true contemplation and taste of the forbidden tree of the knowledge of good and evil, as did Lucifer. For if Lucifer, in contemplating this Truth, had been led back from the knowledge of creatures to the unity of the Father, he would have turned dusk into dawn and would have enjoyed daylight. But because he fell for the love and desire of his own excellence, he lost the day. And Adam did the same. Now, this Center is one that produces knowledge, it is the Truth, that is, the Tree of Life, while the other truth is an occasion of death, when a man falls for the love of created beauty. Through the first Truth, all come back, as the Son expresses it: "I came forth from the Father and have come into the world. Again 1 leave the world and go to the Father." Likewise let anyone say: "Lord, I came out of You, the Supreme Being: I will return to You and through You, the Supreme Being." Such is the metaphysical Center that leads us back, and this is the sum total of our metaphysics: concerned with emanation, exemplarity, and consummation, that is, illumination through spiritual radiations and return to the Supreme Being. And in this you will be a true metaphysician.
17. Verbum ergo exprimit Patrem et res, quae per ipsum factae sunt, et principaliter ducit nos ad Patris congregantis unitatem; et secundum hoc est lignum vitae, quia per hoc medium redimus et vivificamur in ipso fonte vitae. Si vero decipiamur ad notitiam rerum in experientia, investigantes amplius quam nobis conceditur; cadimus a vera contemplatione et gustamus de ligno vetito scientiae boni et mali, sicut fecit lucifer. Si enim lucifer, contemplando illam veritatem, de notitia creaturae reductus fuisset ad Patris unitatem, fecisset de vespere mane diemque habuisset; sed quia cecidit in delectationem et appetitum excellentiae, diem amisit. Sic Adam similiter. -- Illud est medium faciens scire, scilicet veritas, et haec est lignum vitae; alia veritas est occasio mortis, cum quis ceciderit in amorem pulcritudinis creaturae. Per$primariam veritatem omnes redire debent, ut, sicut Filius dixit: Exivi a Patre et veni in mundum; iterum relinquo mundum et vado ad Patrem =|26|=  ; sic dicat quilibet: Domine, exivi a te summo, venio ad te summum et per te summum. -- Hoc est medium metaphysicum reducens, et haec est tota nostra metaphysica: de emanatione, de exemplaritate, de consummatione, scilicet illuminari per radios spirituales et reduci ad summum. Et sic eris verus metaphysicus.


2) Nature


18. the second center is in the order of nature: it is most strong because of the diffusion of power, which is the concern of the physical scientist who studies motion and generation in relation to the influence of heavenly bodies on the elements, and the ordering of elements in combined forms, and of combined forms in complex forms, and of complex forms in the principles of plant-life, and of these in the principles of sensitive beings, and of these finally in the principles of rational beings, and this is the end.
18. Secundum medium est naturae virtuali diffusione pervalidum, quod est dé consideratione physici, qui considerat mobile et generationem secundum influentiam corporum caelestium in elementa, et ordinationem elementorum ad formam mixtionis, et formae mixtionis ad formam complexionis, et formae complexionis ad animam vegetabilem, et illius ad sensibilem, et illius ad rationalem, et ibi est finis.


19. The physical world offers also a twofold center, that of the large world and that of the small world. The center of the large world is the sun, that of the small world, the heart. For the sun stands in the center of the planets, and generations come about in accord with its elongated orbit =|8|= ")" by which physical nature regulates birth. For of all the planets, the sun has the greatest diffusion. There is a similar diffusion from the heart, as all physicians say. For the vital spirit is diffused by it through the arteries, and the animal spirit through the nerves, supplemented by the brain. The natural spirit is diffused by the same heart through the veins, but completed in the liver.
19. Considerat autem physicus duplex medium, scilicet maioris mundi et minoris mundi. Medium maioris mundi est sol, medium minoris est cor. Sol enim est in medio planetarum, secundum cuius delationem in obliquo circulo fiunt generationes, et regulat physicus generationem. Inter omnes autem planetas maioris diffusionis est sol. A corde similiter est diffusio, quidquid dicant medici. Nam spiritus vitalis ab eo diffunditur per arterias; spiritus autem animalis per nervos, licet complementum recipiat in cerebro; spiritus vero naturalis ab eodem diffunditur per venas, licet compleatur in hepate.


20. Christ was such a Center in His incarnation. Hence, it is written in John: "In the midst of you there has stood One whom you do not know." And later: "He who sent me to baptize with water said to me, 'He upon whom thou wilt see the Spirit descending, and abiding upon Him, He it is who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.' " The Scriptures call Christ sometimes the Center, sometimes the Head. He is called the Head because all the senses and spiritual motions and charismatic graces flow from Him. This He pours in as being united to the members. For the head of Christ is God, that is, in so far as He is God; but the head of every man is Christ, in so far as He is God and man. Hence He pours the Holy Spirit into the members of the Church united to Him, not separated from Him. And since in the human body there is no diffusion from the head to the members unless the members are united to the head, so it is with the Mystical Body. And so Christ is the center of the two animating spirits, as is the heart. Hence Habacuc: In the midst of the two animals Thou shalt make it known. And according to a different translation, in the midst of the years, as is the Sun: for the sum total of time runs on according to the ten steps in the dial of Achaz. According to the Septuagint, Christ was in between the animated beings that preceded Him and those that followed Him. =|9|=
20. Hoc medium fuit Christus in incarnatione; unde dicitur in Ioanne: Medius vestrum stetit, quem vos nescitis =|27|= ; et sequitur: Qui misit me baptizare in aqua, ille mihi dixit: Super quem videris Spiritum sanctum descendentem et manentem super eum, hic est qui baptizat in Spiritu sancto =|2|= *. -- Scriptura quandoque dicit Christum medium, quandoque caput. Caput dicitur, quia ab eo fluunt omnes sensus et motus spirituales et charismata gratiarum. Hoc autem influit, secundum quod est unitum membris. Caput enim Christi Deus est, secundum quod. scilicet Deus est; sed viri caput Christus =|29|= , secundum quod Deus et homo. Diffundit ergo Spiritum sanctum in membra Ecclesiae sibi unita, non separata. Unde sicut in corpore humano non est diffusio a capite in membra, nisi sibi unita; sic in corpore mystico. Ipse est ergo medium duorum animalium ut cor; unde in Habacuc: In medio duorum animalium cognoscens =|30|= ; et secundum aliam translationem: In medio annorum, scilicet ut sol; quia totum tempus decurrit, secundum quod$iste sol descendit per decem gradus in horologio Achaz =|31|= . Ipse est ergo secundum Septuaginta in medio animalium, quae praeibant et quae sequebantur.


3) Distance


21. the third center is in the order of distance. It is most deep because of the centrality of position. It is related to the mathematician: for although his first concern is the measuring of the earth, he further considers the motion of the higher bodies in so far as they act by their influence upon the lower earthly bodies. =|10|=
21. Tertium medium est distantiae centrali positione profundum, de quo mathematicus, cuius licet prima consideratio sit circa mensuram terrae, est tamen ulterius circa motus corporum superiorum, ut habent disponere haec inferiora secundum influentiam eorum.


22. Christ was such a Center in His crucifixion. God is our king before ages; He has wrought salvation in the midst of the earth. The earth is clearly the center, and hence it is the lowest, and of modest size; and because the lowest and of modest size, it receives all the heavenly influences, and brings forth a marvelous multiplication of beings. Likewise the Son of God, the very small and poor and humble One, assuming our earth, and made of earth, not only came upon the surface of the earth, but indeed to the depth of its center, that is, He has wrought salvation in the midst of the earth, for after His crucifixion, His soul went down into hell and re-established the heavenly thrones.
22. Hoc medium fuit Christus in crucifixione. In Psalmo: Rex noster ante saecula operatus est salutem in medio terrae =|32|= . Terra enim plane centrum est, et ideo infima et ideo modica; et quia infima et modica, ideo suscipit omnes influentias caelestes, et ideo facit mirabiles pullulationes. Sic Filius Dei infimus, pauperculus, modicus, humum nostram suscipiens, de humo factus, non solum venit ad superficiem terrae, verum etiam in profundum centri, scilicet operatus est salutem in medio terrae, quia post crucifixionem anima sua in infernum descendit et restauravit caelestes sedes.


23. Such a Center has a saving power: and anyone who draws away from it is condemned, as drawing away from the means of humility. And the Saviour proves it: "I am in your midst as He who serves"; and in Matthew: "Unless you turn and become like little children, you will not enter into the kingdom of heaven." In such a center He has wrought salvation, that is, in the humility of the cross.
23. Hoc medium est salvativum; a quo recedens damnatur, scilicet a medio humilitatis. Et hoc ostendit Salvator: Ego in medio vestrum sum9 sicut qui ministrat =|33|= ; et in Matthaeo: Nisi conversi fueritis et efficiamini sicut parvuli, non intrabitis in regnum caelorum =|34|= . In hoc medio operatus est salutem, scilicet in humilitate crucis.


24. But darkness has crept in, for Christians reject this central place in which Christ has saved mankind. In so doing, man opposes his own salvation, being unable to measure himself. What is the use of being able to measure other things if he is unable to measure himself? If he exalts himself a little more than he should, there is danger for him. As Bernard says: "The man who lifts up his head as he comes through the door will be hurt; the man who bows will not be hurt." =|11|=  Hence it was answered to blessed Anthony that only the humble could escape from the devil's snares. =|12|=  But how is it that humility is lacking, and also the light of wisdom? Because the fire is not banked in cinders, but our lantern is exposed to every wind, and before long the light goes out. As soon as there is something good in us, we want to show it off. By contrast, how marvelous is divine wisdom, for it brought forth salvation through the cinders of humility. For the center is lost in the circle, and it cannot be found except by two lines crossing each other at right angle.
24. Sed caligo subintravit, quia Christiani hunc medium locum dimittunt in quo Christus hominem salvavit. Unde homo impugnat suam salutem nesciens se metiri. Quid enim prodest, quod sciat metiri alia, cum se metiri nesciat? Si enim aliquantulum se plus quam debet, exaltat, periculum sibi est; sic dicit beatus Bernardus, quod «si quis intrans per portam, caput erigat, laeditur; qui autem se inclinaverit, non laeditur». Unde responsum fuit beato Antonio, quod solus humilis evadere poterat laqueos diaboli. -- Sed unde est, quod humilitas non habetur nec lumina sapientiae? Quia ignis non custoditur in medio cinerum, sed lucerna nostra exponitur omni vento, et cito extinguitur lucerna. Statim enim ostendere volumus, si quid boni in nobis est. Sed mirabilis fuit sapientia divina, quae per cinerem humilitatis operata est salutem. Medium enim, cum amissum est in circulo, inveniri non potest nisi per duas lineas se orthogonaliter intersecantes.


4) Doctrine


25. the fourth center is in the order of doctrine. It is most clear by rational proof. Every form of rational speech pertains to it, so that it is by means of it that we express what is with us. For speech is ordered to simple expression, expression to argumentation according to the four species of reasoning, argumentation to syllogism, and syllogism to persuasion. The intermediate term (center), therefore, by its evidence and manifestation and fittingness, forces the mind to give assent to the extremes, so that while the proper relationship between the extremes was not manifest at first, now by virtue of the intermediate term's fittingness to both, this relationship is made manifest. =|13|=
25. Quartum medium est doctrinae rationali manifestatione praeclarum. Ad hoc est omnis sermo rationalis, ut per ipsum tanquam per medium exprimamus quod est apud nos. Sermo enim est ad simplicem orationem; oratio ad argumentationem secundum quatuor species argu-$mentationis; argumentatio ad syllogismum; syllogismus ad persuadendum. Medium ergo per suam evidentiam et manifestationem et convenientiam cum extremis compellit rationem ad assentiendum, ut, quia extrema prius non conveniebant inter se manifeste, per virtutem medii cum utroque extremo convenientis inter se manifeste conveniant.


26. Christ was such a Center in His resurrection. For there is a reasoning of Christ and a reasoning of the devil. The reasoning of the devil leads to hell: it is a fallacy, a sophistic and destructive reasoning; the reasoning of Christ is constructive and restoring. For the devil deceived the first man and assumed the existence in the heart of man of a kind of self-evident proposition such as this: the rational creature must needs desire to be the same as its Creator since He is its likeness —hence in the damned there will be this highest punishment: that as such likeness is essential to the soul, so this desire will be essential in the damned —and, said he, "When you eat... you will be like God." Hence it is good to eat of the forbidden fruit in order to become like Him. And by this syllogism all men sin, for as Dionysius says, "No one commits evil with evil as a goal: every man intends good and desires good. But he is deceived because he takes for true what is only a likeness of good." =|14 |= By means of this same fallacy, the devil made man fall into the sufferings of nature, the needs of indigence, and mortality of life.
26. Hoc medium fuit Christus in resurrectione. Est autem argumentum Christi et argumentum diaboli. Argumentum diaboli ducit ad infernum et est paralogismus et sophisticum argumentum et destructivum; argumentum Christi constructam et reparativum. Diabolus enim paralogizavit primum hominem et supposuit quandam propositionem in corde hominis quasi per se notam, quae est: creatura rationalis debet appetere similitudinem sui Creatoris, quia scilicet est imago -- unde in damnatis est maxima poena, quia, cum imago sit animae essentialis, similiter et talis appetitus erit essentialis in damnatis -- sed si comederis, assimileris =|35|= : ergo bonum est comedere de vetito, ut assimileris. Et per istum syllogismum omnes peccant, quia, ut dicit Dionysius, «nullus malus fit, ad malum aspiciens, sed omnis intendit bonum et appetit bonum; sed fallitur, quia similitudinem boni accipit pro vero». Per istum paralogismum induxit diabolus hominem in passibilitatem naturae, in necessitatem indigentiae, in mortalitatem vitae.


27. On the contrary, the reasoning of Christ brought about salvation and destroyed the devil's argument. Because the devil had made man differ from God while promising to make him similar to Him, Christ had to make Himself similar to man in order to make man similar to Himself, that is, to God. Hence, Christ as God enjoyed conformity of nature with the Father, equality of power and immortality of life. By these three perfections, He was united to the Father. But it was necessary that He be united to man in the three opposite qualifications. He assumed therefore the sufferings of nature, the needs of indigence, and mortality of life. And so He possessed the three [perfections] through His essence and assumed the three [imperfections] through His mercy. It was necessary also that the three [imperfections] be overcome by the three [perfections]. But by its very essence life could not be dominated by death, nor power by need, nor impassibility by suffering: and so it was necessary that man pass from mortality to immortality, from poverty to opulence, from suffering to the crown of glory. =|15|=
27. Econtra argumentum Christi fuit salvativum et destructivum argumenti diaboli. Ex quo enim diabolus fecerat hominem dissimilem Deo, cum tamen promisisset, similem se facturum; necesse fuit, Christum esse similem homini, ut faceret hominem similem sibi sive Deo. Christus ergo habuit conformitatem naturae in quantum Deus cum Patre, aequalitatem potentiae, immortalitatem vitae. In his tribus coniunctus fuit Patri. Necesse ergo fuit, ipsum in aliis tribus oppositis coniungi homini. Assumpsit ergo passibilitatem naturae, necessitatem indigentiae, mortalitatem vitae. Tria ergo habuit per essentiam et tria assumpsit per misericordiam. Necesse ergo fuit, ut tria vinceretur a tribus. Sed vita per essentiam superari non potuit a morte, nec potentia a penuria, nec impassibilitas a passibilitate. Necesse ergo fuit, ut homo transiret a mortalitate ad immortalitatem, a defectu ad opulentiam, de passibilitate ad coronam.


28. The major proposition existed from all eternity, the minor came about on the cross, and the conclusion appeared in the resurrection. The Jews believed they had confounded Christ, and they taunted Him: "If Thou art the Son of God, come down from the cross!" For Christ did not say: "Allow Me to live," but "Allow Me to take on death, to be joined with the opposite extreme, to suffer and to die." The conclusion follows from that. And so He Himself made a fool of the devil.
28. Maior propositio fuit ab aeterno; sed assumptio in cruce; conclusio vero in resurrectione. Iudaei credebant Christum confudisse et improperabant ei: Si Filius Dei es, descende de cruce =|}6|= . Nam Christus non dicebat: sinite me vivere, sed dicebat: sinite me mortem assu-$mere et alteri extremitati copulari, pati, mori; et tunc sequitur conclusio. Unde ipse illusit diabolo.


29. And this is the reasoning Christ used, during forty days appearing to them. "Did not the Christ have to suffer these things before entering into His glory?" Concerning this central position, John writes: When it was late ... Jesus came and stood in their midst and said to them, "Peace be to you!" He is showing two things here, the loftiness of the state of glory, in that, being impassible and immortal, He entered as God while the doors were closed; later, He showed them His hands and side and forced Thomas to confess: "My Lord and my God!" Consider the progression. First He entered as God while the doors were closed: this is the major proposition. Then He proposed the minor by showing them His hands and His side. Finally, He wrested out the conclusion so that Thomas confessed: "My Lord and my God!"
29. Et ista sunt argumenta, quibus Christus utebatur, per quadraginta dies apparens eis =|37|= . Nonne, inquit, oportuit Christum pati, et ita intrare in gloriam suam? =|}S|= . De hoc medio Ioannes: Cum sero esset die illo, stetit Iesus in medio discipulorum et ait illis: Pax vobis =|39|= . Et duo ibi ostendit, scilicet gloriae sublimitatem, eo quod impassibilis et immortalis, clausis ianuis, intravit tanquam Deus; postea ostendit eis manus et latus =|40|=  et confessionem extorsit a Thoma, ut diceret: Dominus meus et Deus meus/ =|41|= . Vide processum! Primo intravit ut Deus, ianuis clausis; haec fuit maior; deinde minorem propositionem assumit, cum ostendit eis manus et latus; tertio conclusionem extorsit, ut confiteretur Thomas: Dominus meus et Deus meus.


30. It is not without reason that the scroll was sealed with seven seals. "Behold," said one of the Elders, "the Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, has overcome to open the scroll and its seven seals." These are the seven Centers. By their significance, Christ opened the tomb, and this represents the opening of the scroll, and He removed the shroud, and this represents the manifestation of mysteries. This is our logic, this is our reasoning which must be used against the devil who constantly argues with us. But in assuming the minor proposition, we must do it with all our strength; often in fact we refuse to suffer, we refuse to be crucified. And yet the whole reasoning tends to this one point: that we resemble God. When the devil saw Christ suffering, he believed His argument had little weight. But Christ ridiculed him. Can you play with him as with a bird? Can you put him in leash for your maidens Christ considered the argument most powerful: "And 1, if 1 be lifted up from the earth, will draw all things to Myself
30. Non sine causa signatur liber septem sigillis. Ecce, inquit, vicit leo de tribu Iuda, radix David, aperire librum et solvere septem signacula eius =|42|= . Ista sunt septem media. In huius significationem Christus sepulcrum reseravit, et significat apertionem libri, et linteamina removit, et significat manifestationem mysteriorum. -- Haec est logica nostra, haec est ratiocinatio nostra, quae habenda est contra diabolum, qui continuo contra nos disputat. Sed in assumptione minoris est tota vis facienda; quia nolumus pati, nolumus crucifigi. Tamen ad hoc est tota ratiocinatio nostra, ut simus similes Deo. -- Diabolus vero parum reputabat argumentum Christi, cum vidit eum patientem. Sed Christus illusit ei; Iob: Numquid illudes ei quasi avi, aut ligabis eum ancillis tuis? =|43|= . Christus reputavit argumentum fortissimum, Ioannis duodecimo: Ego si exaltatus fuero a terra, omnia traham ad me ipsum =|44|= .


5) Moderation


31. the fifth center is in the order of moderation. It is most important because of the choice of moral good. For moderation is a virtue; and a virtue consists in the middle way. =|16|=  This is considered by the moralist.
31. Quintum est medium modestiae morali electione praecipuum. Modestia enim virtus est; virtus autem in medio consistit; hoc medium considerat ethicus.


32. Christ was such a Center in His ascension. It is written in Exodus: Moses passed into the midst of the cloud ... and there he stayed for forty days and forty nights. And this is what Christ was in His ascension. Hence it is written in Acts: A cloud took Him out of their sight. Likewise the Christian must rise from strength to strength, and not stand still at the terminal point of virtue, for by so doing he would cease to be virtuous.
32. Hoc medium fuit Christus in ascensione. Dicitur in Exodo:. Ingressus Moyses medium nebulae, fuit ibi quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus =|45|= . Et hoc fuit Christus in ascensione; unde in Actibus dicitur: Nubes suscepit eum ab oculis eorum =|46|= . Sic Christianus debet ascendere de virtute in virtutem, non statuendo terminum virtutis, quia ex hoc facto desineret esse virtuosus.


33. The foundation of virtue is faith, and we place it as a center. At this point the moralist says that the center is "that which determines right reason." =|17|=  And such is faith. Faith is as the morning star in the midst of a cloud. To this star the Christian rises after being lifted up from the waters of baptism. He enters darkness, and this darkness of faith is accompanied by a mysterious light. Now this foundation is that by which Christ is established in us. Through it faith goes forward by rising to the practical virtues, as if reaching the foot of the mountain where Moses offered twelve sacrifices; then it proceeds to the cleansing virtues as if at mid-slope, and finally to the virtues of the cleansed soul as at the mountain's top, a place well suited to the contemplation of the exemplary virtues. =|18|=  It is said [collectively] of these virtues in the Book of Wisdom: For she is an aura of the might of God and a pure effusion of the glory of the Almighty. Later, she is the refulgence of eternal light, referring to purity or moderation; the mirror, referring to prudence; she reaches from end to end mightily, referring to fortitude; and governs all things well, referring to justice.
33. Fundamentum autem virtutis fides est, et nos ponimus eam sicut medium. Hic dicit ethicus, quod medium est, «ut ratio recta determinat». Ista autem fides est; fides est sicut stella matutina in medio nebulae =|41|= . Ad istam ascendit Christianus assumptus de aquis baptismi et intrat in caliginem, quae quidem caligo fides est cum lumine in ae-$nigmate. Hoc fundamentum est, per quod fundatur in nobis Christus; per hanc fidem proficit anima ascendendo ad virtutes politicas, quasi ad radicem montis, ubi Moyses fecit duodecim holocausta =|48|= ; deinde ad virtutes purgativas, quasi ad medium montis; deinde ad virtutes animi iam purgati quasi ad supremum montis, ubi aptus est locus ad contemplandas virtutes exemplares. De quibus in Sapientia: Vapor est enim virtutis Dei et emanatio quaedam est claritatis Dei sincera =|49|= ; sequitur: candor est lucis aeternae quantum ad munditiam vel temperantiam; et speculum =|50|= , quantum ad prudentiam; attingit a fine usque ad finem fortiter, quantum ad fortitudinem; et disponit omnia suaviter =|51|= , quantum ad iustitiam.


6) Justice


34. the sixth center is in the order of justice. It is outstandingly beautiful and important because of the retribution of justice. Christ will be such a Center in the final judgment. It is considered by the jurist or the civil ruler, in order that repayment be made according to merit. Justice embellishes the whole world: it makes beautiful what had been deformed, it makes more beautiful what was already beautiful, and most beautiful what had been improved. In this sense Augustine writes that the damned are most beautifully placed in hell. =|19|=
34. Sextum medium est iustitiae iudiciali recompensatione perpulcrum seu praecelsum. Quod medium erit Christus in iudicio. Hoc considerat iurista sive politicus, ut fiat retributio secundum merita. -- Hoc totum mundum purificat, quia deformia facit pulcra, pulcra pulcriora et pulcriora pulcherrima. Unde Augustinus dicit, quod damnati pulcherrime locantur in inferno.


35. As I looked, a stormwind came from the North, a huge cloud with flashing fire, enveloped in brightness, from the midst of which, the midst of the fire, something gleamed like electrum. Within it were figures resembling four living creatures. Ezechiel is describing the judgment, first, as to the disturbance of natural powers shown by the stormwind; second, as to the conflagration of fires shown by the flashing fire; third, as to the examination of consciences or merits shown by the word brightness, for then the consciences will be clear; fourth, as to the assistants to the judges shown by the word enveloped. Christ in His twofold nature is referred to by the word electrum, and the four orders are designated by the four living creatures: the order of pontiffs by the lion, that of martyrs by the ox, that of confessors by the man, that of virgins by the eagle, by reason of contemplation. Thus the separation of the pure from the impure, of the sheep from the goats, will be brought about by Christ.
35. Ezechielis primo: Vidi, et ecce, ventus turbinis veniebat ab aquilone et nubes magna et ignis involvens; et splendor in circuitu eius, et de medio eius quasi species electri, scilicet de medio ignis. Et in medio eius similitudo quatuor animaliumDescribitur iudicium, primo quantum ad commotionem naturarum, per ventum turbinis et per nubem; secundo, quantum ad conflagrationem ignis, per ignem involventem; tertio, quantum ad examinationem mentium vel meritorum, per splendorem, tunc enim conscientiae clarae erunt; quarto, quantum ad assistentiam iudicantium, per circuitum; per electrum, Christus in duplici natura; per quatuor animalia, quatuor ordines: pontificum in leone, martyrum in bove, confessorum in homine, virginum in aquila, propter contemplationem. Unde fiet segregatio puri ab impuro per Christum, agnorum ab hoedis =|53|= .


36. Jurists are concerned with judgments of money, we with the judgment of ourselves. Hence, before you are judged, seek merit for yourself.
36. Agant ergo iuristae de iudiciis pecuniarum, nos agamus de iudicio nostro. Unde ante iudicium para iustitiam tibi =|54|= .


7) Concord


37. the seventh center is in the order of concord. It concerns peace through universal conciliation. It is the field of the theologian who considers how the world made by God can be returned to Him. Although it deals with the works of creation, it is principally concerned with the works of reconciliation. =|20|=
37. Septimum medium est concordiae universali conciliatione pacatum. De quo theologus agit, qui considerat quomodo mundus factus a Deo reducatur ad Deum. Licet enim agat de operibus conditionis, principaliter agit tamen de operibus reconciliationis.


38. Christ is this Center in eternal beatitude. The theologian deals with the salvation of the soul, how it starts with faith, moves forward through the virtues, and is consummated in the gifts. Hence in the Apocalypse: They shall neither hunger nor thirst any more, neither shall the sun strike them nor any heat. For the Lamb who is in the midst of the throne will shepherd them and will guide them to the fountains of the waters of life. The Lamb in the midst of the waters is the Son of God, the Son I mean who is the central Person, and from whom all happiness comes forth. John, indeed, beheld a river... in the midst of the city streets... coming forth from the throne of God and of the Lamb. For the Lamb of God leads us, so that seeing the body and the soul and the divinity, we may find pastures either by going in or by going out. Here the beatifying Center sheds its light on body and soul. There is a stream whose runlets gladden the city of God, that is, the one coming forth from the throne of God and of the Lamb, the Holy Spirit. And there will be no inner defect, since they shall neither hunger nor thirst through lack of sustainment by which life is lost; neither shall the sun strike them through any external harm.
38. Hoc medium est Christus in sempiterna beatificatione. Agit enim theologus de salute animae, quomodo inchoatur in fide, promo-$vetur in virtutibus, consummatur in dotibus. Unde in Apocalypsi: Non esurient neque sitient amplius, nec cadet super illos sol neque ullus aestus; quoniam Agnus, qui in medio throni est, reget illos et deducet eos ad vitae fontes aquarum =|55|= . Agnus in medio aquarum est Filius Dei, Filius, dico, qui est media persona, a qua omnis beatitudo. Vidit enim Ioannes fluvium in medio platearum procedentem a sede Dei et Agni =|56|= . Agnus enim Dei deducet nos, ut, videntes corpus et animam et Divinitatem, pascua inveniamus sive ingrediendo, sive egrediendo. Hic lucet super corpus et animam, medium beatificans. In Psalmo: Fluminis impetus laetificat civitatem Dei =|51|= , scilicet procedens a sede Dei et Agni, Spiritus sanctus. Et nullus defectus interior erit, quia non esurient neque sitient per defectum pabuli, per quod deficit vita; neque cadet super illos sol, per extrinsecam perturbationem.


39. These Centers are the seven golden lamp-stands, and Christ in the midst of the seven lamp-stands, which are the seven illuminations of wisdom described above, that is, the metaphysical, the natural, and so forth. These are the seven eyes of the Lamb, and the seven facets of the stone mentioned by Zachary, and the seven days that followed upon the first light.
39. Ista media sunt septem candelabra aurea, sive Christus in medio candelabrorum =|58|= , quae sunt septem illuminationes sapientia^ praedictae, scilicet metaphysica, naturalis etc. Isti sunt septem oculi Agni et septem oculi super unum lapidem =|59|= , ut dicit Zacharias, et septem dies, quos fecit prima lux =|60|= .


III. Second Collation



200 On the Fullness of Wisdom in Which Speech Must End, That Is: On the Door of Wisdom and Its Beauty


A. On the Fullness of Wisdom in Which Speech Must End, That Is: on the Door of Wisdom and its Beauty



1. IN THE midst of the Church she shall open his mouth, and shall fill him with the spirit of wisdom and understanding, and shall clothe him with a robe of glory. It has been shown above to whom a doctor should direct his speech and whence he should begin. It remains now to see where he must end it: and that is in the fullness of wisdom and understanding. =|1|=  Concerning wisdom, four points are to be noted: its origin, its dwelling, its door, and its beauty. The first two have been covered in the Collations on the Seven Gifts where (as to the origin) it was said that wisdom was a light coming down from the Father of Lights within the soul, and that by radiating through it, made it in the form of God, and the house of God. =|2|=  This descending light makes the intellective power beautiful, the affective power delightful, and the operative power strong. This dwelling is built with seven columns which blessed James clearly touched upon: But, he wrote, the wisdom that is from above is first of all chaste, then peaceable, moderate, docile, in harmony with good things, full of mercy and good fruits, without dissimulation. It is of this house that Matthew writes: "Everyone therefore who hears these My words and acts upon them, shall be likened to a wise man who built his house on rock."
1. In medio Ecclesiae aperiet os eius et adimplebit illum spiritu sapientiae et intellectus et stola gloriae vestiet illum =|1|= , Ecclesiastici decimo quinto. Ostensum est supra, quibus debet doctor sermonem depromere, et unde debet incipere. Modo ostendendum est, ubi debet terminare: quia in plenitudine sapientiae et intellectus.$De sapientia autem nota quatuor: quis ortus, quae domus, quae porta, quae forma. De duobus primis dictum est in Collationibus septem donorum, ubi dicebatur, quod sapientia est lux descendens a Patre luminum =|2|=  in animam et radians in eam facit animam deiformem et domum Dei. Ista lux descendens facit intellectivam speciosam, affectivam amoenam, operativam robustam. -- Haec domus septem columnis aedificatur, quas beatus Iacobus manifeste tangit. Quae desursum est, inquit, sapientia primum quidem pudica est, deinde pacifica, modesta, suadibilis, bonis consentiens, plena misericordia et fructibus bonis, non iudicans, sine aemulatione =|3|= . De ista domo dicitur Matthaei septimo: Omnis, qui audit verba mea haec et facit ea, assimilabitur viro sapienti, qui aedificavit domum suam supra petram =|4|= .


2. The door to wisdom is a yearning for it and a powerful desire. Hence the Psalm: "Open wide your mouth, and I will fill it.'' That is the road by which wisdom comes within me, by which I go into wisdom, and wisdom comes into me, and likewise charity. Hence God is love, and he who abides in love abides in God, and God in him. Such wisdom cannot be obtained without supreme mutual pleasure, but where there is supreme mutual pleasure, supreme yearning must have come first. "Son, if thou desire wisdom, keep justice: and God will give her to thee." Observing justice helps to obtain it, as the tendency of matter inclines to the form and makes it able to be joined to the form through the medium of dispositions. Not that these dispositions perish, or even less, that they are fulfilled either in the human bodies or in others. And so keeping justice brings forth wisdom. Hence, she is the refulgence of the eternal light, the spotless mirror of the power of God, the image of His goodness. And she, who is one, can do all things, and renews everything while herself perduring; and passing into holy souls from age to age.
2. Porta sapientiae est concupiscentia eius et vehemens desiderium; unde in Psalmo: Aperi os tuum, et ego adimplebo illud =|5|= . Haec est via, per quam sapientia venit in me, per quam ego intro ad sapientiam, et sapientia intrat in me, sicut caritas similiter. Unde Deus caritas est, et qui manet in caritate in Deo manet et Deus in eo =|6|= . Haec autem sapientia non habetur nisi cum summa complacentia; ubi autem summa complacentia est, praecedit summa concupiscentia; in Ecclesiastico: Fili, concupiscens sapientiam conserva iustitiam, et Deus praebebit illam tibi =|1|= . -- Observatio iustitiae disponit ad eam habendam, sicut appetitus materiae inclinat ad formam et facit eam habilem, ut coniungatur formae mediantibus dispositionibus; non quod illae dispositiones perimentur, immo magis complentur sive in corpore humano, sive in aliis. Observatio igitur iustitiae introducit sapientiam. Unde Sapientiae septimo: Candor est lucis aeternae et speculum sine macula Dei maiestatis et imago bonitatis illius. Et cum sit una, omnia potest, et in se permanens omnia innovat et per nationes in animas sanctas se transfert =|8|= .


3. The manner in which such wisdom is obtained is clearly seen from authority and through examples. As to the former, the Book of Wisdom reads: For the first step toward discipline is a very earnest desire for her; then, care for discipline is love of her; love means the keeping of her laws; to observe her laws is the basis for incorruptibility; and incorruptibility makes one close to God; thus the desire for Wisdom leads up to a kingdom. If, then, you find pleasure in throne and scepter, you princes of the peoples, honor Wisdom, that you may reign forever. But discipline is twofold: scholastic and personal, the latter concerning ethics. And scholastic discipline without personal discipline is insufficient for wisdom: for a man becomes wise not merely by listening: he must also conform. Hence the Psalm on wisdom reads: Teach me goodness and discipline and knowledge. For there is no knowledge without precedent discipline, nor discipline without precedent goodness. Hence it is through goodness and discipline that knowledge dwells within us. A sick man is not healed by listening to a physician: he must follow his prescription as the Philosopher says in Book Two of "Ethics." =|3|=  But few walk along that way of wisdom, hence few ever reach it.
3. Quomodo autem habetur haec sapientia, patet ex auctoritate et exemplo. De primo Sapientiae sexto: Initium enim illius verissima est disciplinae concupiscentia. Cura ergo disciplinae dilectio est, et dilectio custodia legum illius est; custoditio autem legum consummatio incorruptionis est; incorruptio autem facit esse proximum Deo. Concupiscentia itaque sapientiae deducit ad regnum perpetuum =|9|= . Concupiscentia ergo sapientiae generat concupiscentiam disciplinae. -- Disciplina autem duplex est: scholastica et monastica sive morum; et non sufficit ad habendam sapientiam scholastica sine monastica; quia non audiendo solum, sed observando fit homo sapiens. Unde in Psalmo de sapientia: bonitatem et disciplinam et scientiam doce me =|10|= . Scientia enim non habetur nisi praecedat disciplina; nec disciplina, nisi praecedat bonitas; et sic per bonitatem et disciplinam inest nobis scientia. -- Aegrotus enim audiendo medicum nunquam sanatur, nisi praecepta eius observet, sicut dicit Philosophus in secundo Ethicorum. Per istam autem viam sapientiae pauci vadunt, et ideo pauci veniunt ad veram sapientiam.


4. The eager desire for discipline gives birth to love. Hence the proper attention to discipline is love. For if you love discipline, you love virtue in yourself and in others and in its very Source. Discipline, however, does not have to be servile: it may be free, so that it loves the one who imposes it, and acts out of love, not out of fear. If you are poor as a result of discipline, you must love poverty. And the same applies to the other perfections. But love is observance of the laws. If, then, you love what is good, you keep the law, because the purpose of this charge is charity, from a pure heart. When you keep the law, you are sanctified and filled with the Holy Spirit; and in this you are drawn away from any love that is not God.
4. Concupiscentia disciplinae parit dilectionem. Cura ergo disciplinae est dilectio. Si enim habes disciplinae dilectionem, eris amator virtutis in te et in aliis et in suo fonte. Disciplina autem non debet esse servilis, sed liberalis, ut diligat disciplinantem, ut ex amore faciat, non ex timore. Si autem propter disciplinam es pauper, oportet, ut diligas paupertatem; et sic de aliis. Dilectio autem custodia legum est. Si enim diligis bonum, observas legem, quia finis praecepti est caritas de corde puro =|n|= . Quando autem custodis legem, sanctificans et efficeris plenus Spiritu sancto; et tunc abstraheris ab omni amore, qui non est Deus.


5. Such is the holiness Dionysius describes in the twelfth chapter of the "Divine Names": "Holiness," he writes, "is free of every impurity: it is perfect and entirely immaculate in its purity." =|4|=  To be sanctified, then, is to be drawn away from any love that sullies and corrupts and may lead the soul to ruin. In this must the creature resemble the Creator: "You shall be holy," He said, "because I am holy." This holiness makes one God-conformed. That is why the Seraphic spirits cried out: "Holy, holy, holy."
5. Haec enim sanctitas est, quam describit Dionysius De divinis Nominibus, capitulo duodecimo: «Sanctitas, inquit, est ab omni immunditia libera et perfecta et omnino immaculata munditia». Sanctificari ergo est abstrahi ab omni amore inquinativo et corruptivo, qui potest animam corrumpere. In hoc debet creatura assimilari Creatori: Sancti, inquit, estote, quoniam ego sanctus sum =|11|= . Haec sanctitas facit deiformem; et ideo illi Spiritus seraphici dicebant: Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus =|13|= .


6. But as soon as the soul has been made to resemble God, it enters into that Wisdom, because She is the refulgence of eternal light, the spotless mirror of the power of God. And consequently, she passes into holy souls from age to age. Without holiness, a man cannot be wise. A holy man continueth in wisdom as the sun: but a fool is changed as the moon. Holiness is an immediate disposition toward wisdom: hence a yearning and a strong desire are the door to wisdom. Therefore I prayed, and prudence was given me; 1 pleaded, and the spirit of Wisdom came to me. I preferred her to scepter and throne, and deemed riches nothing in comparison with her. Nor did I liken any priceless gem to her; because all gold, in view of her, is a little sand, and before her, silver is to be accounted mire. Beyond health and comeliness I loved her, and I chose to have her rather than the light, because the splendor of her never yields to sleep. And I rejoiced in them all, because Wisdom is their leader, though I had not known that she is the mother of these. But the author says that he came to this Wisdom through prayer and pleading. For if She is the supreme good, She must be loved supremely; and if She is all good, She must be desired universally and above anything else. The same is seen also in the example of Solomon who asked, not for gold and silver, but for an understanding heart: and so it was given to him. Hence James: If any of you is wanting in wisdom, let him ask it of God, who gives abundantly to all men, and does not reproach; and it will be given to him. But let him ask with faith, without hesitation. For one who hesitates is not disciplined. This, then is the door. Such a desire extinguishes all others, and makes man to be lifted up from the world. Hence he [the author of the Book of Wisdom] writes: Her I loved and sought after from my youth; I sought to take her for my bride and was enamored of her beauty.
6. Cum autem anima deiformis facta est, statim intrat in eam Sapientia, quia candor est lucis aeternae et speculum sine macula Dei maiestatis; et sequitur: per nationes in animas sanctas se transfert, Sapientiae septimo =|14|= . Sine sanctitate non est homo sapiens. Unde in Ecclesiastico: Homo sanctus in sapientia manet sicut sol; nam stultus sicut luna mutatur =|15|= . Sanctitas dispositio immediata est ad sapientiam: ergo concupiscentia et vehemens desiderium porta est sapientiae; Sapientiae$septimo: Optavi, et datus est mihi sensus, et invocavi, et venit in me spiritus sapientiae. Et praeposui illam regnis et sedibus, et divitias nihil duxi in comparatione illius, usque ibi: Laetatus sum in omnibus, quoniam antecedebat me ista sapientia, et ignorabam, quoniam omnium horum mater est =|16|= . -- Sed dicit, quod habuit illam optando et invocando. Si enim summum bonum est, summe amanda est; si autem omne bonum est, universaliter appetenda est et super omnia. -- Similiter patet exemplo Salomonis, quia non petivit aurum et argentum, sed cor docile =|17|= ; ideo venit in eum. Unde Iacobus: Si quis vestrum indiget sapientia, postulet a Deo, qui dat omnibus affluenter et non improperat, et dabitur ei. Postulet autem in fide nihil haesitans =|18|= . Qui enim haesitat non est disciplinatus. Haec est ergo porta. Huiusmodi autem concupiscentia extinguit omnes concupiscentias et hominem sublevatum facit a mundo. Unde dicit: Hanc amavi et exquisivi a iuventute mea, et quaesivi sponsam mihi eam assumere, et amator factus sum formae illius =|19|= .


7. For the beauty of Wisdom is wondrous, and no one looks upon her without admiration and ecstasy, as it is said of Esther and of Solomon, for all the earth desired to see Solomon's face; and the Queen of Sheba came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and when she saw the order of his ministers, and their apparel, and the cupbearers, and the holocausts, which he offered in the house of the Lord: she had no longer any spirit in her. But we should be afraid of what the Lord says in the Gospel: "The queen of the South will rise up in the judgment with this generation and will condemn it; for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and behold, a greater than Solomon is here." The Jews refused to listen to wisdom from the mouth of Wisdom; and we who possess Christ within ourselves refuse to listen to His wisdom. This is the supreme abomination: that the most beautiful daughter of the king is offered to us as a bride, and we choose to be coupled with the filthiest servant and to deal with harlots; and we want to go back to Egypt, to the lowliest food, since we reject the food from heaven.
7. Forma autem sapientiae est mirabilis, et nullus eam aspicit sine admiratione et ecstasi, ut dicitur de Esther =|20|=  et de Salomone, cuius vultum desiderabat videre universa terra =|21|=  ; et regina Saba venit a finibus terrae audire sapientiam Salomonis =|22|= ; et cum videret ordines ministrantium vestesque eorum et pincernas et holocausta, quae offerebat in domo Domini, non habebat ultra spiritum =|23|= . -- Sed timendum quod dicit Dominus in Evangelio: Regina austri resurget in iudicio cum generatione ista et condemnabit eam, quia venit a finibus terrae audire sapientiam Salomonis, et plus quam Salomon hic =|24|= . Iudaei nolebant audire sapientiam de ore Sapientiae; et nos habemus Christum intra nos, et nolumus audire sapientiam eius. Abominatio maxima est, quod filia regis pulcherrima offertur nobis in sponsam, et potius volumus copulari ancillae turpissimae et meretricari; et volumus reverti in Aegyptum ad cibum vilissimum, et nolumus refici cibo caelesti.


8. That beauty (of Wisdom) is wondrous, for at times it is uniform and at others manifold; at times it assumes every form, and at others none. Light clothes itself in four different ways. For it is seen as uniform in the rules of divine Law, as manifold in the mysteries of divine Scriptures, as assuming every form in the traces of the divine works, and as without any form in the elevations of divine raptures.
8. Ista forma est mirabilis, quia modo est uniformis, modo est multiformis, modo omniformis, modo nulliformis. Quadriformi igitur se vestit lumine. Apparet autem uniformis in regulis divinarum legum, multiformis in mysteriis divinarum Scripturarum, omniformis in vestigiis divinorum operum, nulliformis in suspendis divinorum excessuum.


9. The first is referred to in the sixth chapter of Wisdom: Resplendent and unfading is wisdom—with whom there is no change, no shadow of alteration—and she is readily perceived by those who love her, and found by those who seek her. She hastens to make herself known in anticipation of man's desire. And so, she appears unchanging in the rules of divine Law that bind us. These rules filling the rational mind with splendid light are all the ways by which the mind knows and judges that which could not be otherwise, the fact that the supreme Principle must be supremely venerated, that the supreme Truth must be supremely believed in and assented to, and that the supreme Good must be supremely desired and loved. And such are the rules of the first tablet; =|5|=  and in these wisdom is seen, for they are so certain that they could not be otherwise.
9. De primo, Sapientiae sexto: Clara est quae nunquam marcescit sapientia =|25|=  -- quia apud illam non est transmutatio nec vicissitudinis obumbratio =|26|=  -- et facile videtur ab his qui diligunt eam, et invenitur ab his qui quaerunt illam. Praeoccupat qui se concupiscunt, ut illis se prior ostendat =|21|= . Haec igitur apparet immutabilis in regulis divinarum legum, quae nos ligant. Regulae istae mentibus rationalibus ^splendentes sunt omnes illi modi, per quos mens cognoscit et iudicat id$quod aliter esse non potest, utpote quod summum principium summe venerandum; quod summo vero summe credendum et assentiendum; quod summum bonum summe desiderandum et diligendum. -- Et haec sunt in prima tabula; et in his apparet sapientia, quod ita certa sunt, quod aliter esse non possunt.


10. These rules are beyond error, doubt, and judgment, for judgment is by them, and not of them. Hence such wisdom is clear. They are also beyond change, restriction, and cancellation; hence such wisdom never wastes away. For these rules are so certain that they cannot be contradicted in any way, except as regards exterior reason, =|6|=  as the Philosopher writes in the First Book of "Analytica Posteriora." For they are rooted in Eternal Light and lead to it, but this does not make such light visible. Nor should it be said that they are founded on any created light, as for instance in a certain Intelligence^: that enlightens the minds. For since these rules are unrestricted in that they offer themselves to the minds of all, it would follow that a created light could be unrestricted and would be pure act, which is impossible. And anyone who holds such an opinion weakens the fountain of wisdom and creates an idol, making a god out of an angel, which is worse than if a man were to make a god out of a stone. For indeed such wisdom irradiates the soul: sitting by his gate, she hastens to make herself known by anticipation.
10. Hae regulae sunt infallibiles, indubitabiles, iniudicabiles, quia per illas est iudicium, et non est de illis. Et ideo clara est haec sapientia. -- Sunt etiam incommutabiles, incoarctabiles, interminabiles; et ideo nunquam marcescit. Sic enim certae sunt, ut nullo modo sit eis contradicere «nisi ad exterius-rationem», secundum Philosophum, in libro primo Posteriorum. Hae enim radicantur in luce aeterna et ducunt in eam, sed non propter hoc ipsa videtur. Nec est dicendum, quod fundantur in aliqua luce creata, utpote in aliqua Intelligentia, quae illuminet mentes; quia, cum illae regulae sint incoarctabiles, quia mentibus omnium se offerunt, tunc sequeretur, quod lux creata esset incoarctabilis et esset actus purus, quod absit; et qui hoc dicit enervat fontem sapientiae et facit idolum, ut Angelum, Deum, et plus quam qui lapidem Deum facit. Haec enim sapientia radiat super animam, quia assistit prae foribus, ut se, inquit, prior illis ostendat =|2|= *.


11. Again, wisdom appears as manifold in the mysteries of divine Scriptures. This multiformity of the mysteries is shown in the Apostle's letter to the Ephesians: To me, the very least of all saints, there was given this grace, to announce among the Gentiles the good tidings of the unfathomable riches of Christ, and to enlighten all men as to what is the dispensation of the mystery which has been hidden from all eternity in God, who created all things; in order that through the Church there he made known to the Principalities and the Powers in the heavens the manifold wisdom of God7 It should not be understood that Paul is teaching the angels: they are made to know, in the sense that they are made to know through their ministry, as if it were said that the Law is given by the angels, meaning through their ministry. =|8|=
11. Item, apparet sapientia ut multiformis in mysteriis divinarum Scripturarum. Hanc multiformitatem mysteriorum ostendit Apostolus ad Ephesios: Mihi omnium Sanctorum minimo data est haec gratia in gentibus, evangelizare investigabiles divitias gratiae Christi et illuminare omnes, quae sit dispensatio sacramenti absconditi a saeculis in Deo, qui omnia creavit, ut innotescat Principatibus et Potestatibus in caelestibus per Ecclesiam multiformis sapientia Dei =|29|= . Non est intelligendum quod Paulus doceat Angelos, sed dicitur innotescere, quia ministerio ipsorum innotescunt, sicut dicitur, quod Lex per Angelos data est, hoc est per ministerium Angelorum.


12. And so this wisdom is called manifold because there are many ways of expressing it. Hence it was necessary that wisdom be shown under many figures, many sacraments, many signs, in order also that it be hidden to the proud and revealed to the humble. These veils cover Christ, hiding wisdom from the wise and impure. Hence in Matthew: "1 praise Thee, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that Thou didst hide these things from the wise and prudent, and didst reveal them to little ones." Well did the Apostle write: To me, the very least of all saints, etc.
12. Haec igitur sapientia dicitur multiformis, quia multi sunt modi exprimendi; et ideo necesse fuit, ut ostendatur sapientia in multis figuris, multis Sacramentis, multis signis, ut etiam veletur superbis, aperiatur humilibus. Haec velamina claudunt Christum, occultant sapientiam sapientibus et immundis. Unde in Matthaeo: Confiteor tibi, Pater, domine caeli et terrae, quia abscondisti haec a sapientibus et prudentibus et revelasti ea parvulis =|30|= . Et ideo bene ait Apostolus: Mihi omnium Sanctorum minimo =|31|=  etc.


13. But how does Paul announce.. .the good tidings of the unfathomable riches of Christ? This is how: So, he writes, there abide faith, hope and charity, these three. There shines forth a threefold signification in Scriptures, =|9 |= teaching what to believe, what to expect, and what to do. What to believe, in terms of faith; what to expect, in terms of hope; what to do, in terms of charity, which consists in action, and not only in affective dispositions. "If anyone love Me, he will keep My word." And certain of these points are subdivided.
13. Sed quomodo Paulus evangelizat investigabiles divitias gratiae Christi? Sic: Nunc, inquit, manent fides, spes, caritas, tria haec =|02|= . --$Triplex refulget intelligentia in Scriptura, quae docet, quid credendum, quid exspectandum, quid operandum: quid credendum quantum ad fidem ; quid exspectandum quantum ad spem ; quid operandum quantum ad caritatem, quae consistit in operatione, non solum in affectione, Ioannis decimo quarto: Si quis diligit me, sermonem meum servabit =|33|= . Et quaelibet istarum est biforcata.


14. Faith, indeed, is a union of the Head with the body. The shining of light as related to faith is called allegory, and it is twofold, one directed to the Head and the other to the body. For there is one directed to the crucified Head, that was born, etc., and another directed to the body, that is, the Church, primitive, intermediate, and final4 And Solomon praises the Church in this manner, according to its threefold state: Who is she that cometh forth as the morning rising, fair as the moon, bright as the sun, etc.?— Who is she that goeth up by the desert, as a pillar of smoke of aromatic spices, of myrrh and frankincense, etc.?—Who is this that cometh up from the desert, flowing with delights, leaning upon her beloved? =|10|=
14. Fides enim est in iunctura capitis et corporis. Refulgentia quantum ad fidem est allegoria, et haec duplex: una ad caput, alia ad corpus. Est enim una, quae fertur ad caput crucifixum, natum etc.; alia, quae fertur ad corpus, ad Ecclesiam primam, mediam et ultimam; et hoc modo laudat Ecclesiam Salomon in Cantico secundum triplicem illum statum. Quae est ista, inquit, quae ascendit, quasi aurora consurgens, pulcra ut luna, electa ut sol =|34|=  etc. -- Quae est ista quae ascendit per desertum sicut virgula fumi ex aromatibus myrrhae et thuris =|35|=  etc. -- Quae est ista, quae ascendit de deserto deliciis affluens et innixa super dilectum suum? =|36|= .


15. Concerning the allegory of the Head, Paul writes: I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea, and all were baptized in Moses, in the cloud and in the sea. And all ate the same spiritual food, and all drank the same spiritual drink (for they drank from the spiritual rock which followed them, and the rock was Christ). And concerning the allegory of the body: It is written that Abraham had two sons, the one by a slave-girl and the other by a free woman. And the son of the slave-girl was born according to the flesh, but the son of the free woman in virtue of the promise. This is said by way of allegory. For these are the two covenants. There is no need for further explanations, for two peoples are understood here.
15. De allegoria capitis dicit Paulus: Nolo, vos ignorare, fratres, quoniam patres nostri omnes sub nube fuerunt, et omnes mare transierunt, et omnes in Moyse baptizati sunt in nube et mari, et omnes eandem escam spiritualem manducaverunt, et omnes eundem potum spiritualem biberunt. Bibebant autem de spirituali consequente eos petra; petra autem erat Christus =|37|= . -- De allegoria corporis: Scriptum est quod Abraham duos filios habuit, unum de ancilla et unum de libera; sed qui de ancilla, secundum carnem natus est; qui autem de libera, per repromissionem, quae sunt per allegoriam dicta. Haec autem sunt duo testamenta =|38|= . Non oportuit, ut amplius explanaret, quia per illa intelliguntur duo populi.


16. In another sense, in the order of hope, concerning, that is, what we should expect, there is anagogy, and this in two ways: one in the skies, as in this passage: "Abram, look at the heavens and, if you can, count the stars." And that means the heavenly intelligences. Again, in Job: "Do you know the ordinances of the heavens; can you put into effect their plan on the earth?" The other way is above the skies, as in the case of Abraham who saw three men and worshiped one, for the Trinity appeared in these three; and in the case of the two angels who were sent to Sodom, the Son and the Holy Spirit who are sent by the Father; and because the Father is never sent, He was not seen there, but He was seen in the case of the three men, for here He appeared and was not sent. =|11|=  Hugh of St. Victor uses these expressions: heavenly hierarchy, superheavenly hierarchy, and subheavenly hierarchy. =|12|=  Some say this is not properly said, but they are wrong, for in each case there is a holy primacy.
16. Iuxta aliam intelligentiam quae est per spem, quid scilicet est exspectandum, sumitur anagogia, et haec est duplex, scilicet caelestis, ut ibi: Abraham, suspice caelum et numera stellas, si potes =|09|= , scilicet caelestes Intelligentias; et in Iob: Nunquid nosti ordinem caeli, aut rationem eius pones in terra? =|40|= . -- Alia supercaelestis, ut in Abraham, qui «tres vidit et unum adoravit» =|41|= , quia in illis Trinitas apparuit; et in duobus Angelis qui missi sunt Sodomam =|42|= , Filius et Spiritus sanctus, qui mittuntur a Patre; et ideo, quia Pater nunquam missus est, ibi non apparuit, sed apparuit in illis tribus, quia Pater apparuit, sed nunquam missus est. -- Hugo dicit ista vocabula: hierarchia caelestis,$supercaelestis, subcaelestis. Quidam dicunt, quod improprie dicantur; sed falsum est, quia utrobique est sacer principatus.


17. Thirdly, there is tropology in the third sense. It teaches us what to do. It is of two kinds. One pertains to the active life: it teaches us how to act. The other pertains to the contemplative life: it teaches us how to contemplate, how the soul can be carried to God. It is not anagogy, since it is a mere preparation of the soul, and thus, starting from the lowest point, it tends to the highest. Hence this wisdom is hidden and veiled to the wise who cannot understand Scriptures. For neither Scriptures nor the mysteries can be understood without knowing the world's course and the position of the hierarchies. =|13|=
17. Tertia est tropologia iuxta tertiam intelligentiam, quae docet, quid agendum. Haec duplex: quaedam pertinet ad activam, ubi docetur quid agendum; quaedam ad contemplativam, ubi docetur quomodo contemplandum, quomodo anima feratur in Deum; nec tamen est anagogia, cum sit praeparatio animae, et sic ab infimo tendit ad supremum. -- Haec ergo sapientia est abscondita et velata superbis, qui non sunt potentes Scripturas intelligere. Scripturae intelligi non possunt nec mysteria, nisi sciatur decursus mundi et dispositio hierarchica.


18. God's wisdom appears most beautifully in these mysteries, even more than in the first manner. For if, so to speak, I wish to praise the bride in that she is pretty and truthful: if I simply say that she is pretty and truthful, my heart is not affected very deeply. But if I say: "Thy cheeks are beautiful as the turtle dove's, thy neck as jewels," I praise her marvelously, if only I understand. I praise her not only as being chaste and good, but as being chaste and loving because of her love for her spouse. For the turtle dove is a chaste and loving bird, since out of love for its mate, as long as the mate lives, it consorts with no other, but only after it dies. Hence the bride is good, not merely because she is chaste, but because she is chaste out of love for her spouse. Hence the cheeks are beautiful, for they are prominent and beauty appears in them. Thy neck as jewels: the neck, through which the voice is emitted, stands for truth; the jewels, that adorn the breast and bind it, stand for discretion, for if one tells the truth at the wrong time, for the wrong reason, in the wrong place or to the wrong people, this is not beautiful truth.
18. In his ergo mysteriis pucherrime apparet Dei sapientia, plus etiam quam primo modo. Sicut, verbi gratia, volo laudare sponsam, quod sit pulcra, quod sit verax; si dicam simpliciter: pulcra est, verax est; non afficitur multum cor meum; sed cum dico: Pulcrae sunt genae tuae sicut turturis, collum tuum sicut monilia =|4|= *; mirabiliter eam commendo, dum intelligo. Commendo enim eam non solum ut castam et honestam, sed quod propter amorem sponsi casta est et amorosa. Turtur enim avis casta est et amorosa, quia propter amorem comparis, ipso vivente, nulli coniungitur nec post eius mortem. Sponsa igitur honesta non est, quia casta, sed quia casta propter amorem sponsi. Pulcrae igitur sunt genae, quae sunt prominentes, in quibus apparet pulcritudo. Collum tuum sicut monilia; collum, per quod vox emittitur, veritas; monilia, quae ornant pectus et stringunt, discretio, quia, si quis dicat veritatem et non, quando debet, vel ut non debet, vel ubi non debet, vel quibus non debet; non est pulcra veritas.


19. This wisdom results from many mysteries of the Scriptures, as out of many mirrors there results a multiplication of light rays and fires. These are the mirrors of the women out of which the bronze laver was made; this is Scriptures, with faces unveiled, reflecting as in a mirror the glory of the Lord,... being transformed into His very image from glory to glory : from the clarity of allegory to the clarity of anagogy, and again to that of tropology. This wisdom is given according to the measure of faith, according as God has apportioned to each one the measure of faith. For in the measure in which a man seizes the mind, in that measure does he become wiser —and faith is obtained through humility. Paul claims that he professes such wisdom. Moses established the rules and the laws, therefore his face was horned, but that of the Apostle was unveiled.
19. Haec sapientia resultat ex multis mysteriis Scripturae, sicut ex multis speculis fiunt multiplicationes radiorum et ignium; haec sunt specula mulierum, de quibus fit labrum aeneum =|44|=  ; haec est Scriptura, ut revelata facie gloriam Domini speculantes, in eandem imaginem transformemur a claritate in claritatem =|45|=  : a claritate allegoriae in claritatem anagogiae, et rursus tropologiae. Haec sapientia datur secundum mensuram fidei et unicuique, sicut Deus divisit mensuram fidei =|46|= ; quia, secundum quod homo magis intellectum captivat, secundum hoc sapientior efficitur, et fides habetur per humilitatem. Huiusmodi sapientiae Paulus dicit se professorem. Moyses autem posuit regulas et leges, ideo habuit faciem cornutam, sed Apostolus revelatam.


20. Again, the third face of wisdom has every form in the traces of divine works. Hence in Ecclesiasticus: To whom hath the root of wisdom been revealed; and who hath known her wise counsels? To whom hath the discipline of wisdom been revealed and made manifest? And who hath understood the multiplicity of her steps? There is one most high Creator, Almighty. And below: He created her in the Holy Ghost, and saw her, and numbered her, and measured her. And He poured her out upon all His works. This wisdom has been made manifest, hence wisdom cries aloud in the street, in the open squares she raises her voice. And yet we do not find her, resembling the unlettered man who owns a book and has no concern for it. And so with us: the Scriptures were given to us in Greek, in the vernacular and in Hebrew, and yet they are unknown as a source.
20. Item, tertia facies sapientiae est omniformis in vestigiis divinorum operum. Unde in Ecclesiastico: Radix sapientiae cui revelata est, et astutias illius quis agnovit? Disciplina sapientiae cui revelata est et manifestata, et multiplicationem ingressus illius quis intellexit? Unus est altissimus Creator omnium omnipotens. Sequitur: Ipse creavit illam in$Spiritu sancto et vidit et dinumeravit et dimensus est et effudit illam super omnia opera sua =|47|= . Haec sapientia manifestata est; unde: Sapientia foris clamitat, in plateis dat vocem suam =|4S|= . Et tamen nos non invenimus eam, sicut laicus nesciens litteras et tenens librum non curat de eo; sic nos; unde haec scriptura facta est nobis Graeca, barbara et Hebraea et penitus ignota in suo fonte.


21. This wisdom is spread out among all things. For everything possesses a rule of wisdom and displays divine wisdom by reason of some characteristic; and the man who would know all characteristics would clearly see this wisdom. And it is to this study that the philosophers gave themselves, and Solomon himself. And so he speaks to himself, saying: "I will acquire wisdom"; but it was beyond me. For when anyone, out of idle curiosity over creatures, gives himself to the search for this wisdom, it eludes him more than ever.
21. Ista sapientia diffusa est in omni re, quia quaelibet res secundum quamlibet proprietatem habet regulam sapientiae et ostendit sapientiam divinam; et qui sciret omnes proprietates manifeste videret sapientiam istam. Et ad hoc considerandum dederunt se philosophi et etiam ipse Salomon; unde ipsemet se redarguit dicens: Dixi: sapiens efficiar; et ipsa longius recessit a me =|49|= . Quando enim per curiosam perscrutationem creaturarum dat se quis ad investigandam istam sapientiam; tunc longius recedit.


22. The work of God may be expressed in three ways: first in terms of essence, concerning whatever a thing is, and in whatever genus, be it substance or accident; second, in terms of actuated essence, and this applies to substance alone; third, in terms of essence made in the likeness of God, and such is the spiritual creature. Over all these the wisdom of God is spread out in so far as they are His work.
22. Opus autem Dei tripliciter dicitur: primo modo essentia, quodcumque illud sit et in quocumque genere sive substantiae, sive accidentis; alio modo essentia completa, scilicet sola substantia; tertio modo essentia ad imaginem Dei facta, ut spiritualis creatura, -- Super has effusa est sapientia Dei, sicut super opera sua.


23. There is a certain order in these things. For God creates all essences by measure and number and weight. And by giving these, He gives mode, species, and order. =|l4|=  Mode is that by which a thing exists; species, that by which it is distinct; order, that by which it is fitting. For there is no creature that is not endowed with measure, quantity, and inclination. And in this a trace may be seen, and wisdom is manifested, as the foot is shown by the trace. And this trace leads to that Wisdom in whom there is mode without qualification, number without quantity, and order without ordination. =|15|=  Now, in substance there is a higher trace that represents the divine essence. For every created substance has matter, form, and composition: the original principle or foundation, the formal complement, and the bond. =|16|=  It has substantial existence, power, and operation. And in these the mystery of the Trinity is represented: the Father as the origin, the Son as the image, and the Holy Spirit as the bond.
23. Est autem ordo in his. Deus enim creat quamcumque essentiam in mensura et numero et pondere^\ et dando haec, dat modum, speciem et ordinem; modus est, quo constat; species, qua discernitur; ordo, quo congruit. Non est enim aliqua creatura quae non habeat mensuram, numerum et inclinationem; et in his attenditur vestigium, et manifestatur sapientia, sicut pes in vestigio; et hoc vestigium in illam sapientiam ducit, in qua est modus sine modo, numerus sine numero; ordo sine ordine. -- In substantia autem est altius vestigium, quod repraesentat divinam essentiam. Habet enim omnis creata substantia materiam, formam, compositionem: originale principium seu fundamentum, formale complementum et glutinum; habet substantiam, virtutem et operationem. -- Et in his repraesentatur mysterium Trinitatis: Pater, origo; Filius, imago; Spiritus sanctus, compago.


24. In creatures, there is a distinction between the original principle and the formal complement: not a hypostatic distinction as in the Godhead, nor an accidental distinction, but a distinction as between principles, one of which is active and the other passive. And to deny this to the creature is to deny that it represents the Trinity: as if it were said, for instance, that the creature is pure act, and not a composite.
24. Ratio autem originalis principii a formali complemento habet distinctionem in creatura, non quidem hypostaticam, ut est in divinis, nec accidentalem, sed sicut principiorum, quorum unum activum, alterum passivum. Et hoc tollere a creatura est tollere ab ea repraesentationem Trinitatis; ut dicere, quod creatura sit purus actus et non habeat compositionem.


25. Nor is it correct to say that it is a composite because it receives its existence from another, because contingent existence does not [necessarily] produce composition, for then the Son would be composite since He is contingent upon the Father, and the Holy Spirit upon both. The divine being alone is simple, for in it, there is no difference between being, being such, and being fittingly. Hence "To Be" is called a name of God, for "To Be" in the case of God is that which God is.
25. Nec valet id quod dicitur, quod composita est, pro eo quod est ab alio, quia esse ab alio compositionem non dicit; quia tunc Filius esset compositus, cum sit a Patre, et Spiritus sanctus ab utroque. Solum enim esse divinum simplex est; nec differt in eo esse et sic esse et bene esse. Et ideo esse dicitur nomen Dei =|51|= , quia esse in Deo est id quod est Deus. In creatura autem differt esse et bene esse et sic esse.


26. Another trace of this Wisdom is found in substance, power and operation, since power depends upon substance, and operation upon both substance and power. A thing receives its being from substance, its survival from power, and its efficacy from operation. Power, also, is not accidental to substance, although the Philosopher says that natural power is a quality. =|17|=  For he is speaking as expressing a modality of being that follows upon substance: as it is clear that hard or soft express a modality consequent upon substance.
26. Vestigium aliud huius sapientiae est substantia, virtus et operatio; virtus est a substantia, operatio a substantia et virtute; res a substantia habet esse, a virtute vigere, ab operatione efficere. Virtus etiam non est substantiae accidentalis, licet Philosophus dicat, quod naturalis potentia est qualitas. Ipse enim loquitur, prout dicit modum consequentem substantiam; sicut patet, quia durum et molle dicunt modum substantiam consequentem.


27. Again, the creature is made in God's likeness. This may be according to a likeness of nature or a likeness of grace. The former is memory, intelligence, and will in which the Trinity shines forth. The latter signs the soul, and in this signing, it receives immortality, understanding and joy: immortality, in that memory implies eternity; wisdom,! in that truth shines forth in understanding; joy, in that goodness gives pleasure to the will. Now these things are found in reformed intelligences or substances. And so it appears that the whole world is like a single mirror, full of luminaries that stand before divine Wisdom, shedding light as would live coals.
27. Item, est creatura ad imaginem Dei facta; et hoc vel secundum imaginem naturalem, vel gratuitam; illa est memoria, intelligentia et voluntas, in quibus relucet Trinitas; et hac sigillatur anima, et in hac sigillatione recipit immortalitatem, intelligentiam, iucunditatem; immortalitatem, secundum quod in memoria tenetur aeternitas; sapientiam, secundum quod in intelligentia refulget veritas; iucunditatem, secundum quod in voluntate delectat bonitas. Haec quidem sunt in intelligentiis, vel substantiis reformatis. -- Et sic patet, quod totus mundus est sicut unum speculum plenum luminibus praesentantibus divinam sapientiam, et sicut carbo effundens lucem.


28. The fourth face of wisdom is the most difficult, for it is without form. Thus would it seem to destroy the preceding faces, and yet it does not. The Apostle speaks of it in the First Epistle to the Corinthians: "Wisdom, however, we speak among those who are mature, yet not a wisdom of this world.... But we speak the wisdom of God, mysterious, hidden . . . which ... eye has not seen nor ear heard, nor has it entered into the heart of man.... But to us God has revealed [it] through His Spirit. For the Spirit searches all things, even the deep things of God. Paul taught this wisdom to Dionysius =|18|=  and Timothy and other perfect men, but he kept it hidden from others. It is up to us, then, to be perfect in order to reach it. Forgetting what is behind, 1 strain forward to what is before, hoping that I may understand.
28. Quarta facies sapientiae est difficillima, quia est nulliformis, quod videtur destructivum praecedentium, non tamen est. De hac enim dicit Apostolus primae ad Corinthios secundo: Sapientiam loquimur inter perfectos, sapientiam non huius saeculi; sed loquimur sapientiam in mysterio absconditam, quam nec oculus vidit, nec auris audivit, nec in cor hominis ascendit; nobis autem revelavit Deus per Spiritum suum. Spiritus autem omnia scrutatur, etiam profunda Dei =|32|= . Hanc sapientiam docuit Paulus Dionysium et Timotheum et ceteros perfectos et ab aliis abscondit. Oportet ergo, nos esse perfectos, ut ad hanc sapientiam veniamus. Quae retro sunty inquit, obliviscens, ad anteriora me extendo, si quo modo comprehendam =|50|= .


29. This wisdom is veiled in mystery, but how? If it has not entered into the heart of man, how can it be understood, since it is without form? Note that this is the highest state of achievement of Christian wisdom. While Dionysius wrote many books, it is here that he stopped, that is, in Mystical Theology. Hence it is necessary that a man be instructed in many things and in everything that comes before. Concerning Mystical Theology, Dionysius writes: "As for you, then, my friend Timothy, concerning mystical visions, through strong action and contrition give up the senses," etc. =|19|=  What he means is that a man must be free of all the things he enumerates there, and that he reject them all, as if he were saying: "The One I want to love is above any substance or knowledge." And here is an operation that transcends every intellect: a most secret action, which no one knows unless he experiences it. For in the soul there are several apprehensive powers: the sensitive, the imaginative, the estimative, the intellective; and all must be rejected, and at the summit, there is union of love which transcends them all. Hence it is clear that total beatitude is not attained through the intellective power alone. =|20|=
29. Haec sapientia abscondita est in mysterio =|54|= . Sed quomodo? Si in cor hominis non ascendit =|55|= , quomodo comprehendetur, cum sit nulliformis? -- Nota, quod hic est status sapientiae cristianae; unde cum$Dionysius multos libros fecisset, hic consummavit, scilicet in Mystica Theologia. Unde oportet, quod homo sit instructus multis et omnibus praecedentibus. De Mystica Theologia Dionysius: «Tu autem, inquit, o Timothee amice, circa mysticas visiones forti actione et contritione, sensus derelinque» etc.; vult enim dicere, quod oportet, quod sit solutus ab omnibus, quae ibi numerat, et quod omnia dimittat; quasi diceret: super omnem substantiam et cognitionem est ille quem volo intelligere. Et ibi est operatio transcendens omnem intellectum, secretissima; quod nemo scit, nisi qui experitur. In anima enim sunt virtutes multae apprehensivae: sensitiva, imaginativa, aestimativa, intellectiva; et omnes oportet relinquere, et in vertice est Unitio amoris, et haec omnes transcendit. -- Unde patet, quod non est tota beatitudo in intellectiva.


30. Now this contemplation comes about through grace, and yet personal effort is helpful, for it separates self from anything that is not God, and if possible, from itself. And that is the supreme union of love. And the Apostle says that it comes about through love alone: So that, being rooted and grounded in love, you may be able to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth. Such love transcends every intellect and every science. But if it transcends every science, how can this wisdom be seen? That is why the Apostle continues: Now, to him who is able to accomplish all things in a measure far beyond what we ask or conceive, etc. For it does not belong to anyone, but to the man to whom God reveals it. Hence the same Apostle writes: But to us God has revealed it through His spirit. Hence, in this union the mind is joined to God, wherefore in a certain sense it sleeps, while in another it keeps vigil: I was sleeping, but my heart kept vigil. Only the affective power keeps vigil and imposes silence upon all the other powers; then man becomes foreign to his senses: he is in ecstasy and hears secret words that man may not repeat, because they are only in the heart. Hence, because nothing can be expressed unless it is conceived, or conceived unless it is understood, and [here] the intelligence does not speak: it follows that a man can hardly speak or explain anything. And that is a fact. And because this wisdom is attained only through grace, a wise writer attributes all hidden and unforeseeable things to the Holy Spirit and to the Word Himself, as having to be revealed by them. Hence he says: And all such things as are hid and not foreseen, I have learned: for Wisdom, which is the worker of all things, taught me. And he says the same as Paul. For in her is a spirit intelligent, holy, unique, manifold, subtle, etc. This spirit lifts up the soul and teaches unforeseen things. This is the finger of God which the Pharaoh's magician cannot touch, that is, our mind. Many wise men possess the first faces of wisdom, but only a few have this one.
30. Haec autem Contemplatio fit per gratiam, et tamen iuvat industria, scilicet ut separet se ab omni eo, quod Deus non est, et a se ipso, si possibile esset. Et haec est suprema Unitio per amorem. Et quod solum per amorem fiat, dicit Apostolus: In caritate, radicati et fundati, ut possitis comprehendere cum omnibus Sanctis, quae sit longitudo, latitudo, sublimitas et profundumIste amor transcendit omnem intellectum et scientiam. -- Sed si scientiam transcendit, quomodo videri potest sapientia ista? Propter hoc addit Apostolus: Ei autem, qui potens est omnia facere superabundanter, quam petimus, aut intelligimus =|57|=  etc.; quia non est cuiuslibet, nisi cui Deus revelat. Propter quod dicit Apostolus: Nobis autem revelavit Deus per Spiritum suum =|58|= . Unde cum mens in illa unione coniuncta est Deo, dormit quodam modo, et quodam modo vigilat: Ego dormio, et cor meum vigilat =|59|= . Sola affectiva vigilat et silentium omnibus aliis potentiis imponit; et tunc homo alienatus est a sensibus et in ecstasi positus et audit arcana verba, quae non licet homini loqui =|60|= , quia tantum sunt in affectu. Unde cum exprimi non possit nisi quod concipitur, nec concipitur nisi quod intelligitur, et intellectus silet; sequitur, quod quasi nihil possit loqui et explicare. -- Et ita est; et quia ad istam sapientiam non pervenitur nisi per gratiam, ideo auctor sapiens quaecumque sunt absconsa et improvisa sancto Spiritui et ipsi Verbo attribuit revelanda; et ideo dicit: Quaecumque sunt absconsa et improvisa didici; omnium enim artifex docuit me sapientia =|61|= . Et idem dicit, quod Paulus. Est enim in illa spiritus intelligentiae sanctus, unicus, multiplex, subtilis =|62|= , etc. Iste spiritus levat animam et docet improvisa. Et hic est digitus Dei =|63|= , ad quem magus Pharaonis non potest attingere, scilicet intellectus noster. -- De primis sapientes multi habent, de hac autem pauci.$ritus subvertens montes et conterens petras =|70|=  etc. Hunc ignem non est in postestate nostra habere; sed si Deus dat desuper, sacerdotis est nutrire et ligna subiicere =|71|=  per orationem.


31. Now such love divides, puts to sleep, and lifts up. It divides, since it cuts away from any other love because of the single love for the Spouse; it puts to sleep and appeases all the powers and imposes silence; it lifts up, since it leads to God. And so man is as dead, wherefore it is said: Love is strong as death, because it cuts away from all things. Man, then, must die of this love in order to be lifted up. Hence no man sees Me and still lives. Then, in this union, the power of the soul is recollected, and it becomes more unified, and enters in its intimate self, and consequently it rises up to its summit: for according to Augustine, the intimate self and the summit are the same. =|21|=  It is of this summit that the Canticle speaks: I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem,... that you stir not up nor awake my beloved, till she please.
$ Iste autem amor est sequestrativi, soporativus, sursumactivus. Sequestrat enim ab omni affectu alio propter sponsi affectum unicum; soporat et quietat omnes potentias et silentium imponit; sursum agit, quia ducit in Deum. Et sic est homo quasi mortuus; et ideo dicitur: Fortis ut mors dilectio =|64|=  > quia separat ab omnibus. Oportet enim, hominem mori per illum amorem, ut sursum agatur. Unde non videbit me homo et vivet =|65|= . Et tunc in tali unione virtus animae in unum colligitur et magis unita fit et intrat in suum intimum et per consequens in summum suum ascendit; quia idem intimum et summum, secundum Augustinum. De illo summo dicitur in Cantico: Adiuro vos, filiae Ierusalem, ne suscitetis neque evigilare faciatis dilectam, donec ipsa velit =|66|= .


34. This sleep signifies the death of Christ, the burial of Christ, the passage of the Red Sea, the entrance into the Promised Land. That the Holy Spirit once more prompted such a move may be seen in Moses, whom the fire led to the inner parts of the desert, where he received enlightenment. The inner parts are the form of wisdom; the enlightenment is mental ecstasy. 32. But in order to reach such a summit, it is good for us to be carried above every sense, every rational operation related to the imagination, even to dismiss the angelical intelligences, so that it may be said: The watchmen came upon me as they made their rounds of the city:... I had hardly left them when I found Him whom my heart loves. And this is what Dionysius teaches, to dismiss sensible and intellectual things, beings and non-beings—and by non- beings, he means temporal things because they are in a constant state of flux—thus to enter into the radiance of darkness. =|22|=  It is called darkness because it does not bear upon the intelligence, and yet the soul is supremely flooded with light. And because this cannot be had without prayer, Dionysius begins with prayer, saying: "Supersubstantial Trinity, super-divine and super-good." =|23|=  And understand that it is said, not in regard to God, but in regard to our intellect, for the Trinity is substance to a greater degree than our intelligence can perceive, and so is it God, and so also the other attributes. And later, "turning away the eyes of the mind," for the mind cannot see it with intellectual eyes, and so they must be turned away. Hence it is said in the Canticle: Turn away thy eyes from me, for they have made me flee away. For Christ goes away when the mind attempts to behold this wisdom through intellectual eyes; since it is not the intellect that can go in there, but the heart. Hence again in the Canticle: You have ravished my heart, my sister, my bride; you have ravished my heart with one glance of your eyes — for the heart reaches down into the depths of Christ — with one hair of thy neck — for the hair refers to the height of mental thoughts. And Dionysius continues: "As for you, then, my friend Timothy, concerning mystical visions, through strong action and contrition, give up ... intellectual operations," etc. And he affirms that this ascent comes about through the power and the strongest motion of the Holy Spirit, as it is said of Elias: A great and strong wind ... overthrowing the mountains, and breaking the rocks in pieces. It is not for us to have this fire within our power; but if God gives it from above, it is the priest's duty to nourish it and to throw wood on it by means of prayer.33. But this ascent comes about by affirmation and negation. =|24|=  By affirmation, by going from the summit to the depth; by negation, by going from the depth to the summit: and the latter mode is the best, for instance, He is not this, He is not that. In so doing I do not deprive God of what is His or within Him, but I attribute it in a higher and better manner than I am able to understand. Love is always preceded by negation (removal). Hence, Moses was first separated from the elders, then he went up the mountain, and finally entered the cloud. Another example: a sculptor never adds anything, on the contrary, he removes matter," leaving the noble and beautiful form in the stone. Likewise, the notion of God obtained through removal (negation) leaves in us the most noble disposition.
$ Iuvat autem nos ad veniendum ad illum somnum superferri omnibus sensibus, omnibus operationibus intellectualibus, quae sunt cum phantasmatibus annexis, dimittere etiam Angelicas Intelligentias, ut dicatur: Invenerunt me vigiles, qui custodiunt civitatem; paululum cum pertransissem eos, inveni quem diligit anima mea®. Et hoc docet Dionysius, dimittere sensibilia, intellectualia, entia, non entia; et vocat temporalia non entia, quia sunt in continua variatione; et sic intrare in tenebrarum radium. Dicitur tenebra, quia intellectus non capit; et tamen anima summe illustratur. Et quia hoc non habetur nisi per orationem, ideo Dionysius incipit ab oratione dicens: «Trinitas supersubstantialis, superdea, superbona»; et intellige quod hoc dicitur non respectu Dei, sed respectu intellectus nostri; quia magis est substantia, quam intellectus noster capiat, et magis Deus; et sic de aliis. Et post: «amoventes oculos mentis», quia mens oculis intellectualibus aspicere non potest, et ideo amovendi sunt. Et ideo dicitur in Cantico: Averte oculos tuos a me, ipsi me avolare fecerunt =|68|= . Tunc Christus recedit, quando mens oculis intellectualibus nititur illam sapientiam videre, quia ibi non intrat intellectus, sed affectus. Unde in Cantico: Vulnerasti cor meum, soror mea, sponsa; vulnerasti cor meum in uno oculorum tuorum =|69|= y quia affectus vadit usque ad profundum Christi; et in uno crine colli tui; crinis significat elevationem mentalium considerationum. -- Et post Dionysius: «Tu autem, amice Timothee, circa mysticas visiones, forti contritione et actione sensus derelinque et intellectuales operationes» etc. Et innuit, quod iste ascensus fit per vigorem et commotionem fortissimam Spiritus sancti; sicut dicitur de Elia: Ecce, spi-33. Iste autem ascensus fit per affirmationem et ablationem: per affirmationem, a summo usque ad infimum; per ablationem, ab infimo usque ad summum; et iste modus est conveniens magis, ut: non est hoc, non est aliud; nec privo ego a Deo quod suum est, vel in ipso est, sed attribuo meliori modo et altiori, quam ego intelligo. -- Ablationem sequitur amor semper. Unde Moyses primo a senioribus sequestratus secundo ascendit in montem, tertio intrat caliginem. Aliud exemplum: qui sculpit figuram nihil ponit, immo removet et in ipso lapide relinquit formam nobilem et pulcram. Sic notitia Divinitatis per ablationem relinquit in nobis nobilissimam dispositionem.34. Istud somnium significat mors Christi, sepultura Christi, transitus maris rubri, transitus in terram promissionis. -- Quod iterum Spiritus sanctus commoveat ad hoc, nota de Moyse, quem duxit ignis ad interiora deserti =|72|= , ubi accepit illustrationes. Ista ergo est sapientiae forma; isti sunt excessus mentales.


IV. Third Collation



300 On the Fullness of Understanding, Considered as the Key to Contemplation through the Understanding of the Uncreated, Incarnate and Inspired Word


1. IN THE midst of the Church the Lord shall open his mouth, and shall fill him with the spirit of wisdom and understanding. Whatever is said of wisdom, must be said of understanding of which it was explained in the Collations on the Gifts =|1|=  that it is the rule of moral definition, the door to learned thought, and the key to heavenly contemplation. And such understanding is indeed a gift. A beginning must be made from understanding in order to reach wisdom. With the bread of life and understanding, the Lord shall feed him: and give him the water of wholesome wisdom to drink. First there must be food, not drink. Unless man is trained in the gift of understanding, he cannot proceed to the drink of wisdom, which makes a river flow in the soul, a river which the soul itself drinks, that shall become in him a fountain of water, springing up unto life everlasting. The gift of understanding is solid food, like bread which, as Blessed Francis used to say, is obtained through much labor. First the seed is sown, then it grows, then the grain is collected, then brought to the mill, then baked. There are many such steps. And so it is with the gift of understanding: to prepare understanding is a difficult task in itself. Likewise, wisdom is not obtained except by the man who thirsts. Hence, the Psalm: My soul hath thirsted after the strong living God; and: As the hind longs for the running waters, so my soul longs for You, O God.
1. In medio Ecclesiae aperiet os eius, et adimplebit eum Dominus spiritu sapientiae et intellectus =|1|=  Dicto de sapientia, dicendum est de intellectu, de quo dicebatur in Collatione donorum, quod intellectus est regula circumspectionum moralium, ianua considerationum scientialium, clavis contemplationum caelestium. Et iste intellectus proprie est donum. -- Ab intellectu inchoandum est, et perveniendum ad sapientiam. Cibavit illum Dominus pane vitae et intellectus, et aqua sapientiae salutaris potavit illum =|2|= . A cibo incipiendum est, non a potu. Nisi enim homo exerceatur in dono intellectus, non proficit in potu sapientiae, quae effundit flumina in animam, potata ab ipsa, et fit ei fons aquae salientis in vitam aeternam =|3|= . Donum intellectus est solidus cibus, ut panis, qui, ut dicebat beatus Franciscus, multis laboribus habetur. Primo semen seminatur, deinde crescit, deinde colligitur, deinde ad molendinum portatur, deinde coquitur, et multa talia. Et sic de dono intellectus; intellectum comparare difficile est per se. Sapientia similiter non habetur nisi a sitiente; unde in Psalmo: Sitivit anima mea ad Deum fortem vivum =|4|= ; et: Quemadmodum desiderat cervus ad fontes aquarum, ita desiderat anima mea ad te Deus =|5|=


A. Keys: Understanding the Word



2. And so, the key to contemplation is a threefold understanding: of the Uncreated Word by whom all things are brought forth; of the Incarnate Word by whom all things are restored; and of the Inspired Word by whom all things are revealed. For no one can have understanding unless he considers where things come from, how they are led back to their end, and how God shines forth in them.
2. Clavis ergo contemplationis est intellectus triplex, scilicet intellectus Verbi increati, per quod omnia producuntur; intellectus Verbi incarnati, per quod omnia reparantur; intellectus Verbi inspirati, per quod omnia revelantur. Nisi enim quis possit considerare de rebus, qualiter originantur, qualiter in finem reducuntur, et qualiter in eis refulget Deus; intelligentiam habere non potest.


3. Concerning a text from the Epistle to the Romans: For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen—His everlasting power also and divinity— being understood through the things that are made: God's everlasting power and His divinity are understood through their effect, since God is the Cause of all things, and all things are made by this power of His. And this is contrary to the theory of the philosophers who deny that things endowed with many forms can proceed from one and the same Being, that temporal things can proceed from the Eternal, possible things from the most Actual, changing things from the most Stable, composite things from the most Simple, lowly things from the supremely High: since the effect reflects the cause, and the opposite is true in these cases. =|2|=
3. De primo ad Romanos: Invisibilia Dei a creatura mundi per ea quae facta sunt intellecta conspiciuntur, sempiterna quoque Virtus eius et Divinitas =|6|= . Sempiterna virtus et Divinitas per effectum intelliguntur, quia Deus est causa omnium, et per virtutem eius omnia sunt facta =|7|= ; quod est contra philosophos, qui negant, quod ab uno et eodem, semper manente eodem, sint multiformia, ab aeterno temporalia, ab actualissimo manent possibilia, a stabilissimo mutabilia, a simplicissimo$composita, a sublimissimo infima; cum effectus sit similis causae, et causa haec sit contraria in his conditionibus.


1. First Key & Door: Uncreated Word



4. The door to all this is the understanding of the Uncreated Word who is the root of the understanding of all things; hence a man who does not have this door cannot go in. But philosophers consider impossible some things that are supremely true, for the door is closed to them. How these matters are to be understood is explained in the Epistle to the Hebrews: By faith we understand that the world was fashioned by the Word of God; and thus things visible were made out of things invisible. For it is impossible for the supreme Spirit not to understand itself; and since the understanding is equated with the one who understands, He understands whatever is and whatever can be: hence also the reason of understanding is equated to understanding itself, for it is its likeness. Now this likeness is the Word because, according to Augustine and Anselm, =|3|=  the likeness of the mind returning upon itself, which is at the fine point of intelligence, is the word. If then this likeness is equal, it follows that it is God, and, having originated from God, it represents the Originating One and whatever the Father is able to do: hence it represents many things. Again, since it represents the Father's power, it represents a power that is absolutely one; but "the more a power is one, the more it is infinite." =|4|=  Hence this likeness properly represents infinite things; and therefore it is necessary that many things proceed from one. If, then, you understand the Word, you understand all understandable things. But the Jew cannot understand this. And yet Scriptures say: God said, "Let there be light." And again, God said, that is, He begot the Word in whom He disposed all things, and, disposing them, made them. Hence Augustine writes in his "Confessions": "Whatever You make, you make through your Word coeternal with You, nor do you make anything by any other mode than by expressing it; and yet You do not eternally make what You eternally express." =|5|=
4. Horum ostium est intellectus Verbi increati, qui est radix intelligentiae omnium; unde qui non habet hoc ostium, intrare non potest. Philosophi autem habent pro impossibili quae sunt summe vera, quia ostium est eis clausum. -- Quomodo autem haec intelligantur, dicitur ad Hebraeos: Fide intelligimus, aptata esse saecula Verbo Dei, ut ex invisibilibus visibilia fierent =|8|= . Summum autem spiritum impossibile est se non intelligere; et cum intellectum aequetur intelligenti, intelligit quidquid est et quidquid potest: ergo et ratio intelligendi aequatur intellectui, quae similitudo eius est. Haec autem similitudo Verbum est, quia, secundum Augustinum et Anselmum, similitudo mentis convertentis se super se, quae in acie mentis est, verbum est. Si ergo haec similitudo aequalis est, ergo Deus est, et a Deo originata repraesentat originantem et quidquid Pater potest: ergo repraesentat multa. -- Item, cum virtutem Patris repraesentat, repraesentat virtutem mitissimam; sed «virtus, quanto magis unita, tanto magis infinita»: ergo illa similitudo infinita repraesentare habet; et ita necesse est, ut ab uno sint multa. Si igitur intelligis Verbum, intelligis omnia scibilia. Iudaeus hoc intelligere non potest; et tamen Scriptura dicit: Dixit Deus: fiat lux =|9|= ; et iterum: Dixit Deus, hoc est Verbum genuit, in «quo omnia disposuit» et disponendo omnia facit. Unde Augustinus in libro Confessionum: «Verbo tuo tibi coaeterno facis quaecumque facis, nec alio modo quam dicendo facis, non tamen sempiterne facis quae sempiterne dicis».


5. Indeed, if oneness were able to know the sum total of its potencies, it would see and know all the numbers; and if the mathematical point were able to know the sum total of its potencies, it would know all the lines passing through the center. Oneness, however, is more of a principle than the mathematical point, for oneness is an essential part of number, while the point is a principle but not a part. =|6|=  And neither of these is an active principle. Hence, because the first intellect is an active principle, it is necessary that it dispose and express all things in the likeness of itself.
5. Si enim unitas posset cognoscere totum posse suum, videret et cognosceret omnes numeros; et si punctus cognosceret totum posse suum, cognosceret omnes lineas in centro; unitas tamen magis est principium quam punctus, quia unitas est pars essentialis numeri; punctus autem principium et non pars; nec aliquod istorum est principium activum. Igitur cum primus intellectus sit principium activum; necesse est, ut in similitudine sua omnia disponat, omnia exprimat.


a. Word Creates a Soul, is Not Changed, But in Eternity He is Saying It is to Be Created Now



6. Again, all temporal things proceed from an Eternal Being. For whatever proceeds from the Father does so in order, the one is the cause of the other, in nature and in time: therefore the Word so represents things that they are made to be. For as in my foresight or memory! there may be many future things, some more remote than others, and yet it does not follow that there is any change in me when these things occur: likewise there is no change in the Word. For when He creates a soul, He is not changed: in eternity He is saying that this soul is to be created now. By the very word He speaks in eternity, He creates now. If my will and my power coincided and I wanted a thing to occur only tomorrow, when it did occur, there would be no change in me; but there would be a change were I to pass from not wanting it to wanting it. =|7|=
6. Item, ab aeterno sunt omnia temporalia. Quae enim a Patre procedunt ordinate procedunt, et unum est causa alterius, ordine naturae et ordine temporis; ergo Verbum sic repraesentat res, ut in esse producuntur. Sicut enim in providentia mea vel memoria possunt esse$multa futura, et unum futurum magis distans quam aliud; nec propter hoc sequitur, quod cum eveniunt, sit mutatio in memoria mea; sic in Verbo non est mutatio. Cum enim creat animam hanc, non mutatur, quia ab aeterno dixit, animam hanc nunc creandam. Unde eodem dicto, quo ab aeterno dixit, nunc creat; sicut, si velle meum esset posse meum; si vellem modo, cras fieri rem, non esset mutatio in me, si fieret; sed esset, si de non volente fierem volens.


7. Once more, possible or material things are made by the most Actual. For the Father is understood to be the Principle producing from itself, the Principle producing from nothing, and the Principle producing from something material. And the Word expresses the Father as Principle producing from itself, and so He explains and represents the production of the Holy Spirit and His own, that is, the production of eternal things. He also expresses the Father as the Principle producing from nothing, and so He represents the production of aeviternal things, such as the angels and souls. He finally represents the Father as producing something out of something else, as is the case with material objects. But whatever comes from something else exists first in potency before it comes to being: hence the Word necessarily represents possible things. And so, possible things come about through the most actual, by necessity.
7. Item, ab actualissimo fiunt possibilia sive materialia. Pater enim intelligitur principium principians de se, principium principians de nihilo, principium principians de aliquo materiali. Et Verbum exprimit Patrem ut principium principians de se, et sic est explicans et repraesentans productionem Spiritus sancti et suam sive aeternorum. -- Exprimit etiam Patrem ut principiantem aliquid de nihilo, et sic repraesentat productionem aeviternorum, ut Angelorum et animarum. -- Repraesentat etiam ut principiantem aliquid de aliquo materiali; sed quod fit de aliquo prius est in potentia, quam fiat; necesse ergo est, ut repraesentet possibilia. Necessario ergo ab actualissimo fiunt possibilia.


b. Word is Truth



8. Furthermore, the Likeness or Word is Truth. What is truth by definition? "An adequation of the intellect with the object understood." =|8|=  I am speaking of that intellect which is the cause of the object, and not of my own intellect which is not its cause. This adequation is true when the object has quantity, quality, order, action, passion, time, place, and habit, according to the differences of the categories. For things are true when they exist either in fact or as universals, as they exist in Eternal Art or are expressed in it. A thing, then, is true in so far as it is adequated to the causing intellect. But because it is not perfectly adequated to the reason that expresses or represents it, every creature is a lie, as Augustine says. =|9|=  For the adequated thing is not its own adequation: hence it is necessary that the Word or Likeness or Reason be the Truth. And the truth of the creature consists in that, and both the highest and the lowest things are represented by the Word. And although an angel, in so far as he is a likeness of God and possesses nobler attributes, partakes in the Word in a larger measure than a worm, yet in the order of exemplarity, the principle "angel" is not nobler than the principle "worm": hence the principle "worm" expresses or represents the worm in the same way as the principle "angel" expresses and represents the angel, nor is there in this regard any superiority of the angel over the worm. For any creature is a mere shadow in regard to the Creator.
8. Et haec similitudo sive Verbum est veritas. Quid est veritas secundum definitionem? «Adaequatio intellectus et rei intellectae», illius intellectus, dico, qui est causa rei, non intellectus mei, quia non sum causa rei. -- Haec adaequatio vera est, quando res est tanta, talis, ordinem habens, agens, patiens, tunc, ubi, cum situm habet, secundum differentias praedicamentorum. Tunc enim res sunt verae, quando sunt in re vel in universo, sicut sunt in arte aeterna, vel sicut ibi exprimuntur. Res autem vera est, secundum quod adaequatur intellectui causanti. Quia vero perfecte non adaequatur rationi, quae exprimit eam vel repraesentat; ideo omnis creatura mendacium est, secundum Augustinum. Res autem adaequata non est sua adaequatio: ergo necessario est, ut Verbum vel similitudo vel ratio sit veritas; et ibi est veritas creaturae, et repraesentantur per Verbum ita infima, sicut suprema. Unde licet Angelus magis participet cum Verbo in conditionibus nobilibus, puta quoad imaginem Dei, quam vermiculus; in ratione tamen exemplaritatis non est nobilior ratio Angeli quam vermiculi; ita ratio vermiculi exprimit vel repraesentat vermiculum, ut ratio Angeli Angelum, nec secundum hoc nobilior Angelus vermiculo. Quaelibet autem creatura umbra est respectu Creatoris.


9. And so it is clear that possible things come forth from the most actual, changing things from the most stable, and the lowest things from the most sublime. And as the sun by shining brings forth a variety and number of colors, so out of this Word there comes forth a variety of things. Hence there is no understanding except through the Word. And this is the most noble key of the soul cleansed by faith, and it is needed because "the low sensitivity of our mind is not touched in such outstanding light, except when it is cleansed by the justifying power of faith." =|10|=  Hence all those who lack this faith have their hand cut off. Wherefore the Psalm says: He spoke, and they were made: He commanded, and they were created, etc.
9. Et sic patet, quod ab actualissimo sunt possibilia, a stabilissimo mutabilia, et a sublimissimo infima. Et sicut sol lucens facit varietatem et multiformitatem colorum, sic ab illo Verbo est varietas rerum. Unde non contingit intelligere nisi per Verbum. -- Et haec est clavis nobilissima animae purgatae per fidem, quae est necessaria, quia «mentis nostrae acies invalida in tam excellenti luce non figitur, nisi per iustitiam fidei emundetur». Unde omnes, qui non habent hanc fidem, manum habent amputatam. Unde in Psalmo: Quia ipse dixit, et facta sunt; ipse mandavit, et creata sunt =|10|= , etc.


2. Second Key: Incarnate Word



10. The second key is the understanding of the Incarnate Word, through whom all things are restored. Hence in the last chapter of Luke: "These are the words which I spoke to you while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled that are written in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms concerning Me." Then He opened their minds, that they might understand the Scriptures. Who is speaking? The Word of God, of whom John writes in his first chapter: The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, where He displayed two natures within a single Person. It follows that all things must be fulfilled that are written ... concerning Me. Hence, in the Epistle to the Romans: Christ is the consummation of the Law unto justice for everyone who believes.
10. Secunda clavis est intellectus Verbi incarnati, per quod omnia reparantur. Unde Lucae ultimo: Haec sunt verba quae locutus sum vobis, cum adhuc essem vobiscum; quoniam oportet impleri quae scripta sunt in Lege et Prophetis et Psalmis de me. Tunc aperuit illis sensum, ut intelligerent Scripturas =|11|= . Quis loquitur? Verbum Dei, de quo Ioannis primo: Verbum caro factum est et habitavit in nobis =|12|= , ubi ostendit duas naturas in una persona. Sequitur: Oportet Scripturas impleri de me =|10|= ; unde ad Romanos: Finis Legis est Christus ad iustitiam omni credenti =|14|= .


11. As a sign of Him, there are the two Cherubim =|11|= ... turned toward each other, but with their faces looking toward the propitiatory. The two Cherubim are the two Testaments whose gaze is directed upon Christ. Then He opened their minds, when they understood the Scriptures, meaning that the book of Scriptures is understood precisely through that key, the Incarnate Word, the one eminently concerned with the works of restoration. For unless you understand the order and origin of restoration, you cannot understand Scriptures. Now, in the Apocalypse the name of the Restorer is the Word of God: And He is clothed in a garment sprinkled with blood, and His name is called the Word of God. Supposing I wanted to know how the Word of God can be the Restorer: Isaiah speaks of it: A child is bom to us, a son is given us; upon His shoulder dominion rests. They name Him Wonder-Counselor, God-Hero, Father-Forever, Prince of Peace.
11. In designationem huius duo Cherubim, versis vultibus in propitiatorium, mutuo se respiciebant =|15|= . Duo Cherubim duo testamenta sunt, quorum aspectus in Christum. Tunc aperuit illis sensum =|16|= , quando intellexerunt Scripturas, id est, per hanc clavem Verbi incarnati liber Scripturae habet intelligi, eo quod est principaliter de operibus reparationis. Nisi enim intelligas ordinem et originem reparationis, Scripturam intelligere non potes. Nomen autem reparatoris est Verbum Dei; in Apocalypsi: Vestitus erat veste aspersa sanguine, et vocabatur nomen eius Verbum Dei =|11|= . -- Sed vellem scire, quomodo Verbum Dei ut Reparator sit. De hoc Isaias: Parvulus natus est nobis, et filius datus est nobis, cuius imperium super humerum eius, et vocabitur nomen eius: admirabilis, consiliarius, Deus, fortis, pater futuri saeculi, princeps pacis =|18|= .


12. He it is who restored the hierarchy of heaven, and that below heaven which had totally fallen. Hence He must needs have touched both heaven and earth. This Hierarch had to be preeminent, endowed with awareness, acceptable to God, victorious, most generous, and just.
12. Iste reparavit hierarchiam caelestem et subcaelestem, quae tota corruerat. Ergo necesse fuit, ut tangeret caelum et terram. Iste hierarcha debuit esse praecelsus, sensatus, Deo acceptus, victoriosus, largifluus, iustus.


a. Preeminent



13. First, then, the only being able to save would have to be preeminent in power. Hence, in the Epistle to the Hebrews: God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spoke in times past to the fathers by the prophets, last of all in these days has spoken to us by His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, by whom also He made the world; who, being the brightness of His glory and the image of His substance, and upholding all things by the Word of His power, has effected man's purgation from sin and taken His seat at the right hand of the Majesty on high, having become so much superior to the angels as He has inherited a more excellent name than they. From Him, indeed, miracles come forth, and hence it was necessary that He show the miracle of miracles in His own Person, that is, the plurality of natures: for He possesses corporeal, spiritual, and divine natures—the temporal, the aeviternal, and the eternal. Hence again it belongs to Him to bind the lowest with the highest. Sirach says: Behold the rainbow! Then bless its Maker. The rainbow has several natures and colors. As the sun goes down according to the ten divisions of the clock of Achaz, so does the Incarnate Word through the nine choirs of angels down to man, who is counted tenth. This is the greatest miracle, that God be man, that the first be the last; wherefore all miracles are related to this one; and all cry out: "Hosanna to the Son of David!" In this miracle, faith receives its strength. Hence Moses, after he had led the flock across the desert, saw a bush which, though on fire, was not consumed. "I must go over," he said, "to look at this remarkable sight, and see why the bush is not burned." And there he was enlightened. The spiny bush is the flesh liable to suffering; the flame is the soul of Christ full of light and of the fire of love; the light itself is the Godhead; the light joined to the bush by means of the flame is the Godhead joined to flesh by means of the spirit or soul. And so, in order that He be able to quicken the dead and to make sons of God =|12|=  out of mere men, He had to be preeminent, and that is what the word Wonder means.
13. Debuit primo esse praecelsus potentia, qui solus posset salvare. Unde ad Hebraeos: Multifariam multisque modis olim Deus loquens patribus in Prophetis, novissime diebus istis locutus est nobis in Filio, quem constituit heredem universorum, per quem fecit et saecula;$usque: Tanto melior Angelis effectus, quanto differentius prae illis nomen hereditavit =|19|= . -- Ab ipso enim procedunt miracula; et ideo necesse fuit, in ipso ostendi miraculum miraculorum, scilicet multiformitatem naturarum. Habet enim naturam corpoream, naturam spiritualem, naturam divinam; naturam temporalem, aeviternam, aeternam. Unde habet ligare infima supremis. In Ecclesiastico: Vide arcum et benedic qui fecit illum*. Arcus multiformitatem naturarum et colorum habet. Sicut enim sol descendit per decem gradus in horologio Achaz, sic Verbum incarnatum per novem ordines Angelorum usque ad hominem, qui decimus computatur. Hoc est maximum miraculum, ut quod Deus sit homo, primus sit novissimus; et ideo omnia miracula ad hoc miraculum respiciunt; unde omnia clamant: Hosanna Filio David =|21|= . -- In hoc miraculo fides accipit vires suas. Unde Moyses, postquam minavit gregem ad interiora deserti, vidit rubum qui ardebat et non comburebatur; vadam, inquit, et videbo visionem hanc magnam =|22|=  etc.; ubi fuit illustratus. Rubus spinosa est passibilitas carnis; flamma, anima Christi plena luminibus et igne caritatis; lux, Divinitas; lux coniuncta rubo mediante flamma, Divinitas coniuncta carni mediante spiritu seu anima. Ut ergo possit de mortuis facere vivos, de hominibus filios Dei =|23|= ; necesse est, ut sit praecisus; et hoc est quod dicit admirabilis.


b. Awareness



14. Next, it was necessary that our Hierarch be endowed with awareness, in regard to the threefold wisdom within Him: the innate, that is, the wisdom of angels and of the first man, the infused, and the eternal. Through the first, He knows all things which we are able to know by means of the proper disposition; through the second, He comprehends gloriously and infinitely, because to His wisdom there is no limit; =|13|=  through the third, He comprehends all things. For the One who was to restore the whole universe had to know the conditions of the whole universe. Hence, in the fourth chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews: The Word of God is living and efficient. And later: All things are naked and open to the eyes of Him to whom we have to give account. Hence, it was necessary not only that He be powerful, but also that He be aware.
14. Item, necesse est, ut hierarcha noster sit sensatus iuxta triplicem sapientiam in eo, innatam scilicet, sicut fuit Angelis et primo homini, infusam, aeternam. Per primam scit omnia, quae nos possumus per habitum scire; per secundam comprehendit gloriose et infinite, quia sapientiae eius non est numerus =|2|= *\ per tertiam omnia. Qui enim reparare debuit totum mundum, necesse erat, ut sciret conditiones totius mundi; unde ad Hebraeos quarto: Vivus est sermo Dei et efficax; sequitur: Omnia nuda et aperta sunt oculis eius, ad quem nobis sermo =|25|= . Unde oportebat, non solum quod esset potens, sed etiam quod esset sensatus.


15. But if you ask, "What need was there for Him to have wisdom besides the divine?" I will answer: in order that He might have experience. As it is written in the Epistle to the Hebrews, we have not a High Priest that cannot have compassion on our infirmities, but one tried as we are in all things except sin. For He stands both as our Advocate and our Judge; and He it is who was the best Counselor and the most wise: hence all other sages were nothing but figures and imitations of this Wise One. From Him come forth documents of the greatest certainty and celebrity by which we need to be taught; and that is why He is called Counselor.
15. Sed si dicas: quae necessitas fuit, ut haberet sapientiam aliam praeter divinam? respondeo: ut experiri posset; ad Hebraeos: Non habemus Pontificem, qui non possit compati infirmitatibus nostris; tentatum autem per omnia pro similitudine, absque peccato =|26|= . Iste autem advocatus =|27|=  est pro nobis, et iudicat contra nos. Iste fuit optimus consiliarius et sapientissimus; unde omnes alii sapientes non fuerunt nisi quaedam figurae et simulacra istius sapientis. -- Ab isto procedunt documenta certissima et praeclara, quibus indigemus erudiri; ideo dicitur consiliarius.


16. To Him are referred all the eloquent sayings of Scriptural wisdom, as for instance those of Solomon and others. And yet the Jews understand as applying to Solomon what is said of Christ in the Psalm: Fairer in beauty are you than the sons of men; grace is poured out upon your lips. Solomon was not like that. And again, May his name be blessed forever.
16. Ad hunc referuntur omnia eloquia sapientiae Scripturae, ut Salomonis et aliorum. Tamen Iudaei accipiunt de Salomone quod de Christo dicitur in Psalmo: Speciosus forma prae filiis hominum, diffusa est gratia in labiis tuis =|26|= ; non fuit Salomon talis; et: Sit nomen eius benedictum in saecula =|29|= .


c. Acceptable



17. Again, this Hierarch is acceptable to god, for we need a most sacred Reconciler. Hence the Epistle to the Hebrews: It was fitting that we should have such a High Priest, holy, innocent, undefiled, set apart from sinners, and become higher than the heavens, in order that He be entirely in the form of God. And so John writes: We saw His glory—glory as of the only-begotten of the Father— full of grace and of truth, because of the great number of graces. =|14|=  He enjoyed, indeed, the grace of an individual Person, the grace of the Head by which He influenced the members, and the grace of union which is infinite and flowing from a single source. For this reason He was acceptable to God, not only because in the form of God, but as God. Because He is God, He cannot be unacceptable. Hence He is called God, and the holiest examples come from Him. Hence, wherever in the Scriptures there is a reference to emanations, to the rivers of paradise, to gushing fountains, they apply to Him.
17. Item, Hierarcha iste est Deo acceptus; quia indigemus sacratissimo reconciliatore. Ad Hebraeos: Talis decebat, ut esset nobis pontifex, sanctus, innocens, impollutus, segregatus a peccatoribus et excelsior caelis factus =|30|= , ut esset totus deiformis; unde in Ioanne: Vidimus gloriam eius, gloriam quasi unigeniti a Patre, plenum gratiae et veritatis =|31|= , propter multitudinem gratiarum. Habuit enim gratiam singularis personae, gratiam capitis, per quam influit in membra, gratiam unionis, et haec est infinita ex una parte. Unde Deo fuit acceptus non solum, quia deiformis, sed quia Deus. Quia Deus est, non potest esse non acceptus. Et ideo dicitur Deus; et sic ab ipso sunt exempla sanctissima. -- Unde ubicumque in Scripturis =|32|=  fit mentio de emanationibus, de fluminibus paradisi, de scaturigines fontium, ad hunc referuntur.


d. Victorious



18. Once more, the Hierarch must be totally victorious by the number of His triumphs and victories. Hence, in the Epistle to the Colossians: And you, when you were dead by reason of your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh; and later: Disarming the Principalities and Powers, He displayed them openly, leading them away in triumph by force of it. Indeed, He overcame the world, despoiled Hades, and restored Paradise. Hence in the Psalm: Lift up, O gates, your lintels; reach up, you ancient portals, that the King of Glory may come in! Who is this King of glory? The Lord, strong and mighty. We want to hear this: Lift up, O gates, your lintels!. . . Who is this King of Glory? The Lord, strong and mighty! He, then, is the Strong One. That is why at the name of Jesus every knee should bend of those in heaven, on earth and under the earth. Isaiah asks: Who is this that comes from Edom, in crimson garments, from Bosra?. . . "It is I who announce vindication, 1 who am mighty to save." For that reason, He is called Strong, and from Him come strong defenses. Hence, mountains are round about Him. And so all the wars of Scripture refer to the victory of Christ.
18. Item oportet, quod hierarcha sit victoriosissimus propter multitudinem triumphi et victoriae. Unde ad Colossenses: Et vos cum mortui essetis in delictis et praeputio carnis vestrae =|33|=  ; et sequitur: Exspolians principatus et potestates, traduxit confidenter, palam triumphans illos in semetipso =|34|= . Vicit enim mundum, spoliavit infernum, restauravit paradisum. Unde in Psalmo: Attolite portas principes vestras, et elevamini portae aeternales, et introibit Rex gloriae. Quis est iste Rex gloriae? Dominus fortis et potens. Adhuc volumus audire: Attollite portas principes vestras. Quis est iste Rex gloriae? Dominus virtutum =|35|= . Iste est ergo fortis. Unde necesse est, ut in nomine Iesu omne genu flectatur caelestium, terrestrium et infernorum =|36|= . Isaias: Quis est iste, qui venit de Edom tinctis vestibus de Bosra? Ego qui loquor iustitiam et propugnator sum ad salvandum =|37|= . -- Et ideo dicitur fortis. Ab hoc manant fortia praesidia. Unde montes in circuitu eius =|38|= . Unde omnia bella Scripturae referuntur ad victoriam Christi.


e. Generous



19. Again, our Hierarch must be most generous in the amount of what He gives out. As written in the Epistle to the Ephesians, to each one of us grace was given according to the measure of Christ's bestowal Thus it says, "Ascending on high, He led away captives; He gave gifts to men." As indeed a cloud rises aloft in order that it may rain down, so does Christ ascend in order that He may grant His gifts. The sun has been lifted up, and the moon remained in its shelter. For at first He had given the Holy Spirit to the world in a secret way, but He did it manifestly after He had ascended on high, for this Holy Spirit was the cleansing, enlightening, and perfecting Hierarch, and the Holy Spirit came down into the heavenly and sub-heavenly hierarchies. And so, suddenly there came a sound from heaven, as of a violent wind. The Holy Spirit came down as a means of cleansing: hence, the violent wind; as a means of instruction, hence there appeared to them parted tongues as of fire; as a means of perfection, hence the tongues of fire settled upon each of them. From Him come forth the free gifts of grace. Whatever is said in the Bible of the sun shedding light, or of other diffusions, or of banquets, is said of His bounty. Hence, in the Psalm: The household shall divide the spoils. And in Isaiah: They rejoice before You... as men make merry when dividing spoils. These are the gifts of Christ's lavishness. Hence He is called the Father of the age to come, for He Himself is the Principle of those influences by which we will live in the future. As James writes: Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of Lights. And later: Of His own will He has begotten us by the word of truth, that we might be, as it were, the first-fruits of His creatures. We are now the beginning of creatures, but then we shall be creatures in full.
19. Item oportet, quod hierarcha noster sit largiflue propter magnitudinem influentiae. Ad Ephesios: Unicuique nostrum data est gratia secundum mensuram donationis Christi. Propter quod dicit: Ascendens in altum captivam duxit captivitatem, dedit dona hominibus =|}9|= . Sicut enim nubes ascendit in altum, ut postmodum pluat; sic ascendit Christus, ut dona sua daret; cum elevatus est sol; et luna stetit in ordine suo =|40|= . Primo enim Spiritum sanctum in terra occulte dederat, sed postquam ascendit, tunc manifeste, quia ipse Spiritus sanctus fuit hierarcha purgans, illuminans, perficiens, et descendit Spiritus sanctus in hierarchiam$caelestem et subcaelestem. Unde factus est repente de caelo sonus tanquam advenientis Spiritus =|41|= , Descendit Spiritus sanctus ut purgans; unde dicitur advenientis Spiritus; ut instruens: apparuerunt illis linguae dispertitae tanquam ignis; in virtute perficiente: seditque super singulos eorum =|42|= . Ab hoc manant dona gratuita. -- Quidquid ergo in Scriptura invenitur diffusionis in sole et aliis et conviviis referuntur ad largitionem eius. Unde in Psalmo: Speciei domus dividere spolia =|40|= ; et in Isaia: Laetabuntur coram te, sicut exsultant victores, capta praeda, quando dividunt spolia =|44|= . Haec sunt dona largitatis Christi. -- Unde dicitur pater futuri saeculi; quia ipse est principium influentiam!!!, per quas vivemus in futuro saeculo; Iacobus: Omne datum optimum et omne donum perfectum desursum est, descendens a Patre luminum. Sequitur: Voluntarie genuit nos verbo veritatis, ut simus initium aliquod creaturae eius =|45|= . Modo sumus initium creaturae, sed tunc erimus simpliciter creatura.


20. This [our Hierarch] is the most generous because He gives us whatever we ask. Amen, amen, I say to you, if you ask the Father anything in My name, etc. He swears to it and asserts it with complete truthfulness. Hence in the Psalm: You open Your hand and satisfy the desire of every living thing. And again: Man and beast You save, O Lord. — They shall be inebriated with the plenty of Thy house.
20. Iste est largissimus, quia dat nobis quidquid petimus: Amen, amen dico vobis: si quid petieritis Patrem in nomine meo =|46|=  etc. Iurat et in veritate asserit. Unde in Psalmis: Aperis tu manum tuam et imples omne animal benedictione =|47|= ; et: Homines et iumenta salvabis, Domine. Inebriabuntur ab ubertate domus tuae =|4|= *.


f. Just



21. Finally, He [our Hierarch] must be supremely just, because of the manifold character of a justice making infallible inquiries, irreproachable distinctions, and irrevocable judgments, handing out retribution to each one according to his deeds. Isaiah writes: A shoot shall sprout from the stump of Jesse.—Justice shall be the band around his waist.—-Not by appearance shall He judge nor by hearsay shall He decide. Such, then, is God: for if He were mere man, He could not judge otherwise than through witnesses. All the judgments of Scriptures refer to this one judgment; hence, He [our Hierarch] is called the Prince of Peace. Wherefore just rewards come forth from Him. He, then, has the key of David, He who opens and no one shuts. And such a key is the mystery of union.
21. Item, debet esse summe iustus propter multitudinem iustitiae infallibiliter inquirentis, irreprehensibiliter discutientis, irrevocabiliter sententiantis, ut retribuat unicuique secundum opera sua. Isaias: Egredietur de radice Iesse =|49|= , et erit iustitia cingulum lumborum eius =|50|=  ; non secundum visionem oculorum iudicabit neque secundum auditum aurium arguet =|51|= . Ergo talis est Deus, quia, si esset purus homo, non posset iudicare nisi per testes. -- Ad istud iudicium referuntur omnia iudicia Scripturae; et ideo dicitur princeps pacis. Unde ab eo manant praemia iusta. -- Iste ergo David habet clavem, qui aperit, et nemo claudit; claudit, et nemo aperit =|52|= . Et clavis ista est mysterium unionis.


3. Third Key: Inspired Word - Vision



22. The third key is the understanding of the Inspired Word by whom all things are revealed; for there is no revelation except through this Inspired Word. Daniel understood the words: understanding is needed in the case of a vision. For unless the word resound in the ear of the heart, the splendor shine in the eye, the vapor and emanation of the Almighty be perceived as smell and His sweetness as taste, and unless eternity fill the soul, man is not fit to understand visions. God gave. . . to Daniel the understanding of all visions and dreams. By what means? Through the Inspired Word.
22. Tertia clavis est intellectus Verbi inspirati, per quod omnia revelantur; non enim fit revelatio nisi per Verbum inspiratum. Daniel intellexit sermonem. Intelligentia enim opus est in visione. Nisi enim verbum sonet in aure cordis, splendor luceat in oculo, vapor et emanatio =|53|=  omnipotentis sit in olfacto, suavitas in gustu, sempiternitas impleat animam; non est homo aptus ad intelligendas visiones. Sed Danieli dedit Deus intelligentiam omnium visionum et somniorum =|54|= . Per quid? Per Verbum inspiratum.


23. Generally speaking, there are three kinds of vision: the bodily, the imaginary, and the intellectual. =|15|=  The first two are worthless without the third. Hence, in the vision of the hand, mere bodily sight was of little use to Belsassar, likewise, to Nabuchodonosor in the imaginary vision of the golden statue, and to Pharaoh in the vision of the cows and the ears of grain: but these visions were meaningful both to Daniel and to Joseph. Joseph corresponds to John and Daniel to Paul.
23. Visio autem est triplex, ut communiter dicitur: corporalis, imaginaria, intellectualis. Duae primae nihil valent sine tertia. Unde parum valuit Balthasar! visio corporalis in visione manus, et Nabuchodonosor visio imaginaria statuae aureae, et Pharaoni visio in spicis et bobus, sed Danieli et Ioseph. Ioseph respondet Ioanni, Daniel Paulo.


24. Besides these visions, there is one that is sixfold and corresponds to the works of the six days: through these, the lesser world is made perfect, as was the greater one, in six days. =|16|=  There is a vision through that understanding which is given by nature, and a vision through that understanding which is lifted up by faith, taught by Scripture, exalted by contemplation, enlightened by prophecy, absorbed by rapture in God. And after these, there is a seventh vision of the glorified soul: and Paul had all of them. The first two belong to many, the next two to a few, the last two to an extremely small number.  
24. Praeter has est visio sextuplex, quae respondet operibus sex dierum; quibus minor mundus fit perfectus, sicut maior mundus sex diebus. Est visio intelligentiae per naturam inditae, et visio intelligentiae per fidem sublevatae, per Scripturam eruditae, per contemplationem suspensae, per prophetiam illustratae, per raptum in Deum absorptae. Ad has sequitur visio septima animae glorificatae, quas omnes habuit Paulus. -- Primae duae sunt multorum, duae aliae paucorum, hae ultimae duae paucissimorum.


25. Through the first, we understand that to which our intelligence reaches by its own power. This corresponds to the first day on which light was made. Hence in the Psalm: The light of thy countenance, O Lord, is signed upon us. Without this light which is given within, a man has nothing, neither faith nor grace nor the illumination of wisdom. For this reason also light was separated from darkness.
25. Per primam intelligitur, ad quid potest extendi nostra intelligentia de se. Haec intelligitur per primam diem, in qua facta est lux =|55|= ; unde in Psalmo: Signatum est super nos lumen vultus tui, Domine Sine isto lumine indito, nihil habet homo, nec fidem nec gratiam nec lumen sapientiae; et ideo divisa est etiam lux a tenebris =|57|= .


26. The second is understood of the second day, when a firmament was made in the midst, and this firmament is faith which divides the waters. Faith is the origin of wisdom and the origin of knowledge, whether of eternal or of temporal things, in so far as neither knowledge nor wisdom disagrees with faith. =|17|=
26. Secunda intelligitur per secundam diem, ubi factum est firmamentum in medio =|58|= . Hoc firmamentum est fides et dividit aquas ab aquis. Fides est origo sapientiae et origo scientiae, sive sit de aeternis, sive de temporalibus, sive scientia, sive sapientia non discordant a fide.


27. The third is understood of the third day, when the waters were gathered together and dry land appeared. The land is Scriptures which have spiritual meanings and refer to angelical and divine hierarchies which have often been marvelously described by the saints: and from these Scriptures spring forth vegetation and the tree of life. But let everyone beware of the tree of inquisitive knowledge.
27. Tertia intelligitur per tertiam diem, ubi congregatae sunt aquae, et apparuit arida =|59|= . Terra est Scriptura habens intelligentias spirituales, hierarchias Angelicas et divinas, quae mirabiliter expositae a Sanctis pullulant; et in his producitur herba virens =|60|=  et ligna paradisi =|61|= . Caveat tamen quisque a ligno curiositatis scientiae.


28. The fourth is understood of the fourth day, when it was said, "Let there be lights," that is, the sun, moon and stars. A man who does not have contemplation cannot yet enjoy the adornment of sun, moon and stars. For there is need of the apparition of a woman clothed with the sun, and (having) the moon. . . under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars. And so, contemplation of the super-heavenly hierarchy is represented by the sun, contemplation of the sub-heavenly hierarchy, by the moon, and contemplation of the heavenly hierarchy, by the stars. Then you shall be radiant at what you see, your heart shall throb and overflow: in contemplation, there is admiration, expansion, a transference and restoration of one's self. Hence, after gazing on God, they could still eat and drink.
28. Quarta intelligitur in opere quartae diei, ubi dicitur: Fiant luminaria =|62|= , scilicet sol et luna et stellae. Qui non habet contemplationem adhuc non habet ornamentum solis et lunae et stellarum. Apparere autem debet mulier amicta sole, et luna sub pedibus eius, et in capite eius corona duodecim stellarum =|63|= , ut sit Contemplatio supercaelestis hierarchiae in sole, subcaelestis in luna, caelestis in stellis. Tunc videbis et afflues, et mirabitur et dilatabitur cor tuum =|64|= , quia in contemplatione admiratio, dilatatio, alienatio, refectio; unde: Comederunt et viderunt Deum Israel =|65|= .


29. The fifth vision, which comes about through understanding enlightened by prophecy, is still higher than the preceding ones, in that contingent things are seen infallibly, which comes about through a certain kind of sight looking into the Eternal Mirror. The contingent is changing and varied: if then a prophet sees with infallibility and certainty, everything he sees must be considered within infallible Truth. Hence it is difficult to make definite judgments about this; but the problem may be solved in the same way as that of God's foreknowledge: a prophet sees an event as future, and hence it will occur; God [simply] sees an event: hence it will occur, for God's vision is not a thing of the past, but indicates divine awareness as existing in the present with a connotation of time —and this connotation is contingent, that is, it is merely an incidental note. This vision is understood to refer to the fifth day when the fishes of the waters were made together with the birds, for the soul is carried up to God on the breeze by means of pinions and a great number of feathers.
29. Quinta est per prophetiam illustratae intelligentiae, adhuc altior praemissis, ut videat contingentia infallibiliter, quod fit quodam visionis modo speciali in speculo aeterno. Certum est enim, quod cum contingens sit mutabile et variabile, quodsi Propheta videt infallibiliter et certitudinaliter, quod non videt nisi in veritate infallibili. -- Unde difficile est determinare de istis; et per idem solvitur, sicut de praescientia Dei: hoc videt Propheta futurum: ergo eveniet; hoc videt Deus: ergo eveniet; quia visio Dei non cadit in praeteritum, sed praesentiam divinae visionis cum connotato temporali dicit, quod quidem connotatum contingens est vel connotatur. -- Haec intelligitur in opere quintae diei, in qua facti sunt pisces de aquis et aves =|66|= . Per pennas enim et multitudinem plumarum et spiritus fertur anima in Deum.


30. The sixth vision is that of understanding absorbed by rapture in God. Hence, the Epistle to the Corinthians: I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago — whether in the body ...or out of the body I do not know, God knows— such a one was caught up in this way. This lifting up makes the soul as similar to God as is possible in the state of pilgrimage, Ecstasy and rapture are not the same, wherefore it is said that they do not have merely a disposition toward glory, but the very act. And as the one vision consists in the common boundary between the way and the fatherland, so the other consists in the common boundary between union and separation from the body. Hence the Apostle writes: Whether in the body or out of the body 1 do not know. Why, then, would a man presume to determine what Paul himself did not know? To this vision corresponds the work of the sixth day: God said, "Let us make mankind in Our image and likeness," for it is of such great worth that it must have dominion over the fish of the sea, the birds of the air,... and every creature that crawls on earth. The higher a man is lifted up, the humbler he is, as is the case with Paul, who lowered himself through humility when it came to determining the nature of the union. Hence in Job: Does the eagle fly up at your command to pass the night at his lofty nest? And later: Where the slain are, there is he. First, he speaks wonders of the eagle, and then humble things; and so it is with rapture. For the man ravished to the greatest height is also the most humble. And it must be so, for had he been proud, he could have lost grace and fallen into a reprobate sense. And so it is not without reason that the Apostle was given a thorn for the flesh; and he explains: Lest the greatness of the revelation puff me up. And I say that a man who has attained such a state may order and command other men as did Paul, and also Dionysius, =|18|=  who ordered the Church according to the exemplar shown to him.
30. Sexta est visio intelligentiae per raptum in Deum absorptae. Ad Corinthios: Scio hominem ante annos quatuordecim, sive in corpore sive extra corpus, nescio, Deus scit, raptum huiusmodi =|61|= . Haec enim sublevatio facit animam Deo simillimam, quantum potest in statu viae -- nec est idem ecstasis et raptus -- unde, ut dicunt, non habent habitum gloriae, sed actum; et sicut illa visio est in confinio viae et patriae, sic illa est in confinio unionis et separationis a corpore. Ideo dicit Apostolus: Sive in corpore, sive extra corpus, nescio. Unde ergo homo praesumit determinare quod Paulus nescivit? -- Huic respondet opus sextae diei: Faciamus, inquit, hominem ad imaginem et similitudinem nostram; quia talis dignus est, ut praesit volatilibus et piscibus maris et reptilibus =|68|= . -- Quanto enim quis elevatior, tanto humilior, ut Paulus, qui etiam ad coniugium determinandum descendebat per humilitatem. Unde dicitur in Iob: Nunquid ad praeceptum tuum elevabitur aquila et in arduis ponet nidum suum? =|69|= . Et sequitur: Ubicumque fuerit cadaver, statim adest =|70|= . Mirabilia primo dixerat de aquila, et postea humilia; sic est de raptu. Ille enim, qui in raptu fuit maior, magis est humilis. Et sic necesse est, quia, si superbiret, posset amittere gratiam et cadere in reprobum sensum =|71|=  ; et vix unquam surgeret, quia quanto magis novit, tanto magis sciret solvere omnia, quae dicerentur sibi; et ideo non sine causa datus fuit Apostolo stimulus carnis, ne magnitudo, inquit, revelationum extollat me =|12|= . -- Ille, inquam, qui ad illum statum pervenit, potest alios ordinare et regere, ut Paulus fecit, et Dionysius, qui ordinavit Ecclesiam secundum exemplar, quod sibi monstrabatur.


31. The seventh day coincides with separation from the body. "This day thou shalt be with Me in paradise." And this day has no evening. Then follows the eighth day, which does not differ from the one before but is a repetition of the first, when the soul rejoins its body.
31. Septimus dies est absolutio a corpore; hodie mecum eris in paradiso =|73|= ; qui dies non habet vesperam. -- Et post sequitur octava$dies, qui non est alius a praecedentibus, sed est reiteratio primae diei, quando anima resumet corpus suum.


32. And so, this is the Key of David which the Inspired Word is teaching, this Word, who is uncreated in the bosom of the Father, incarnate in the Virgin's womb, inspired in your heart by faith. He penetrates angelic and human minds, and coming into them, He makes them understand these visions, because He is pure understanding and spirit; but He does so in different degrees, for there are different depths in the penetration by which the soul is intimately led to Him. And this comes about through a divine radiation, as Dionysius explains in his "Angelic Hierarchies ": =|19 |= "Wherefore, calling upon Jesus who is the light of His Father," etc. And as he writes in the "Ecclesiastic Hierarchy": "It is proper to Divine Law to bring back the lowest beings to the highest, through the action of the intermediary." This radiation of divine power, coming down upon the heavenly hierarchy, enlightens it, and through it, sheds light upon the ecclesiastic, or subheavenly hierarchy. This radiation, however, brings about the whole effect, for the angels in this case interfere only as occasions, as if, for instance, someone opened windows in order that the radiation bring light to many houses, and then the radiation would brighten them all; or as if someone prepared many mirrors in order to reflect light. Then, in the order of increasing freedom, this radiation leads us back to heavenly contemplation, and later, to the superheavenly.
32. Haec est ergo clavis David =|74|= , quae docet Verbum inspiratum; illud Verbum, quod est in sinu Patris =|73|=  increatum, incarnatum in utero Virginis, inspiratum in corde tuo per fidem; illabitur mentes Angelicas et humanas, intrans in eis facit intelligere has visiones, quia est intellectus et spiritus purus; sed alio et alio modo, quia sunt maiores profundationes, secundum quod anima intime inducitur in se. Et hoc fit per divinum radium, ut dicit Dionysius De Angelica hierarchia: «Ergo Iesum, inquit, invocantes, qui est paternum lumen», etc.; et sicut dicit Dionysius De ecclesiastica hierarchia, «lex Divinitatis est infima per media ad suprema reducere». Ille thearchicus radius, descendens in caelestem hierarchiam, illam illuminat et per illam ecclesiasticam sive subcaelestem. -- Totum tamen facit ille radius, quia Angeli ibi nihil faciunt nisi occasionaliter; sicut, si quis vellet, quod radius illuminaret multas domus, aperiret fenestras, et tunc radius omnes domus illuminaret; et sicut, si quis praepararet multa specula ad recipiendum lumen. Deinde ordine resolutorio ille radius nos reducit in contemplationem caelestium et deinde supercaelestium.


 =|55|=  Gen I, 3.  =|56|=  Ps 4, 7.  =|57|=  Cf. Gen I, 4.  =|58|=  Gen I, 6.  =|59|=  Gen I, 9.  =|60|= Gen I, 11.  =|61|=  Gen 2, 9.  =|62|= Gen I, 14. "Ap 12, 1.  =|64|= Is 60, 5.  =|65|=  Cf. Ex 24, 11: «Videruntque Deum et comederunt ac biberunt».


V. Fourth Collation



A. First Treatise on the First Vision, Which is by Means of Understanding Naturally Given



400 First Treatise on the First Vision, Which Is by Means of Understanding Naturally Given


1. God Said to See Because Because He Makes Us See



2. Truth is the Light of the Soul



1. GOD saw that the light was good. God separated the light from the darkness, etc. After every one of the works of the six days, with the exception of the second, it is said: God saw that it was good. And at the end: God saw that all He had made was very good. God is said to see, because He makes us see. =|1|=  The first vision of the soul is by means of understanding naturally given. Hence in the Psalm: The light of Thy countenance, O Lord, is signed upon us. And here all the difficulties of philosophy could be explained. The philosophers have offered nine sciences and promised a tenth: contemplation.! But many philosophers, while attempting to avoid the darkness of error, have themselves become involved in major errors. While professing to be wise, they have become fools. Because they boasted of their knowledge, these philosophers have become the likes of Lucifer. With the Egyptians was the densest darkness, but with Your saints was the greatest light. All those who properly followed the Law of Nature, the patriarchs, the prophets, and the philosophers, were the sons of light. Truth is the light of the soul. This light never fails. =|2 |= Indeed, it shines so powerfully upon the soul that this soul cannot possibly believe it to be non-existing, or abstain from expressing it, without an inner contradiction. For if truth does not exist, it is true that truth does not exist: and so something is true. And if something is true, it is true that truth exists. Hence if truth does not exist, truth exists! =|3 |= As Esdras says, truth overcomes everything.
1. Vidit Deus lucem, quod esset bona, et divisit lucem a tenebris =|1 |= etc. In omnibus operibus sex dierum praeterquam secundae dictum est: Vidit Deus, quod esset bonum =|2|= ; et in fine dicit: Vidit Deus cuncta, quae fecerat, et erant valde bona =|3|= . Videre dicitur Deus, quia videre nos facit. Prima visio animae est intelligentiae per naturam inditae. Unde dicit Psalmus: Signatum est super nos lumen vultus tui, Domine =|4|= . Et hic possent explicari omnes difficultates philosophiae. Philosophi dederunt novem scientias et polliciti sunt dare decimam, scilicet contemplationem. Sed multi philosophi, dum se voluerunt dividere a tenebris erroris, magnis erroribus se immiscuerunt; dicentes enim, se esse sapientes, stulti facti sunt =|5|= ; superbientes de sua scientia, luciferiani facti. Apud Aegyptios densissimae tenebrae erant, sed Sanctis tuis maxima erat lux. Omnes, qui fuerunt in lege naturae, ut Patriarchae, Prophetae, philosophi, filii lucis fuerunt. -- Lux animae veritas est; haec lux nescit occasum. Ita enim fortiter irradiat super animam, ut etiam non possit cogitari non esse nec exprimi, quin homo sibi contradicat: quia, si veritas non est, verum est, veritatem non esse: ergo aliquid est verum; et si aliquid est verum, verum est, veritatem esse: ergo si veritas non est, veritas est. Super omnia enim praevalet veritas =|6|= , ut dicitur in Esdra.


2. Now, this light sends out three primary radiations, hence in Ecclesiasticus: The sun, three times as much, burneth the mountains. There is, indeed, a truth of things, a truth of signs or words and a truth of behavior. The truth of things is indivision between existence and essence, the truth of words is equality between expression and understanding, the truth of behavior is the rectitude of a morally good life. And these three are the three parts of philosophy which the philosophers did not invent, since they are: but because they already existed in the order of truth, they became the concern of the soul, as Augustine explains. =|4|=
2. Emittit autem haec lux tres radios primos; unde in Ecclesiastico: Tripliciter sol exurens montes =|1|= . Est enim veritas rerum, veritas signorum seu vocum et veritas morum. Veritas rerum est indivisio entis et esse, veritas sermonum est adaequatio vocis et intellectus, veritas morum est rectitudo vivendi. Et istae sunt tres partes philosophiae, quas philosophi non invenerunt, ut essent; sed quia iam secundum veritatem essent, in anima adverterunt, secundum Augustinum.


3. This threefold radiation may be considered from the viewpoint of the originating principle, from that of the receiving subject, and from that of the object in which it terminates. For it concerns the originating principles in terms of the three causes: the primary (efficient), the exemplar (formal), and the final: For from Him and through Him and unto Him are all things. Hence truth indicates that our mind is carried by a natural inclination to the supreme Truth in that it is the cause of being, the reason of understanding and the norm of life. =|5|=  From the cause of being comes forth the truth of things; from the reason of understanding, the truth of words; from the norm of life, the truth of moral behavior.
3. Haec triplex veritas consideratur ex parte principii originantis, ex parte subiecti suscipientis et ex parte obiecti terminantis. Respicit autem originans principium in ratione triplicis causae: originantis, exemplantis et terminantis; nam ex ipso, per ipsum et in ipso sunt omnia*. Ergo veritas indicat, quod mens nostra fertur naturali inclinatione ad Veritatem, secundum quod est «causa essendi, ratio intelligendi et ordo vivendi»: secundum causam essendi, veritas rerum; secundum rationem intelligendi, veritas vocum; secundum ordinem vivendi, veritas morum.


4. On the part of the soul [the receiving subject], every radiation of truth over our power of understanding comes about in one of three ways: it shines upon it absolutely, and then refers to things to be seen; or in relation to the interpretative faculty, and then consists in the truth of words; or in relation to the affective or motive faculty, and then it is the truth of things to be done.
4. Ex parte autem animae omnis irradiatio veritatis super intelligentiam nostram fit tripliciter: aut fit super ipsam absolute, et sic pertinet ad notitiam rerum speculandarum; aut in comparatione ad interpretativam, et sic est veritas vocum; aut in comparatione ad affectivam et motivam, et sic est veritas operabilium.


5. It is the same as regards the object. Everything that exists depends upon essence, reason, or will. The first leads to the knowledge of things, the second to the knowledge of words, and the third to the knowledge of behavior. Hence, in relation to the principle, to the subject, and to the object, there is in the soul a threefold radiation of truth through which the soul may be lifted up to eternal matters and also to the cause of all. But if the spice of faith is „ added, things become easier: the cause of being is then attributed to the Father, the reason of understanding to the Son, and the norm of life to the Holy Spirit.
5. Ex parte obiecti sic. Omne, quod est, aut est a natura, aut a ratione, aut a voluntate. Secundum primam est notitia, quae est de rebus, secundo modo de sermonibus, tertio modo de moribus. -- Ergo secundum principium, subiectum et obiectum est triplex radius veritatis in anima, per quem anima possit elevari ad perpetua, et etiam ad causam omnium; sed si addatur condimentum fidei, tunc facilius; ut causa essendi attribuatur Patri, ratio intelligendi Filio, ordo vivendi Spiritui sancto.


6. In so far as the vision of understanding naturally given is turned toward things, it is truth. But the soul wants the whole world to be described within itself. =|6|=  Now the world may be considered in three ways: in terms of essence, quantity, and nature. And so this radiation leads to the study of hidden differences between quiddities, to the manifest proportions of numbers, and to the properties containing a mixture of both which are found in natures. The consideration of natures is mixed, for at times it concerns causes, which are hidden, for instance, why is fire warm, why is this herb spicy, for they have such qualities from their species which is hidden. At other times, it concerns quality, or again quantity and the influence of other bodies which are sometimes visible and at other times hidden.
6. Visio ergo intelligentiae per naturam inditae, ut convertitur ad res, est veritas. Vult autem anima totum mundum describi in se. Mundus consideratur tripliciter: quantum ad essentiam, figuram et naturam. Iste autem radius dirigit ad quidditatum differentias occultas considerandas, ad figurarum proportiones manifestas, ad naturarum proprietates ex utroque permixtas. Naturalis permixta est consideratio, quia modo de causis, quae sunt occultae, ut quare ignis calidus, quare haec herba calida, quia hoc habent a specie sua, quae occulta est; modo de qualitate, item de quantitate et influentia corporum, quae aliquando patent, aliquando latent.


3. Six Ways of Dividing



7. There are at present six ways of dividing according to hidden differences in the quiddities: that is, into substance and accident, universal and particular, potency and act, one and many, simple and composite, cause and caused. These are six lights that prepare the soul for knowledge and valid perception.
7. Secundum quidditatum differentias occultas fit divisio sex modis ad praesens: in substantiam et accidens, in universale et particulare, in potentiam et actum, in unum et multa, in simplex et compositum, in causam et in causatum. Haec sunt sex lumina, quae disponunt animam ad sciendum et bene sentiendum.


a. Substance and Accident



8. The division into substance and accident is obvious. =|7|=  But what are the things that may be included in it? Here there is the greatest error. For one man says that creation does not exist. Why? Because it is impossible that accident precede substance. Now creation is an accident. Hence, etc. I say that creation, in so far as it is the receiving of an effect is not an accident, because the relation of the creature to the Creator is not accidental, but essential. Likewise, the potency of matter is not an accident of matter, but is essential to it, for "by the very fact that it exists, it does so with a disposition toward something else." =|8|=  Likewise, differences may be reduced to the genus, as mere privations to their fulfillment.
8. Divisio substantiae et accidentis patet; sed quaedam sunt quae reducuntur ad ista, et in his est maximus error. Dicit ille: creatio non est. Quare? Quia impossibile est, accidens praecedere substantiam; creatio autem accidens est: ergo etc. Dico, quod creatio, quae est passio, accidens non est, quia relatio creaturae ad Creatorem non est accidentalis, sed essentialis. Similiter, potentia materiae non est accidens materiae, sed essentialis, quia «hoc ipso, quod est, ad alterum est». Similiter differentiae ad genus reducuntur, ut merae privationes ad suos habitus.


b. Universal and Particular



9. The second division is into universal and particular; and here again there is a major error. For some philosophers say that the universal is nothing, except in the spirit. Plato stated that it existed only in God; others, that it existed only in the soul. I say that there is a universal oneness related to multiplicity, another existing in multiplicity, and yet another exceeding multiplicity. The universal oneness related to multiplicity is found in the potency of matter, which is not fulfilled; the universal oneness existing in multiplicity is the common nature found in particular individuals; and the universal oneness that exceeds multiplicity exists in the soul. And so, the one related to the many, the one in the many, and the one exceeding the many exist in Eternal Art; and by means of this Art and for this reason oneness exists in reality. For it is clear that two men are similar, but not a man and a donkey; hence it is necessary that this likeness be founded and stabilized in some stable form: and not in some form existing in another individual, since it is particular; hence it must exist in something universal. =|9|=  Now the universal principle is not contained exclusively within the soul, but exists in the object according to the process of passing from genus into species, so that we communicate first with the substance as with the most general principle, then with the other principles, until we come in contact with the final (individual) form of a man.
9. Secunda divisio est in universale et particulare; et circa hoc est magnus error. Aliqui dicunt, quod universale nihil est nisi in anima; Plato posuit, quod esset solum in Deo; alii quod solum in anima. Isti nimis abstrahunt. -- Dico ergo, quod est universale unum ad multa, unum in multis, unum praeter multa. Unum ad multa est in potentia materiae, quod non est completum; unum in multis, ut natura communis in suis particularibus; et unum praeter multa in anima. Unum autem ad multa et unum in multis et unum praeter multa in arte aeterna sunt; per illam enim artem et rationem consistit in re. Planum est enim, quod duo homines assimilantur, et non homo et asinus: ergo necesse est, ut illa similitudo fundetur et stabiliatur in aliqua forma stabili, non quae est in altero, quia illa est particularis: ergo in aliqua universali. Ratio autem universalis non est tota in anima, sed in re secundum processum generis ad speciem, ut, communicamus primo in substantia ut in generalissimo, deinde in aliis usque ad formam hominis ultimatam.


c. Potency and Act



10. The third division is into potency and act, and here there are many errors. For some philosophers say that act adds nothing to potency except a manner of being, that it stands in the same relationship to it as complete stands to incomplete. We are not speaking here of purely passive potency, but of that which proceeds to act. For since in every creature there is both active and passive potency, these two potencies must be founded on different principles within the object. =|10|=  Now this is the power of that potency which is the seminal reason: sometimes it adds a part of being or essence, as for instance over and above the principle "body" it adds "living" in relation to a given object, but in such a way that, while the attribute "living" is something in itself, it is ordained to sensitivity. And so, over and above "living," the seminal reason or potency adds "sensible," and so forth until the level of individual man is attained. It is the same with the potencies of the soul: for as the quadrangle has one more angle than the triangle, and the pentagon one more than the quadrangle, so "sensitive" is added to "vegetative" and "rational" to "sensitive." =|11|=  But sometimes the seminal reason adds nothing more than a manner of being, if for instance it turns oneness in potency into oneness in act; it adds only a manner of being, for the "one" is not joined to matter unqualifiedly, but to matter having life rooted in itself as a potency,  Hence it is unsound to propose that the final form is added to prime matter without something that is a disposition or potency towards it, or without any other intermediate form 4
10. Tertia divisio est potentiae et actus; et hic sunt multi errores; Dicunt quidam, quod actus nihil addit super potentiam nisi modum essendi secundum completum et incompletum. Non loquimur hic de potentia pure passiva, sed de illa quae procedit ad actum. Necesse est enim, cum in omni creatura potentia activa sit coniuncta potentiae passivae, quod illae duae potentiae fundentur super diversa principia rei. De potentia, quae est ratio seminalis, haec est vis: quia potentia talis super actum aliquando addit partem essendi, vel essentiae, ut, super rationem corporis addit animatum secundum rem, pro eo quod animatio aliquid est, ordinatum tamen ad sensibile; et super animatum addit sensibile, et sic usque ad hominem. Sic similiter de potentiis animae, quod sicut tetragonus addit unum angulum ad trigonum, et$pentagonus ad tetragonum; sic sensitivum ad vegetativum, et rationale ad sensitivum. -- Aliquando autem addit solum modum essendi, ut, si de uno in potentia fiat unum in actu, addit solum modum essendi, quia unum non coniungitur materiae simpliciter, sed materiae habenti vitam in potentia radicali. -- Unde insanum est dicere, quod ultima forma addatur materiae primae sine aliquo, quod sit dispositio vel in potentia ad illam, vel nulla forma interiecta.


d. One and the Many



11. The fourth division is into the one and the many, and there are here a number of errors. Some philosophers claim that everything is one: as there is one matter, there is also one radical form, which is then multiplied and varied only through different manners of being. =|12|=  And this is nothing more than to say that the proposition: man is a donkey is true in itself but false by accident. Hence you should understand that rational and irrational differ not only accidentally, but also essentially.
11. Quarta divisio est in unum et multa, et de illa multi sunt errores. Quidam dixerunt, quod omnia sint unum; ut, sicut una est materia, ita una forma radicalis, et postmodum multiplicatur secundum modum essendi et variatur. Sed hoc nihil aliud est dicere, quam quod illa propositio: homo est asinus, sit vera per se, falsa per accidens. Unde intellige, quod rationale et irrationale non solum differunt per accidens, sed etiam essentialiter.


e. Simple and Composite



12. The fifth division is into simple and composite, and here also there are many errors, as for instance to claim that a certain creature is simple, for then it would be pure act, which is an attribute of God alone, and it is most dangerous to attribute to a creature what belongs to God. Hence, it is less dangerous to say that an angel is composite, even if it is not true, than to say that it is simple: for I attribute composition to the angel because I refuse to attribute to it what belongs to God, and this out of respect for the reverence I have toward God. But, in truth, it does seem to be composite, for Boethius says: "Form cannot be a subject." =|13|=  So if the angel be pure form, nothing can happen to it in the accidental order, neither joy nor sadness.
12. Quinta divisio est in simplex et compositum; et hic etiam sunt multi errores, ut dicere, quod aliqua creatura sit simplex; quia tunc esset purus actus, quod est solius Dei; et attribuere quod est Dei creaturae periculosum est. Minus ergo est periculosum dicere, quod Angelus sit compositus, etiam si verum non sit, quam quod sit simplex; quia hoc ego attribuo Angelo, nolens ei attribuere quod est Dei, propter pietatem, quam habeo ad reverentiam Dei. Sed secundum veritatem sic videtur, quia dicit Boethius: «Forma subiectum esse non potest»: ergo Angelo nihil accideret tunc, nec laetitia nec tristitia.


f. Cause and Caused



13. The sixth division is into cause and caused, and here once more there are a multiplicity of errors. For some philosophers say that the world has existed from all eternity. Wise men agree that a thing cannot be made out of nothing, =|14|=  and exist from all eternity. Indeed, it is necessary that, as when a being falls into nothingness, it ceases to be, so also when it comes forth from nothingness, it begins to be. But some thinkers are seen to suppose uncreated matter: and from this it would follow that God made nothing: He did not make matter since it was uncreated, and He did not make form, for it is made either out of something or out of nothing. It is not made out of matter, for the essence of the form cannot be made out of the essence of matter; nor out of nothing, since they suppose God cannot make anything out of nothing. But perish the thought that God's power depends upon a foundation of matter! These then are the foundations of faith which every man should examine.
13. Sexta divisio est in causam et causatum; et hic sunt multi errores. Quidam enim dicunt, mundum ab aeterno fuisse. In hoc conveniunt sapientes, quod non possit aliquid fieri de nihilo et sic ab aeterno; quia necesse est, quod sicut, quando res cedit in nihilum, esse desinit; sic, quando fit de nihilo, incipit esse. Sed aliqui videntur posuisse materiam ingenitam; et sic sequitur, quod Deus nihil facit: quia materiam non facit, quia ingenita; nec formam, quia aut fit de aliquo, aut de nihilo; non de materia, quia essentia formae non potest fieri de essentia materiae; nec de nihilo, ut supponunt, eo quod Deus nihil potest facere de nihilo. Sed absit, quod potentia Dei fulciatur fundamento materiae. -- Haec igitur sunt fundamenta fidei, quae omnia examinat.


14. The second radiation of understanding naturally given consists in the consideration of the manifest proportions of quantities, and these are very clear because they offer themselves to the senses, and man willingly acts upon them, for they fall under the imagination, and imagination is strong within us while reason is obscured. Therefore man is very much involved in these things. This knowledge is most certain, =|15|=  because it is obvious to the eye, whereas all other sciences are, so to speak, occult.
14. Secunda irradiatio intelligentiae per naturam inditae est ad considerandas quantitatum proportiones manifestas; et istae sunt valde manifestae, quia offerunt se sensui; et libenter homo negotiatur circa ista, quia cadunt in imaginatione; et imaginatio est fortis in nobis, et ratio obscuratur: et ideo homo multum in his detinetur. Ista scientia$certissima est, quia ad oculum patet. Unde omnes aliae scientiae praeter istam quasi sunt occultae.


15. Mathematical consideration covers six branches: mathematics, concerned with numbers in themselves, music concerned with numbers as sounds, geometry concerned with continuous quantity and general measurable proportions, perspective, which adds the line of sight, astrology which concerns both and also numeral and substantial distinctions, or continuous and discrete quantity. The latter is twofold, comprising astronomy which studies bodies in regular motion, and astrology properly so-called which is concerned with influences: and this science is partly safe and partly dangerous. It is dangerous because of the judgments that follow upon it, and because it gives birth to geomancy and necromancy and other kinds of divination. =|16|=
15. Haec consideratio mathematica est circa sex: aut circa numeros in sua puritate, et sic est arithmetica; aut circa numeros, ut considerantur in sonis, et sic est musica; aut in quantitate continua et circa proportiones dimensivas generaliter, et sic geometria; aut per additionem de linea visuali, et sic perspectiva; aut secundum quantitatem utramque et secundum discretiones numerales et substantiales, vel continuas et discretas, et sic astrologia, et illa est duplex: una de corporibus regulatis per motum, et sic astromonia; alia de influentia, et haec partim est secura et partim periculosa, et haec est astrologia. Periculosa est propter iudicia, quae sequuntur; et ab hac fluit geomantia, vel nigromantia et ceterae species divinationis.


16. Now these sciences prepare for the understanding of Scripture, as is clear in the case of perfect numbers, and of the decreased and increasing number, =|17|=  as it appears with the perfection of the number six, which is perfect of itself. Augustine explains: "The number six is not perfect because God created the world in this number of days; but God created the world in this number of days because it is perfect." =|18|=  Likewise, concerning the two first cubic numbers, 8 and 27: twice two times two equal 8, and three times three times three equal 27, and they can be related through no other numbers than 12 and 18, for 12 is to 18 as 18 is to 27, in the proportion of one and a half, which contains the whole and its intermediate. The same is clear of the triangle, how it leads to the knowledge of the Trinity, for it is certain that as great as the Son is, so great is the Father, and as great as the Father is, so great are the Holy Spirit and the Son. Hence, consider the triangle each angle of which encloses the total area. Likewise, in perspective, in the case of the direct radiation of sight which is stronger and compares with the throwing of a stone: if you throw it straight down, the sound is louder; if you throw it obliquely, it is less. The reflected radiation comes from a clean and polished body, by virtue of its polish, and there it receives the species. The diffracted radiation is penetration into a transparent body.
16. Hae scientiae disponunt ad intelligentiam Scripturae, ut patet de numeris perfectis, diminuto, excrescente; ut patet de perfectione senarii, qui de se perfectus est. «Non enim, ut dicit Augustinus, senarius ideo perfectus est, quia in eo numero Deus fecit mundum; sed ideo fecit mundum in illo numero, quia perfectus est». Similiter de duobus numeris cubicis primis, scilicet 8 et 27, quia bis duo bis sunt 8; ter tria ter sunt 27, qui ligari non possunt minus quam per duos numeros, scilicet 12 et 18. Sic enim se habent 12 ad 18, ut 18 ad 27, quia in sexquialtera proportione, quae tenet totum et eius medietatem.$-- Similiter patet de triangulo, quomodo ducit in cognitionem Trinitatis. Certum est enim, quod quantus est Filius, tantus est Pater; et quantus est Pater, tantus est Spiritus sanctus et Filius. Et inde triangulum considera, quod quilibet angulus totam superficiem includit. -- Similiter in perspectiva de radio directo, qui fortior est, sicut, si tu proiicias lapidem directe deorsum, magnum sonum facit; si autem ex obliquo, non tantum. Reflexus radius est a corpore terso et polito virtute tersionis, et ibi accipit speciem; radius fractus est in introitu alterius perspicui.


17. The third radiation of understanding naturally given consists in searching the mixed properties of natures, that is, those that are partly hidden and partly manifest. For the Philosopher considers all things through motion: he studies motion as such, the principles and causes of motion, as for instance place and time. =|19|=  He studies the natures of heavenly bodies, that is, the ethereal and the meteorical; he studies bodies as elementary, vegetative, sensitive, and rational. The heavenly bodies he considers in the book "On Heaven and the World," where he reduces all motion to perfect motion, that is, to local motion. =|20|=  Now this local motion is of three kinds: either around the center, in which case there is no opposition, and this is circular motion; or away from the center, and this is the motion of light bodies; or again toward the center, and this is the motion of heavy bodies, or straight motion. The meteoric bodies he considers in the book "On Meteors," where he speaks of impressions and minerals. Concerning now the elementary bodies, he studies them in the book "On Generation and Corruption"; and the vegetative beings, he studies in the book "On Plants" where there are some marvelous considerations. Finally, he considers sensitive beings in the book "On Animals," which we do not have in full, and rational beings in the book "On the Soul" and its appendices, "On Sense and the Sensible," "On Memory and Reminiscence," "On the Spirit and the Soul," "On Sleep and Wakefulness," "On Life and Death."
17. Tertia irradiatio intelligentiae per naturam inditae est ad investigandum naturarum permixtas proprietates, scilicet partim occultas et partim manifestas. Philosophus enim considerat omnia per motum; considerat enim de motu, de principiis motus et causis, ut locus et tempus; considerat autem naturas corporum caelestium, sive corpora aetheralia, meteoricalia; elementaria, vegetabilia, sensibilia, rationabilia.$-- Caelestia in libro De caelo et mundo, ubi reducit omnem motum ad motum perfectum, scilicet localem; iste autem localis est triplex: aut$circa medium, ubi non est contrarietas, et sic circularis; aut a medio, et sic est levium motus; aut ad medium, et sic motus gravium, sive motus rectus. Meteorica, ut in libro Meteororum, ubi dicit de impressionibus et mineralibus. -- Si de elementaribus, sic in libro De generatione et corruptione. Si de vegetabilibus, sic in libro De plantis, ubi sunt mirabiles considerationes. -- Si autem de sensibilibus, sic in libro De animalibus, quem totum non habemus; aut de rationabilibus, ut in libro De anima cum suis appendicibus, scilicet De sensu et sensato, et De memoria et reminiscentia, De spiritu et anima, De somno et vigilia, De morte et vita.


18. The second radiation of truth provides information for the consideration of speech, arguments and methods of rational persuasion, so that by this means a man may enjoy the art of speech that properly represents the concepts of the mind, of arguments that draw the assent of every mind, and of persuasive methods that incline the dispositions of the mind. For reason thinks of making whatever is in itself to exist in another, and whatever is in another to exist within itself: and this cannot be done except by means of speech. Whatever is contained in the soul, then, is there either as a concept, as an assent, or as an affective disposition. And so, to indicate concepts, there is grammar, to induce assent, there is logic, and to move affective dispositions, there is rhetoric.
18. Secundus radius veritatis informat ad considerationem locutionum, argumentationum, persuasionum rationalium, ut homo habeat artem per eum ad locutiones congrue indicantes mentis conceptus, ad argumentationes trahentes omnis mentis assensus, ad persuasiones inclinantes mentis affectus. Ratio enim cogitat facere quidquid in se est in alio, et quidquid est in alio facere in se; hoc autem non fit nisi per sermonem. Quidquid ergo est in anima aut est per modum conceptus, aut per modum assensus aut per modum affectus. Ad indicandum conceptum est grammatica; ad inducendum assensum est logica; ad inclinandum affectum rhetorica.


19. According to the grammarian, every part of speech signifies a concept of the mind. For it has a part that signifies substance or quality, and that is the noun [and adjective] ; it has a part that signifies the mood, and that is the verb, which tells of dispositions as in the indicative mood related to the rational power, the imperative mood related to the irascible power, the optative mood related to the concupiscible power, the subjunctive mood signifying both parts, and the infinitive mood which is almost material. And according to Priscian, it is to these differences that all moods are reduced. =|21|=  Likewise, the grammarian establishes the rules of the letter and syllable, of discourse and speech. For as in different languages there are different manners of signifying and terminating—as, for instance [in Latin] the terminal a generally indicating the feminine and us the masculine, and so forth—the grammarian is concerned with the rules of letters; but he cannot go down to this level except by means of the syllable. Finally, he is concerned with the interrelationship of expressions, likewise with the rules of prosody and syntax. For he expresses all things through the eight parts of speech. And so he studies the letter through the syllable, then prosody and rhythm, and these are then referred to the first. He also considers number and case, as for instance that a [singular] nominative is used with a singular verb, so that we cannot say: a man run, for from a single substance there can come but a single action. Again, he sees to it that after a transitive verb there be placed, not a noun in the nominative, but one in the accusative, which indicates something toward which the action is directed, not a principle of action as would the nominative. Hence a grammarian draws the nature from things, nor can he be a good grammarian unless he knows things.
19. Secundum grammaticum omnis pars orationis significat mentis conceptum. Habet enim partem significantem substantiam et qualitatem, et sic est nomen; habet partem significantem modum, et sic est verbum, quod dicit inclinationes, scilicet indicativa, ut in rationali; imperativus, ut in irascibili; optativa, ut in concupiscibili; subiunctivus, partem utramque; infinitivus, quasi materialis. Et ad has differentias omnes reducuntur secundum Priscianum. -- Similiter determinat de littera, syllaba, dictione, oratione. Quia enim varii sunt modi significandi et terminanda secundum diversas linguas -- ut terminatum in a, feminini generis ut in pluribus, in us, masculini generis, et sic de, aliis -- de littera determinat; sed ad hanc non potest descendere nisi per syllabam. -- Ultimo considerat de connexione dictionum. Determinat similiter de prosodia et dyasynthetica. Exprimit autem omnia per octo partes orationis. Ad litteram ergo descendit per syllabam, sed postea de prosodia et metrica, et huiusmodi referuntur ad primum. Considerat similiter modos et accidentia, ut quod nominativus construatur cum verbo singularis numeri, ut non dicatur: homo currunt, quia ab una substantia non egreditur nisi actus unus; similiter, ut post verbum transitioni non ponatur nominativus, sed accusativus, qui dicit terminum, non principium actus, ut nominativus. -- Unde grani$matica a rebus naturam trahit, nec potest esse bonus grammaticus, nisi sciat res.


20. Another aspect is that which explains arguments leading to the assent of the mind. This is accomplished by a solid argumentation such as: things which are equal to one and the same thing are equal to each other. This type of argument has both a general and a special form and treat of things which are necessary and well established. Therefore we have the First Analysis and the Second Analysis which are concerned with the syllogism simply considered. They treat of the necessary syllogism which results in conclusions because of correct inference^ as in the First Analysis (or Solution), and in the Second Analysis (Solution) because of a correct inference based on the order of being. Since there cannot always be an induction based on necessary arguments, we have manners and forms of proof based on things which are probable, such as the topical proof. And then because there is room for error in such matters, there are added the sophistic manners of proving so that a man might know how to refute them. Thus one who refutes such arguments is not himself a sophist but is truly giving a response. Because these modes of argument take their origin from the nature of things (for instance, "There is smoke, therefore there was a fire" — which is a proof from effect) there are added the ten predicaments and also a treatment of statements.!
20. Alia directio est, quae illustrat ad argumentationes inducentes mentis assensum, quod fit per solidam argumentationem, ut, «quaecumque uni et eidem sunt eadem, necessario Inter se sunt eadem». Haec argumentatio habet formam generalem et specialem in materia necessaria, solida; et ideo est prima analysis et secunda analysis de syllogismo simpliciter. De syllogismo necessario, id est resolutorio in causam inferendi, ut in prima analysi, id est resolutione, et in secunda analysi, id est resolutione in causam inferendi et essendi. -- Et quia semper non potest esse inductio per necessariam argumentationem, ideo inveniuntur loci et habitudo localis, quae procedit per probabilia, ut loci topici; et quia in his cadit deceptio, adduntur loci sophistici, ut sciat homo dissolvere. Unde dissolvens non est sophisticus, sed verus respondens. Et quia isti modi trahunt originem a natura rerum -- ut patet: fumus est: ergo ignis fuit; locus ab effectu -- ideo adduntur decem praedicamenta, adduntur etiam enuntiationes.


21. The third direction is that by which the mind is enlightened for the sake of persuading or inclining the spirit: and this is achieved by means of rhetoric. Hence it is fitting that the orator provide for social good, since there may be danger in this area on account of the disagreement of minds. He proceeds by means of three attributes, of a threefold method: demonstrative, deliberative, and judicial.
21. Tertia irradiatio est, qua mens illustratur ad persuadendum vel inclinandum animum; hoc fit per rhetoricam. Unde rhetor oportet quod provideat civili utilitati, ubi potest esse periculum propter dissensionem animorum. Procedit autem secundum tria attributa et triplex genus causae, scilicet demonstrativum et deliberativum et iudiciale.


22. The demonstrative is concerned with the person; it may praise or blame. Praise may be addressed to the goods of the soul which are three in number, virtue, understanding, and truth; or to the goods of the body, beauty, strength, etc.; or again, to the goods of status, for instance wealth, parenthood and citizenship.
22. Demonstrativum personae, ut ad laudem, vel vituperium: ergo vel est laus quantum ad bona animae, quae sunt tria, scilicet virtus, scientia, veritas; vel est laus quantum ad corpus, scilicet, pulcritudo, fortitudo, etc.; vel de bonis fortunae, ut divitiae, parentela, patria.


23. The deliberative is concerned with something that needs to be done: a man is persuaded to act if there is security, usefulness, honesty; he is dissuaded if there is damage, danger, or dishonesty.
23. Deliberativum est respectu rei faciendae, et tunc persuadetur, si adest securitas, utilitas, honestas; vel persuadetur non fieri, si sequitur damnum, periculum, inhonestas.


24. The judicial corresponds to a thing that is done, as seen from the viewpoint of the legitimacy of its foundation, conjecture, or reasonable doubt. A legitimate juridical foundation consists in this: "Did you do it?" — "I did not do it." It is what some people call a lawsuit. A legitimate juridical conjecture supposes the calling of a witness for the sake of proof. A legitimate juridical doubt consists in this: when the fact of a case is admitted, but the indictee claims he is not guilty, or was permitted to act because of a mandate from his superior, or was obliged to act.
24. Genus iudiciale respondet rei factae, quae habet constitutionem, coniecturam, dubitationem legitimam. Iuridicialis constitutio est: «Fecisti? Non feci»; quae apud alios litis contestatio vocatur. Coniecturalis, cum aliquid adducitur ad probandum. -- Legitima dubitatio iuridicialis est descriptio iuridicialis, quando factum conceditur; sed defendit se, quod non sit reus, vel quia potuit facere de mandato domini, vel quia debuit.


25. For a man to be a powerful orator, he must first capture the audience's good will with an opening that is neither too long, nor obscure, nor excessively refined. He must then tell the story to expose the facts and to make his point — and he must avoid an excessive number of subdivisions. Then he must strengthen his point with arguments, then refute his adversary and show that the arguments of the opposition are worthless. Finally he must draw the conclusion. It is necessary for him to have inventiveness, organization, a good elocution, a reliable memory and clear diction.
25. Ad hoc autem, quod sit potens orator, necesse est, ut habeat exordium ad captandam benevolentiam non nimis prolixum, non obscurum, non exquisitum; quod habeat narrationem, ut factum narret;$postea, ut negotium distinguat; et caveat multitudinem partium. Postea partem suam confirmet per rationes; postea adversarium confutet et rationes eius ostendat frivolas; postea concludat. Item, necesse est, ut habeat inventionem, dispositionem, elocutionem, memoriam et pronuntiationem.


VI. Fifth Collation



A. Second Treatise on the First Vision, Concerning the Third Radiation, That is the Moral Truth, and Concerning the Truth of Contemplation



500 Second Treatise on the First Vision, Concerning the Third Radiation, That Is the Moral Truth, and Concerning the Truth of Contemplation


1. GOD saw that the light was good. God separated the light from the darkness, etc. It has been said that truth is intellectual light radiating over intelligence either human or angelical; and that it shines forth in a manner that cannot be stopped, for it cannot be thought of as non-existing. Now a thing may shine forth in three different ways: as the truth of an object, as the truth of an expression, or as proper behavior. As the truth of an object, it consists in conformity of existence with essence; as the truth of an expression, it is conformity of essence with thought; as proper behavior, it is righteous living. And this is clear on the part of the principle which sends forth light, of the subject which receives this light, and of the objective towards which it enlightens. As a cause of being, this light is powerful; as a reason of understanding, this light is clear; as an ordering of life, this light is good. And that is the reason why it is written: God saw that the light was good. Asa powerful light, it irradiates for the sake of understanding substances or essences, the quantities and natures of the world; as a clear light, it irradiates for the sake of understanding rational expressions, reasonings and proofs; as a good light, it suffuses the intelligence, or demonstrates matters of propriety, activity, or justice, As a means of understanding propriety, it points to the practice of good habits; as a means of understanding activity, it points to intellectual speculation; as a means of understanding justice, it points to political laws. First, it is necessary that propriety be acquired, then activity investigated, and finally justice exercised. And here is shown how a prelate should behave: being perfect in both action and contemplation, he must accept the laws. Where? On the Mountain of Contemplation, with Moses, so that he may act with propriety and industry, and not as a beast, for a beast cannot go up into the Mountain: a beast that touches the Mountain must be stoned.
1. Vidit Deus lucem, quod esset bona, et divisit lucem a tenebris =|1 |= etc. Dictum est quod intellectualis lux est veritas, quae est radians super intelligentiam sive humanam, sive Angelicam; quae inextinguibiliter irradiat, quia non potest cogitari non esse. Irradiat autem aliquid tripliciter: ut veritas rerum, ut veritas vocum, ut veritas morum: ut veritas rerum est indivisio entis et esse, ut veritas vocum est adaequeatio vocis et intellectus, ut veritas morum est rectitudo vivendi. Quod patet ex parte principii, quod irradiat; ex parte subiecti, quod irradiationem suscipit; ex parte obiecti, ad quod irradiat. In quantum haec lux est causa essendi, est lux magna; in quantum est ratio intelligendi, est lux clara; in quantum est ordo vivendi, est lux bona; vidit, inquit, Deus lucem, quod esset bona. -- Ut lux magna irradiat ad comprehensionem substantiarum sive essentiarum, figurarum et naturarum mundialium; ut lux clara irradiat ad comprenhensionem locutionum, argumentationum, persuasionum rationalium; ut lux bona irradiat super intelligentiam vel illustrat ad comprenhensionem modestiarum, industriarum, iustitiarum: ad comprehensionem modestiarum quantum ad exercitationes consuetudinales; ad comprehensionem industriarum quantum ad speculationes intellectuales; ad comprehensionem iustitiarum quantum ad leges politicas. Primo habenda est modestia, secundo industria inquirenda, tertio exercenda iustitia. -- Et hic ostenditur, praelatus qualis esse debet, scilicet perfectus in actione et contemplatione acci-. pere debet leges. Ubi? In monte contemplationis cum Moyse =|2|= , ut sit modestus et industrius, non bestialis, quia talis in montem ascendere non potest; bestia enim, quae tetigerit montemy lapidabitur =|0|= .


B. Good Habits



2. First, then, this light of illumination serves to understand the practice of good habits. Hence the Philosopher establishes twelve middle states: fortitude in regard to fear and rashness, temperance in regard to pleasure and pain, generosity in regard to gifts of medium value, lavishness in regard to opulent gifts, magnanimity in the desire for major honors, reasonable wishing for honors not so great, patience as regards the manifestation of anger, truthfulness in the use of words, refinement in the enjoyment of play, friendship, and finally two middle states in affective matters: indignation and reprehension, which result in harming no one and being useful to someone. From among these, however, we choose the six most important as being first temperance, second munificence, third fortitude, fourth patience, fifth kindness, and sixth magnanimity,
2. Primo igitur irradiat sive illustrat ad comprehensionem quantum ad exercitationem consuetudinalium virtutum. Unde Philosophus ponit duodecim medietates: fortitudinem circa timores et audacias; temperantiam circa delectationes et tristitias; liberalitatem circa dona mediocria; magnificentiam circa dona magna; magnanimitatem circa honorum magnorum appetitum; philotimiam circa mediocrium; mansuetudinem circa iras; veritatem circa locutiones; eutrapeliam circa ludi delectationem; amicitiam et duo media passionum, scilicet verecundiam et ne-$mesim, quae est nulli obesse et alicui prodesse. De his autem eligamus sex praecipuas, scilicet primo temperantiam, secundo munificentiam, tertio fortitudinem, quarto mansuetudinem, quinto benignitatem, sexto magnanimitatem.


1. Temperance



3. First, we should deal with temperance. This is a primordial and necessary virtue: for man is not immediately tempted by the fear of death, but as soon as he is born, he is tempted by the pleasure of taste: hence, the child desires what is sweet to the taste, and later what is agreeable to the touch. That is why we must first tame this passion which lasts as long as we do, for it begins with childhood and ends with old age. It comprises appetite and cupidity. For a boy begins by seeking food, then money: hence he rejoices greatly in it; and if you offer bread and money to a young man, he will accept the money and leave the bread. This is the death of men: they desire indeed to possess and to retain. Considering such things as the greatest good is wrong; considering them as the greatest evil is wrong.
3. Primo incipiendum a temperantia. Haec necessaria est in primis; non enim statim homo tentatur a timore mortis, sed statim, quando natus est, delectatione secundum gustum; unde puer appetit dulce secundum gustum et postea delectabile secundum tactum, quando magnus est. Hanc passionem contemporaneam nobis, quae incipit in pueris et terminatur in senibus, oportet primo domare; ista est concupiscentia, alia est cupiditas. Puer enim primo appetit manducare, postea pecuniam; unde mirabiliter delectatur in illa, et si puero offeras panem et denarium, accipit denarium et relinquit panem. Hoc inficit homines; concupiscunt enim habere et retinere. Appretiari haec ut felicissima malum est, aspernari ut exsecrabilia malum est.


4. Now, some people say: The totally poor do not keep the middle way. I answer: On the contrary, they truly keep it. For this middle way is not a matter of things, but of the soul's desire. For if you desire these things in order to be sustained by them, be they your own or those of others, you keep the middle way. If you overestimate them as if happiness were to be found in them, you are at one extreme; if you spurn them as being wicked, you are at the other. So did the Manichees believe in the wickedness of intercourse with a woman, be she wife or whore. Likewise, they taught that no man could own anything. And Augustine =|1|=  teaches that this was never a command, although the Lord said to the apostles: "Take nothing for your journey." The middle way, then, consists in being sustained either by your own goods or by those of another.
4. Dicunt quidam: totaliter pauperes non tenent medium. Respondeo: immo vere tenent medium. Haec enim medietas non est circa res, sed circa appetitum animae. Si enim appetis haec, ut sustenteris tuis vel alienis, medietatem tenes; sed si appretias, ut felicitas sit in eis, unum extremum est; si aspernaris ut profanum, alterum extremum est, sicut Manichaei profanum putant cum muliere iacere, sive cum uxore, sive cum alia. Similiter dicebant, quod nihil potest homo habere. Et dicit Augustinus, quod hoc non fuit praeceptum, licet Apostolis dixerit Dominus: Nihil tuleritis in via*. Medium ergo est sustentari sive suis, sive alienis.


5. Blessed Francis said that "it is easier for the poor man to be generous than for the rich: for when the rich gives something he has, he is deprived of it and upset. But if he does not give what he has, although he would have been willing to give, had it not been for the privation, his will is good, but he receives no credit for it as he would if he had given in fact: for he still holds the thing. The poor, on the other hand, who has nothing, if he wishes to give to another poor something he does not have — if, for instance, he would like to build a hospital, but lacks the means —his intent is credited to him as would have been the fact." =|2|=  As to what they say—that the excessively poor do not keep to the middle way—it is similar to the statement of a certain physician named Frederic who declared that a man who abstains completely from woman is not virtuous and does not stay on the middle road, from which it follows that if to know all women and to know no women are the extremes, to know half of all women is the middle way.
5. Et dicebat beatus Franciscus, quod «pauper magis potest esse largus quam dives: quia dives, si dat quidquid habet, deficiet et confusus est; si vero non dat, cum habeat, licet vellet dare, si sibi non deficeret; voluntas bona est, sed non reputatur sibi pro facto, quia adhuc habet substantiam. Sed pauper, qui nihil habet, si vellet dare pauperi, et nihil habet, quod det; et vellet aedificare hospitalia, non tamen habet unde; voluntas pro facto reputatur». -- Quod autem dicunt, quod nimis pauperes non tenent medium; simile est illi quod dicebat quidam medicus Frederici, qui dicebat, quod ille qui abstinebat ab omni muliere, non erat virtuosus nec tenebat medium. Et ad$hoc sequitur, quod si omnem mulierem cognoscere et nullam mulierem cognoscere extrema sunt; ergo medietatem omnium mulierum cognoscere medium est.


2. Munificence



6. Such cupidity! must be tamed by munificence, which includes generosity and magnificence. It is the fountain which pours out water: for the fountain does not keep water within. According to the Philosopher, =|3|=  it is hard to be completely cured from cupidity, for cupidity is delightful in that it makes a man imagine himself to be great, and makes others believe that he is. If a man indulges in excesses, his brain suffers: but a man rejoices in riches because they lead to presumption and [false] reputation. And so, such cupidity infected Giezi, and he became a leper because he ran after Naaman. Even today those who practice simony consider it quite the right thing. Simon [Magus] came to Peter and said to him: "Accept some money: I have enough. Grant that I may give the Holy Spirit through the laying of hands." But Peter did not consider it right, nor did he have any patience [with this man]: "Thy money," he said, "go to destruction with thee." 6. Such cupidity must be tamed by munificence, which includes generosity and magnificence. It is the fountain which pours out water: for the fountain does not keep water within. According to the Philosopher, =|3|=  it is hard to be completely cured from cupidity, for cupidity is delightful in that it makes a man imagine himself to be great, and makes others believe that he is. If a man indulges in excesses, his brain suffers: but a man rejoices in riches because they lead to presumption and [false] reputation.^ And so, such cupidity infected Giezi, and he became a leper because he ran after Naaman. Even today those who practice simony consider it quite the right thing. Simon [Magus] came to Peter and said to him: "Accept some money: I have enough. Grant that I may give the Holy Spirit through the laying of hands." But Peter did not consider it right, nor did he have any patience [with this man]: "Thy money," he said, "go to destruction with thee." 7. The third middle way is fortitude, which is concerned with fears and acts of valor. A man needs it in order to be neither fainthearted nor rash, but that he be able to bear frightful trials and even death. For some men do fall into cowardice and faintheartedness. Hence, in Job: "Have I the strength of stones, or is my flesh of bronze?" And so, fortitude is in the soul, not in the flesh. Better is the patient spirit than the lofty spirit. And Proverbs say: A patient man is better than a warrior, and he that rules his temper, than he who takes a city. Hence a spiritual man must take great care to avoid dejection.
6. Haec cupiditas domari debet per munificentiam, quae comprehendit in se largitatem et magnificentiam. Iste est fons, qui aquas refundit; fons non retinet in se aquas. Secundum Philosophum difficile est ab hac perfecte curari, quia hoc valde delectabile est, quia reputat se homo magnum, et alii reputant. Si homo luxuriatur dolet cerebrum; sed in divitiis homo delectatur, quia est ibi praesumptio et reputatio. -- Unde haec cupiditas infecit Giezi =|5|= , et leprosus factus est, quia cucurrit post Naaman; istud simoniaci hodie reputant magnam curialitatem. Venit Simon Magus et dixit Petro: Accipias de pecunia; satis habeo; et da mihi, ut per impositionem manus possim dare Spiritum sanctum; sed Petrus non reputavit curialitatem nec habuit patientiam: Pecunia tua, inquit, tecum sit in perditionem =|6|= .


3. Fortitude



7. The third middle way is fortitude, which is concerned with fears and acts of valor. A man needs it in order to be neither fainthearted nor rash, but that he be able to bear frightful trials and even death. For some men do fall into cowardice and faintheartedness. Hence, in Job: "Have I the strength of stones, or is my flesh of bronze?" And so, fortitude is in the soul, not in the flesh. Better is the patient spirit than the lofty spirit. And Proverbs say: A patient man is better than a warrior, and he that rules his temper, than he who takes a city. Hence a spiritual man must take great care to avoid dejection.
7. Tertia medietas est fortitudo, quae est circa timores et audacias. Haec est necessaria homini, ut non sit pusillanimis, vel temerarius, sed sustineat terribilia et etiam mori sit paratus. Aliqui enim cadunt in ignaviam et pusillanimitatem. Unde Iob: Numquid fortitudo lapidum fortitudo mea, aut caro mea aenea est? =|1|= . Fortitudo enim in anima est, non in carne. Melior est patiens arrogante =|8|= ; et in Proverbiis: Melior est patiens viro forti, et qui dominatur animo suo, expugnatore urbium =|9|= . Unde spiritualis homo multum debet cavere a moestitia.


8. This virtue gives nobility to the soul. But because at times a man may be indignant at another, there is need for gentleness, which is the remedy against irascibility and anger —not that man should never be angry at all, but that he should be so only in the right circumstances of place and time. Hence, he must have both the face of a man and the face of a lion. At times, however, you believe a man to be kind when he remains silent while knowing of another's sin. Such is not kindness. Listen, therefore: it is said of Jesus that He was troubled, and that He made a kind of whip. Hence, in the First Book of the Machabees, it is written: Woe is me! Wherefore was I born to see the ruin of my people and the ruin of the holy city? Jesus is the Lamb and the Lion.8. This virtue gives nobility to the soul. But because at times a man may be indignant at another, there is need for gentleness, which is the remedy against irascibility and anger—not that man should never be angry at all, but that he should be so only in the right circumstances of place and time. Hence, he must have both the face of a man and the face of a lion. At times, however, you believe a man to be kind when he remains silent while knowing of another's sin. Such is not kindness. Listen, therefore: it is said of Jesus that He was troubled, and that He made a kind of whip. Hence, in the First Book of the Machabees, it is written: Woe is me! Wherefore was I born to see the ruin of my people and the ruin of the holy city? Jesus is the Lamb and the Lion.
8. Haec virtus facit animam nobilem; sed quia fortis aliquando dedignatur contra alios, ideo necessaria est mansuetudo, quae est contra irascibilitates et iracundias, non ut homo penitus non irascatur, sed ubi debet et quando debet. Unde debet habere et faciem hominis et faciem leonis. -- Tamen aliquando putas hominem mansuetum, qui tacet, alio peccante, hoc non est mansuetudo. Audi igitur: dicitur de Iesu, quod turbavit semetipsum =|10|=  et fecit flagellum de funiculis =|n|= . Unde in primo Machabaeorum: Vae mihi, ut quid natus sum videre mala gentis meae et sanctorum? =|11|= . Unde Christus est agnus et leo =|13|= .


4. Kindness



9. The fifth middle way is kindness, either in the form of the re-establishment of justice or in that of friendship, which has nothing of malice, but through which a man seeks someone else's good; and here it is necessary that reason be guided. Although the Philosopher says it is fitting to do good to friends and evil to enemies, =|4|=  Christ recommends that every man be loved, and that all men be given another poor something he does not have —if, for instance, he would like to build a hospital, but lacks the means —his intent is credited to him as would have been the fact." =|2|=  As to what they say—that the excessively poor do not keep to the middle way—it is similar to the statement of a certain physician named Frederic who declared that a man who abstains completely from woman is not virtuous and does not stay on the middle road, from which it follows that if to know all women and to know no women are the extremes, to know half of all women is the middle way.9. The fifth middle way is kindness, either in the form of the re-establishment of justice or in that of friendship, which has nothing of malice, but through which a man seeks someone else's good; and here it is necessary that reason be guided. Although the Philosopher says it is fitting to do good to friends and evil to enemies, =|4|=  Christ recommends that every man be loved, and that all men be given things that are useful to them, and not damaging. If I love you and grant you some favor or freedom which you will misuse as soon as you receive it, I am not being kind, but rather malicious: and so, in order to be kind, I will not give it to you. I have a friend, and I have an enemy: the friend will badly use some position of power or some dignity, damaging both himself and the common good. If I give them to him, I am not kind. On the contrary, my enemy will use it well: I will give it to him and turn his wickedness into good. A father does not flatter his son, nor does he speak to him in sweet words, lest he become proud. The world in our days is ignorant of this form of kindness, hence the whole world is in the power of the evil one, for man loves nothing but his own personal good.
9. Quinta medietas est benignitas, sive nemesis, sive amicitia, quae nihil habet malignitatis, sed homo vult bonum alii homini; et oportet, quod hic ratio dirigatur. Etsi dicat Philosophus, quod oportet amicis benefacere, inimicis malefacere; Christus tamen dicit, ut omnis homo diligatur, et ut omni homini conferantur utilia, non nociva. Si ego te diligo et do tibi vel dignitatem vel libertatem, et tu male uteris ea, si dem tibi; benignus non sum, sed potius malignus; et ideo non dabo tibi, ut sim benignus. Habeo amicum, habeo inimicum; amicus male utetur aliqua praelatione vel dignitate ad damnum suum et reipublicae;$si dem sibi, benignus non sum. Inimicus meus e contrario bene utetur; sibi dabo et faciam bonum meum de malo suo. Pater non blanditur filio suo nec dicit verbum dulce, ne superbiat. Mundus hodie ignorat istam benignitatem; unde totus mundus in maligno positus est =|14|= , quia homo non diligit nisi bonum privatum.


5. Magnanimity



10. The sixth middle way is magnanimity, through which great things are appreciated and vile things despised. This is humility which despises the appearance of greatness and appreciates what seems to be small, but is great in reality. The Philosopher says that a man is magnanimous in that he desires honor. =|5|=  Whatever he says, it is not the teaching of truth, unless to the word "honor" there be added "of eternal things." On the contrary, some men have a great taste for another's praise, while truth is telling them in their own mind that they are the worst, and good for nothing: and so, they extol themselves!
10. Sexta medietas est .magnanimitas, ut appretientur magna, et despiciantur vilia. Haec est humilitas, quae despicit apparentia magna et appretiat ea quae videntur esse parva, sunt tamen magna vere. Philosophus dicit, quod magnanimus est in appetitu honoris; quidquid dicat ipse, hoc non docet veritas, nisi cum honor est aeternorum. Sed econtra quidam appretiant unam vilissimam laudem alicuius, cum tamen veritas dicat in mente sibi, quod ipse est pessimus et nequam; et inde effert se!


11. These six middle ways are enough: there are yet a number of others that are without name. The Philosopher clearly indicates them, =|6|=  and in these matters reason must bow before the truth of faith. These middle ways remove both carnal and spiritual vices: for instance, temperance does away with gluttony and luxury; munificence, with avarice, cupidity and rapacity; fortitude, with spiritual disgust, sloth and laziness; meekness, with anger, hatred and impatience; kindness, with envy; magnanimity, with pride, arrogance, vanity and pretense.
11. Hae sex medietates sufficiunt; aliae enim quaedam innominatae sunt. Has autem Philosophus manifeste ponit, et in his veritati fidei ratio substernitur. Hae medietates removent vitia sive carnalia sive spiritualia, ut temperantia gulam et luxuriam, munificentia avaritiam, cupiditatem, rapacitatem; fortitudo accidiam, ignaviam, pigritiam; mansuetudo iracundiam, odium, impatientiam; benignitas invidiam; magnanimitas superbiam, arrogantiam, vanitatem, iactantiam.


12. Second, the radiation of truth enlightens for the sake of understanding activity by means of intellectual speculation. This is of five kinds: knowledge, art, prudence, wisdom and understanding. =|7|=  Now speculation is either self-contained, or it passes into the affective and effective. The first does not pertain to the moral order, but is rather a matter of logic. But the second does pertain to the moral order because it is a matter of virtue. And therefore because what is speculative easily becomes practical, the virtuous easily arises out of the speculative.
12. Secundus radius veritatis illustrat ad comprehensionem industriarum secundum speculationes intellectuales. Hae sunt quinque: scientia, ars, prudentia, sapientia, intelligentia. -- Speculatio autem aut est consistens in se, aut transit in affectum et effectum. Primus modus non pertinet ad moralem, sed magis logici est; secundus autem spectat, quia virtuosus; et ideo, quia faciliter speculativus fit practicus, facile ex speculativo fit virtuosus.


13. Now knowledge passing over into the affective field is wisdom, which is "knowledge of the highest causes and through the highest causes." =|8|=  But knowledge passing into extrinsic effect is art, which is "a disposition containing a principle of making," =|9|=  and here the knowledge and the making are combined, and yet, they are preceded by affective desire. The intermediate step is choice, which is joined to the affective desire and ordained toward the work. For whatever someone chooses, he loves, and he chooses it in view of the work: and such is prudence, which is an intermediate between wisdom and art. But understanding consists in going up from prudence to wisdom, and wisdom itself is the knowing of principles and certain rules. Likewise, it is necessary to go down to art through knowledge. For a surgeon, unless he possess the practice of the physician, will kill his patient, for instance, if he operates on a man who has a disposition to fever. He spoke also of a certain mathematician, who made excellent bells according to musical proportions, obtaining these proportions from a musician who gave him measures both of size and thickness and indicated the right dimensions of the hammer that was to pound the bells. Now from what has been said —that some virtues are intellectual, and others a matter of habit =|10|=  —it should not be understood that therefore virtues are to be found in some part other than the rational, for the essence of every virtue is in the rational part. Yet some virtues are in this part by their very nature in so far as reason is speculative, others are in it in so far as reason is the ruler of the exterior man.
13. Notitia igitur transiens in affectum est sapientia, quae est «cognitio causarum altissimarum et per causas altissimas». -- Notitia autem transiens in effectum extrinsecum est ars, quae est «habitus cum ratione factivus», et hic iungitur notitia cum faciente, praevia tamen affectione. Medium inter haec est electio, quae iungitur affectui et ordinatur ad opus. Quod enim quis eligit amat et eligit ad opus; et haec est prudentia, quae est media inter sapientiam et artem. Intelligentia autem est in ascendendo a prudentia ad sapientiam, quae est cognitio principiorum et regularum certarum. -- Necesse est similiter descendere ad artem per scientiam. Chirurgus, nisi habeat regulam medici, interficit hominem, ut si incidat eum qui est dispositus ad febrem. -- Dicebat etiam de quodam mathematico, qui faciebat campanas optimas,$et illas faciebat secundum proportiones musicales; tamen istas habuerat a quodam musico, qui dederat sibi formam et longitudinis et spissitudinis et martellum proportionatum ad putandum. -- Nec est intelligendum, propter hoc quod dicitur, quod virtutes quaedam sunt intellectuales, quaedam consuetudinariae, quod propter hoc virtutes sint in parte aliqua alia nisi in rationali, quia essentia omnis virtutis est in rationali; sed quaedam sunt in rationali secundum se et secundum quod est speculatrix; quaedam autem, secundum quod est exterioris hominis gubernatrix.


C. Acts of Righteousness



14. Thirdly, the radiation of truth enlightens for the sake of acts of righteousness, according to the dictates of political laws. Here I do not have to speak as a theologian or jurist, but as a philosopher. Now, this enlightenment comprises four points. Although no single philosopher has ever given them, something of them appears from a compilation of the works of many. This enlightenment may be considered from the viewpoints of the rite of worship, the form of common life, the proper rule of leadership, and the right of judicial opinion. The right of judicial opinion is not attained except through the proper rule of leadership; nor is the proper rule of leadership attained except through the form of common life; nor again is the latter attained except through the first.
14. Tertius radius veritatis illustrat ad morales iustitias secundum dictamen legum politicarum. Hic non debeo loqui sicut theologus nec sicut iurista, sed sicut philosophus loquitur. Haec comprenhensio est circa quatuor. Nullus autem philosophorum dedit hanc, sed si fuerit collecta ex multis, aliquid proveniet. -- Attenditur autem quantum ad ritum colendi, quantum ad formam convivendi, quantum ad normam praesidendi, quantum ad censuram iudicandi. Ad censuram iudicandi non pervenitur nisi per normam praesidendi; nec ad normam praesidendi nisi per formam convivendi; nec ad istam nisi per primam.


15. All true philosophers worshiped a single God. That is why even Socrates =|11|=  was killed: in his reverence for one God, he forbade sacrifices to Apollo. It is true that Plato argued with him to flee. "May it never happen," answered Socrates, "that I deny a truth I have asserted!" And so Plato did not interfere with his execution: he even blushed for having suggested flight. The worship of God is the dutiful expression of faith. Hence Tullius =|12|=  says that propriety consists in the cult of the gods. It is not fitting that he say "of the gods." The angels are not called gods in Scriptures, lest they be venerated as gods, but men are called gods: God hath stood in the congregation of gods, that is, of men, not of angels. Now, the worship of God consists in praise and sacrifice.
15. Omnes veri philosophi unum Deum coluerunt. Unde etiam Socrates, quia prohibebat, sacrificium fieri Apollini, interfectus fuit, cum coleret unum Deum. Verum est, quod Plato suasit sibi fugam. «Absit, inquit Socrates, ut negem veritatem, quam asserui»; et ideo Plato non interfuit morti eius, erubescens, quod suasisset sibi fugam. Cultus Dei pietas est fidei. Unde dicit Tullius, quod pietas consistit in cultu deorum. Non placet, quod dicit deorum. Scriptura nunquam vocat Angelos deos, ne venerentur sicut dii, sed homines dicuntur dii: Deus stetit in synagoga deorum =|15|= , id est hominum, non Angelorum. Cultus autem Dei consistit in laude et sacrificio.


16. The manner in which sacrifice was introduced is seen in the fact that Abel offered a sacrifice by faith, and so did Noah, of whose offering it is said: The Lord smelled the sweet odor. And these sacrifices represented that which Christ offered on the cross. Hence it is said, the Lord smelled: God was appeased by the death of His only Son. By contrast, the demons, because of their pride, seek to be worshiped as God Himself, in order to obtain on earth the honor they could not have in heaven, and because men are farthest removed from God. =|13|=  A man who makes such sacrifices offers the blood of Christ, in that it was shed in order to appease the Father.
16. Quomodo autem sacrificium introductum sit videtur, quod per fidem Abel obtulit sacrificium =|16|=  et Noè, de quo dicitur: Odoratus est Dominus odorem suavitatis =|11|= . Et significabant haec sacrificia sacrificium Christi, quod in cruce fecit; et ideo dicitur Dominus odorare, ut Deus placaretur per mortem Unigeniti. -- Daemones autem propter superbiam suam volunt coli ut Deus, ut habeant in terra quod habere non potuerunt in caelo; et quia maxime alienantur homines a Deo. -- Sanguinem Christi offert qui facit talia sacrificia, eo quod effusus fuit ad placandum Patrem.


17. But the sacrifice of praise =|14|=  imposes upon the heart something naturally related to judgment: it is concerned with a command of nature; and in this all true philosophers agree. Hence he [Aristotle] says that "whoever doubts whether parents are to be honored and God is to be venerated, is deserving of punishment." =|15|=
17. Sacrificium autem laudis =|18|=  in corde naturale iudicatorium dictat, et est de dictamine naturae; et in hoc consenserunt omnes veri$philosophi. Unde dicit ille, quod «qui dubitat, utrum parentes honorandi sint, et Deus venerandus, poena dignus est».


1. Form of Common Life



18. The second element is the form of common life, expressed thus: See thou never do to another what thou wouldst hate to have done to thee by another. This is written in the heart by eternal law. From this natural law come other laws and rules as beautiful sprouts. But why do you refuse to be hung, and hang the thief? The answer: better to hang the thief than to damage the community. As for Jonas, he condemned himself to be thrown into the sea.
18. Secundus modus est forma convivendi, ut: «Quod tibi non vis fieri, ne facias alteri» =|19|= . Hoc in corde scriptum est per legem aeternam. Ex hac naturali lege emanant leges et canones, pullulationes pulcrae. Sed quid? Tu non vis suspendi, et latronem suspendis? Dicendum, quod latro prius debet suspendi, quam ut respublica laedatur; Ionas =|20|=  contra se dedit sententiam, ut proiiceretur in mare.


2. Proper Rule of Leadership



19. The third element is the proper rule of leadership, that is, how a leader must behave in relation to his followers, and conversely. And this right rule derives from the first truth: that the people must help the one who is punishing and avenging; while the leader must not seek his own good, but that of the community. The Philosopher =|16 |= says that in this does the tyrant differ from the leader: that the tyrant seeks his own good, as did Herod who, when his throne was threatened, massacred children; while the true leader strives toward the common good. And yet, today, there is a great abomination prevailing among those who command: for no helmsman is allowed on a ship unless he knows how to steer. Why then is a man placed at the head of a state when he does not know how to govern? That is why the state is poorly ruled when its leaders are appointed by heredity. David was most holy; Solomon, although extremely addicted to the pleasures of the flesh, was yet wise; but Roboam was a fool, for he divided the kingdom. It is through the devil's doing that the Romans chose Diocletian. They were to elect a man eating from an iron table, and they found him eating from a ploughshare; but later he committed many evil deeds. Hence, as often as the Romans elected their leaders, they chose the most wise,{ and then the state was properly governed; but after they had established succession by heredity, everything was ruined.
19. Tertia est norma praesidendi, id est qualiter princeps ad populum debet se habere, et e converso. Et haec emanat a veritate prima: quia populus debet assistere punienti et vindicanti; princeps non debet suam utilitatem quaerere, sed rei publicae. Philosophus dicit, quod differt tyrannus et princeps: tyrannus quaerit propriam utilitatem, sicut Herodes =|21|= , qui, timens privari regno suo, saevit in pueros; princeps autem communem utilitatem intendit. Tamen hodie magna abominatio est in his qui praesunt, quia in navi non ponitur rector, nisi habeat artem gubernandi; quomodo ergo in republica ponitur ille qui nescit regere? Unde quando per successionem praesunt, male regitur respublica. David fuit sanctissimus; Salomon, etsi lubricissimus, tamen sapiens; Roboam stultus, quia divisit regnum =|22|= . Romani per artem diaboli elegerunt Diocletianum. Debebant eligere comedentem super mensam ferream et invenerunt comedentem illum super vomerem; qui postmodum multa mala fecit. Unde quamdiu Romani illos qui praeessent, elegerunt, sapientissimos elegerunt; et tunc bene gubernata est respublica; sed postquam ad successionem venerunt, totum fuit destructum.


20. The final element is the right of judicial opinion, so that a man may know how to judge about any matter, as regards persons, things and actions. All these judgments flow from the first truth.
20. Ultimum est censura iudicandi, ut homo sciat, quid de quacumque re sit iudicandum, quod spectat ad personas, ad res, ad modum agendi. Haec omnia manant a veritate prima.


21. But in all these things, reason went on a rampage, metaphysics ran riot: for some philosophers =|17|=  supposed an eternal world, reasoning that an eternal cause implied an eternal effect: and they were mistaken about the first cause. Likewise, mathematicians were originally concerned with numbers, but later came to study the influences and secrets of the heart. Scientists knew about bodies and minerals and said: "Art imitates nature," =|18|=  and we know the secrets of nature, and so we will make for you gold and silver. Likewise, grammarians held the whole world spellbound with their poems and fables, until such time as the saints came to refute them. In the same fashion, logicians made the whole world mad with their sophistries and false statements. Again, orators became so delighted with the color of their speech that they claimed God's kingdom was made of nothing else: and yet, eloquence is soon taken out of this world. But the moral art was not so abused because it does not depend upon speculation alone; and yet jurisprudence went wild because of avarice, and lawsuits that were supposed to be concluded according to right, are stretched out endlessly through legal pretexts and subtleties, while the intention of justice had been to bring them to a close.
21. Sed in his omnibus luxuriata est ratio; luxuriata est metaphysica: quia quidam posuerunt, mundum aeternum, quia, si causa aeterna, et effectus aeternus; et isti male senserunt de causa prima. Similiter mathematici primo sciverunt numeros et postea ad influentias et secreta cordium venerunt. Naturales sciverunt et de corporibus et mineralibus et dixerunt: «Ars imitatur naturam»; et nos scimus secreta naturae: ergo nos faciemus vobis aurum et argentum. Similiter gram-$matici poésibus et fabulis suis tenuerunt totum mundum, quousque venerunt Sancti contra eos. Similiter logici cum suis sophismatibus et suis facibus positionibus fecerunt mundum insanire. Similiter rhetores ita delectabantur in colore sermonis, ut non aliud esse regnum Dei dicerent: tamen sublata est modo de medio. Ars moralis non ita luxuriata est, quia non in sola speculatione stat; sed scientia iuris multum luxuriatur propter lucrum; et causae, quae deberent terminari per ius, modo per allegationem et subtilitatem iuris fiunt immortales, cum tamen intentio iuris sit causas rescindere.


22. These are the nine luminaries enlightening the soul, to wit, the truth of things, words and actions: of things, that is, of essences, of figures, and of natures: in their "suchness" referring to hidden differences, in their quantity referring to manifest proportions, in their nature referring to mixed properties. — The truth of words is threefold, in regard to expressions, arguments, and persuasions: first, in regard to expressions concerning mental concepts; second, in regard to arguments drawing rational agreement; third, in regard to persuasions producing inclinations of the heart. The first is the object of grammar, the second of logic, and the third of rhetoric. The truth of actions is threefold: in regard to proprieties, activities, and lawful relationships. Proprieties are concerned with the observance of conventions; activities depend upon intellectual speculations; relationships are based on civil law. Philosophers offered these nine sciences and gave examples of them. But God has manifested it to them. Later, they sought to reach wisdom, and truth was leading them: and they promised to procure wisdom, that is, beatitude, that is, an intellect having attained its goal. They promised it, I mean, to those who would follow them.
22. Haec sunt novem lumina illustrans animam, scilicet veritas rerum, vocum, morum: rerum, scilicet essentiarum, figurarum, naturarum quantum ad quidditatum differentias occultas, quantum ad quantitatum proportiones manifestas, quantum ad naturarum proprietates mixtas. Primo metaphysica, secundo mathematica, tertio naturalis seu physica. -- Veritas vocum tripliciter: quantum ad locutiones, argumentationes, persuasiones; primo, quantum ad locutiones indicantes mentis conceptus; secundo quantum ad argumentationes trahentes mentis assensus; tertio, quantum ad persuasiones inclinantes mentis affectus; prima grammatica, secunda logica, tertia rhetorica. -- Veritas morum tripliciter: quantum ad modestias, industrias, iustitias: modestas, quantum ad exercitationes consuetudinales; industrias, quantum ad speculationes intellectuales; iustitias, quantum ad leges politicas. Prima virtus consuetudinalis, secunda virtus intellectualis, tertia virtus iustitialis. -- Has novem scientias dederunt philosophi et illustrati sunt. Deus enim illis revelavit =|2|= \ Postmodum voluerunt ad sapientiam pervenire, et veritas trahebat eos; et promiserunt dare sapientiam, hoc est beatitudinem, hoc est intellectum adeptum; promiserunt, inquam, discipulis suis.


D. Light Separated from Darkness



23. Now the fourth consideration is this: how did they come to the point at which light was separated from darkness? Indeed, by separating themselves from darkness, they turned toward light. But this comes about in such a way that the soul turns itself first toward itself, then toward spiritual intelligences, and finally toward eternal reasons.
23. Quarta ergo consideratio est, quomodo venerunt ad hoc, in quo lux separata est a tenebris =|24|= ; separando enim se a tenebris, converterunt se ad lucem. Sed hoc ita fit, ut anima convertat se primo super se; secundo, super Intelligentias spirituales; tertio, super rationes aeternas.


1. Animal Potency



24. First, then, a man needs to consider himself, not as with the material eye that sees itself only through some reflection from a mirror, but as with the mental eye that first sees itself and then sees other things. But for this there is necessarily a turning toward potencies and toward acts. Now, the soul has three potencies, animal, intellectual and divine, corresponding to the threefold eye, of the flesh, of reason and of contemplation. The first watches, the second is obscured, and the third is completely blind. =|19|=  The animal potency has two aspects: it considers either the objects of the particular and the common senses, or sensible imaginings, and so it consists in senses and imagination. The intellectual potency, likewise, has two aspects: it considers either universal abstract reasons, abstracting for instance from place, time and size; or it is lifted up to separate spiritual substances. And so there are two powers, reason and understanding: through reason, the soul gathers; through understanding, it knows itself and the spiritual substances; and then it becomes interior to these intelligences, it enters their aeviternity. Similarly, the divine operation or potency is twofold: the one which turns itself toward the vision of divine displays, the other, to the savoring of divine favors. The first is brought about through understanding, the second, through the unitive power, which is secret and of which they knew little or nothing.
24. Primo ergo oportet se considerare, non sicut oculus carnis, qui non videt se nisi per quandam reflexionem a speculo, sed sicut oculus mentis, qui primo videt se et postmodum alia. Sed ad hoc oportet, ut convertat se super potentias et super actus. Habet enim anima tres potentias: animalem, intellectualem, divinam, secundum triplicem oculum: carnis, rationis, contemplationis. Primus viget, secundus caligat, tertius excaecatus est. -- Potentia animalis duplex est:$vel in obiecta sensuum particularium et sensus communis, vel in phantasmata sensibilium, et sic est sensus et imaginatio. -- Intellectualis etiam est duplex: aut ut considerat universales rationes abstractas, ut abstrahit a loco, tempore et dimensione; aut ut elevatur ad substantias spirituales separatas; et sic sunt duae potentiae, scilicet ratio et intellectus: per rationem confert, per intellectum cognoscit se et substantias spirituales; et tunc ingerit se Intelligentiis, et tunc intrat aeviternum ipsarum. -- Similiter operatio vel potentia divina duplex est: una, quae se convertit ad contuenda divina spectacula; alia, quae se convertit ad degustanda divina solatia. Primum fit per intelligentiam, secundum per vim unitivam sive amativam, quae secreta est, et de qua parum vel nihil noverunt.


25. Hence, there are three powers and six operations; and when the soul sees all these objects, thus returning upon itself, there comes about a certain mirror most beautiful and pure, in which it sees something pertaining to lightning and splendor, as in a polished mirror the image may be seen. But for this there is need of opacity, either natural or artificial, natural as in a steel mirror, artificial as in a glass mirror with a backing of lead. Second, there is need of polishing through which the mirror receives the form or image. Third, there is need of brightness, for at night a mirror gives no reflection. Likewise, in the soul there are lesser virtues whose function is to retain light, lest it run through; there are intermediate virtues that act like polishes; and there are higher virtues like crowning brightnesses: and in this sense the soul is a mirror.
25. Ergo triplex est potentia, et sex sunt operationes; et quando haec omnia obiecta videt anima, sic rediens super se, fit speculum quoddam pulcherrimum et tersum, in quo videt quidquid est fulgoris et pulcritudinis, sicut in speculo polito videtur imago. Sed ad hoc requiritur opacitas naturalis, vel artificialis: naturalis, ut in speculo de chalybe; artificialis, ut in plumbo supposito vitro; secundo requiritur politio, per quam formam vel imaginem recipit; tertio requiritur splendor, quia in nocte speculum nihil reddit. Similiter in anima sunt virtutes inferiores tanquam tenentes lumen, ne defluat; mediae sunt sicut politiones; supremae sunt sicut splendores supervenientes: et sic est anima speculum.


26. But it is fitting that we have a second level, to correspond to beautiful forms, those with an inner analogy to the heavenly lights, such as the angels: for if [the soul] were to raise itself immediately to the divine splendors, it would be sent right back. But the angels are both light and mirror: =|20|=  and in order to contemplate them, the soul is lifted up in three ways. For the angels have lesser powers by which they regulate the movements of higher bodies and exert their influence upon worldly matters: and this is the opinion of philosophers. =|21|=  — Indeed, it is a fact that "a cause is higher than its effect," and also that the living or animate being comes about or is engendered with regard to the influence of heavenly beings:  so also is the soul. If, then, the animate being is superior to the inanimate, it necessarily follows that the former has a cause other than these bodies: and this cause is the influence of angels, combined with that of the heavenly bodies. Hence, this results from the governing power of the intellectual substance exerting its influence upon the motion of the globe which it rules. — For others, angels were as many as the number of motions because of a natural inclination toward motion. =|22|=  — Others again supposed only ten intelligences, drawing from the consideration of their influence: and they produced insanities and controversies. An angel can well exist without motion.
26. Sed oportet, ut habeamus secundum gradum, quod apponatur pulcris formis, scilicet luminibus caelicis sibi proportionatis, ut Angelis, quia, si statim se elevaret ad divinos fulgores, reverberaretur. Angeli autem sunt et lumina et specula; ad quos contemplandos tripliciter elevatur anima. -- Habent enim Angeli virtutes infimas, per quas regulant motus nobilium corporum et influunt in mundialia; et hoc est positio philosophorum. Constat enim, quod «causa nobilior est suo effectu»; et constat, quod ad influentiam corporum caelestium fit vel generatur vivum et animatum: ergo et anima. Si ergo animatum nobilius est non animato: ergo necesse est, ut habeat aliam causam quam illa corpora. Et illa est influentia Angelica cum influentia corporum caelestium. Unde per regimen substantiae intellectualis, influentis super motum orbis, quem regit, fit hoc. -- Alii posuerunt, quod Angeli essent numerati secundum numerum motuum propter inclinationem naturalem ad motum. -- Alii posuerunt decem Intelligentias solum, considerantes earum influentias; et fecerunt insanias et contentiones. Angelus bene potest esse sine motu.


27. Again, there are in angels some virtues related to rational souls through which they govern men. Indeed, they are the conveyors of light and the uplifters of intelligences so that illuminations may be received. And so there is in them a conveying power, because they are a certain light and a certain transparency, and they temper the divine light within themselves for our sake, so that it may be proportioned to us. Secondly, there is in them an uplifting power through which they make us able, by condescending to us and raising us up, to receive this particular radiation, and yet not as achieving it themselves. =|23|=  Finally, there is in them a supreme power through which they turn themselves to God in the act of receiving splendors, and the eternal light they love; and all things lead back to this light in order that they may tend toward God through love and praise. Hence in Job: =|24|=  Where were you ... while the morning stars sang in chorus and all the sons of God shouted for joy? And all this corresponds with the philosophers' opinions. Again, by this very fact, the angels are to give thanks. When the soul sees all this, it becomes interior to the angels, and it enters their world.
27. Item, sunt virtutes in Angelis ad animas rationales, per quas regunt homines. Sunt enim delatores luminum et elevatores intellectuum ad suscipiendas illuminationes. Est ergo in eis virtus delativa, quia sunt quaedam lumina et quoddam pervium, et contemperant in se nobis divinum radium, ut proportionetur nobis. -- Secundo modo est in eis virtus elevativa, qua nos aptant per condescensionem et sublevationem ad illum radium suscipiendum, non tanquam perficientes. -- Item, est in eis virtus suprema, qua se ad Deum convertunt in susceptione splendorum et aeternae lucis, quam amant; et omnia reducunt ad ipsam, ut tendant in Deum per amorem et laudem. Unde in Iob: Ubi eras, cum me laudarent astra matutina, et iubilarent omnes filii Dei? =|25|= . Et hoc totum senserunt philosophi. Item, Angeli sunt ex hoc gratias acturi. -- Quando hoc videt anima, ingerit se Angelis et intrat saeculum ipsorum.


28. The third level consists in this, that the intellect itself, considering the conditions of being in the light of the relationship between cause and caused, moves itself up from the effect to the causes and passes over to eternal reasons. Now, the cause is different from the caused effects: because the first cause is the first being and the caused thing is a produced being; the first cause is a simple being and the caused thing a composite being; the first cause is pure act, and the caused thing a mixed being; the first cause is a fixed being, and the caused thing a. variable being; the first cause is the absolute being, and the caused thing a contingent being; the first cause is a perfect being, and the caused thing a diminished being. All these statements are most certain.
28. Tertius gradus est, quod ipse intellectus, considerans conditiones entis secundum relationem causae ad causatum, transfert se ab effectu ad causas et transit ad rationes aeternas. Differt causa a causatis: quia prima causa est ens primum, causatum ens productum; causa prima est ens simplex, causatum compositum; causa prima est ens purum, et causatum permixtum; causa prima est ens fixum, et causatum variatum; causa prima est ens absolutum, et causatum alligatum; causa prima est ens perfectum, causatum diminutum. Haec ergo sunt certissima.


29. But intelligence is led to this light in a threefold manner: by reasoning, testing, and understanding; rationally, experimentally, and understandingly. Through the rational way, =|25|=  as follows: if there is a produced being, there must be a first being, for an effect supposes a cause. If indeed there exists a being which is dependent upon another, in the likeness of another, and for the sake of another, then there must exist a being that is of itself, according to itself, and for itself. — If a composite being exists, there must exist a simple being from which it has being, for as soon as being is removed from simplicity, it falls into composition. — If a mixed being exists, there must exist a pure being, for nothing created is pure. — If a being with intrinsic variation exists, there must exist a fixed being, for the movable is led back to the immovable. For when the hand moves, the arm is motionless; and when the arm moves, the shoulder is motionless: and so whatever moves is always moved by something fixed. =|26|=  — If we suppose a contingent being, there must exist an absolute being: for every creature is dependent upon one genus from among the predicaments; but when things are dependent, they cannot give being to each other: and so there must be an absolute being from which they receive being. — If a diminished being exists, there must exist a perfect being. And along this road the Philosopher =|27|=  proceeds to demonstrate that the world is eternal, arguing that local circular motion, being perfect, precedes any movement or change. But I answer: it should be said that the perfect must exist before the diminished only if we speak of the unqualifiedly perfect, and not of the perfect within a genus, which is the case with local motion. Thus intelligence is carried along in the act of rational thought.
29. Intelligentia autem fertur in hanc lucem tripliciter: ratiocinando, experiendo, intelligendo; rationabiliter, experimentaliter, intelligentialiter. -- Per viam rationis sic. Si est ens productum: ergo est ens primum, quia effectus ponit causam. Si enim est ens ab alio, secundum aliud et propter aliud: ergo est ens a se, secundum se et propter se. -- Item, si est ens compositum, necesse est, esse simplex, a quo habet esse, quia esse, quod recedit a simplicitate, cadit in compositionem. -- Item, si est ens permixtum, necesse est, esse ens purum, creatum autem nullum purum. -- Item, si est ens secundum se variatum, necesse est, esse fixum, quia mobile reducitur ad immobile. Mota enim manu, stat cubitus; et moto cubito, stat humerus; et sic semper quod movetur movebitur per aliquod fixum. -- Item, si est dare alligatum: ergo et absolutum; omnis enim creatura alligata est alicui generi praedicamentorum; sed quod alligatum est, unum non dat alteri esse: ergo necesse est, absolutum esse, a quo recipiant esse. -- Item, si est ens diminutum, necesse est, esse ens perfectum. -- Et hac$via procedit Philosophus ad ostendendum mundum aeternum, quia omnem motum et mutationem praecedit motus localis circularis, quia perfectus est. Sed respondeo: dicendum, quod verum est, quod perfectum est ante diminutum, loquendo de perfecto simpliciter, sed non de perfecto in genere, qualis est motus localis. -- Et sic fertur intelligentia ratiocinando.


30. Likewise, it is carried along in the act of testing, as follows: the product is defective in regard to its origin; and so is the composite in regard to the simple; and again, the mixed in regard to the pure, and so also with the others; and hence they are called privations. But "privations are not known, except through their dispositions." =|28|= ! "By means of the straight line, we know both itself and the curved." And if "every knowledge proceeds from a pre-existing knowledge," it necessarily follows that intelligence is perceived in itself, and that it possesses a certain light through which it knows the first being.
30. Fertur similiter experiendo sic: productum respectu primi defectivum est; similiter compositum respectu simplicis; similiter permixtum respectu puri, et sic de aliis; ergo dicunt privationes. Sed «privationes non cognoscuntur nisi per habitus suos». «Iudex enim est rectum sui et obliqui». Et si «omnis cognitio fit ex praeexistenti cognitione»: ergo necessario intelligentia experitur in se, quod habeat aliquod lumen, per quod cognoscat primum esse.


31. And so, these principles being presupposed, the intelligence understands and says that the first being exists, and that the notion of being properly fits nothing but the first being, and that all things receive being from it, because this predicate is found in none but the first being. Likewise, simple being is unqualifiedly perfect being: hence it follows that nothing better can be understood. Wherefore God cannot be conceived as non-existing, as Anselm proves.^ =|29|=
31. Sic igitur, his praesuppositis, intellectus intelligit et dicit, primum esse est, et nulli vere esse convenit nisi primo esse, et ab ipso omnia habent esse, quia nulli inest hoc praedicatum nisi primo esse. Similiter simplex esse est simpliciter perfectum esse: ergo est quo nihil intelligitur melius. Unde Deus non potest cogitari non esse, ut probat Anselmus.


32. When the soul sees this in a more familiar way, first through reasoning, then through experiencing and finally through understanding, it may come to rest at this point. And so, by reasoning, inferences are drawn from opposites: if there is a later being, there is a first; if there is a composite, there is a simple, etc. By experience [conclusions are drawn], because privations are not known except by positing their cause, and these six [arguments] are brought about by the method of defect and privation. By understanding, because the existence of such things as first being and simple being cannot be hidden to the soul. =|30|=  Again, the soul considers this being as having substance, power and operation, respectively first, most pure and most simple, and likewise with the other six; as containing within itself oneness, truth, and goodness, respectively first, most pure, and most absolute, and likewise with the other six; as having constancy, beauty and goodness, respectively first, most pure, and most absolute; as having memory, intelligence, and will, according to these six; as having life, wisdom, and joy, according to these six: and then it understands that it is good in its very essence, and that all things are led to beatitude through it, and hence that it is supremely desirable and must be supremely desired: and in doing such a thing, the soul comes to rest with this same being.
32. Quando anima videt hoc familiarius, primo ratiocinando, secundo experiendo, tertio intelligendo; ibi potest quiescere. Unde ratiocinando infert per oppositum; si est posterius, est prius; si est compositum, est simplex etc.; experimentaliter, quia privationes non cognoscuntur nisi in positione causae, et illa sex dicuntur per modum defectus et privationis; intelligentialiter, quia non possunt latere animam, ut primum esse est, simplex esse est etc. -- Item, considerat illud esse, ut habet substantiam, virtutem et operationem, ut primam, purissimam, simplicissimam, et sic de aliis sex; ut est in eo unitas, veritas, bonitas, ut prima, ut purissima, ut absolutissima, et sic de aliis sex; ut habet firmitatem, speciositatem, bonitatem, ut primam, purissimam, et absolutissimam; ut habet memoriam, intelligentiam et voluntatem, secundum illa sex; ut habet vitam, sapientiam, iucunditatem, secundum illa sex; et tunc intelligit, quod est bonum per essentiam, et omnia per illud beatificantur, et ideo summe appetibile et summe debet appeti; et hoc faciendo conquiescit.


33. And so, first the soul sees itself as a mirror, then it sees the angels or intelligences as luminaries and conveying media. In other words, it sees within itself as in a mirror, and within intelligence(s) as in a medium which conveys the eternal light and leads to contemplation. Finally, it looks upon eternal light as the original fountainhead, in the six manners explained above, and this, through reason, experience, and understanding.! And while it sees this and rises to divine contemplation, it declares itself in possession of an intellect having reached its goal, which the philosophers had promised: and this is the objective toward which truth leads. Yet, it is through the virtues that we must reach it, as the philosophers did. When they discovered it was impossible to attain such a high summit except through the virtues, they turned to the teaching of these same virtues, as did Socrates. Wherefore a man is reputed as having spoken not so well of these when he is content with speaking only: but Socrates acted them out because he saw that the intellect could not reach this point unless the soul had been cleansed. =|31|=  
33. Primo ergo anima videt se sicut speculum, deinde Angelos sive Intelligentias sicut lumina et sicut medium delativum; sive videt in$se sicut in speculo, in Intelligentia sicut in medio delativo lucis aeternae et contemperativo; deinde in luce aeterna tanquam in obiecto fontano, quantum ad illas sex conditiones dictas, et rationabiliter et experimentaliter et intelligentialiter. -- Dum haec igitur percipit et consurgit ad divinum contuitum, dicit, se habere intellectum adeptum, quem promiserunt philosophi; et ad hoc veritas trahit. -- Sed tamen per virtutes oportet devenire, sicut fecerunt philosophi; quando viderunt, quod tam alte non posset perveniri nisi per virtutes, converterunt se ad docendum illas, ut fecit Socrates; unde reputatur minus bene dixisse, eo quod tantum de illis dixit; sed hoc fecit, quia videbat, quod ad illum intellectum non potest perveniri, nisi anima sit purgata.


VII. Sixth Collation



600 SIXTH COLLATION601 Third Treatise on the First Vision, Concerning the First Exemplary Cause of the Virtues, and the Exemplary and Cardinal Virtues Flowing from It


A. Third Treatise on the First Vision, Concerning the First Exemplary Cause of the Virtues, and the Exemplary and Cardinal Virtues Flowing from It



1. GOD saw the light that it was good; and He divided the light from the darkness, etc. The passage, God saw the light, is quoted on account of the first vision of the intelligence, which is infused by nature. It means that God made it possible to see. This has been covered in the two preceding collations by considering the sciences, in that the light shines as the truth of things, the truth of words, and the truth of moral acts. And nine parts were distinguished in the doctrine, of which the three principal are radiations proceeding, according to Augustine, =|1|=  from the decree of the eternal light. It was also established that God saw, that is, made it possible to see, through wisdom-procuring contemplation, through the enlightenment of the soul seen in itself as in a mirror, seen in the intelligence (s) and in a conveying medium, and in the uncreated light as in its fountainhead, in accordance with the six conditions which this light impresses upon the mind. And in accordance with these, the soul rises up in the said light by means of reasoning, testing, and understanding, as it has been said. And the philosophers—at least the most worthy among them—and the ancients have come to this point: that there exists a beginning and an end and an exemplary reason.
1. Vidit Deus lucem, quod esset bona, et divisit lucem a tenebris =|1 |= etc. Propter primam visionem intelligentiae per naturam inditae sumptum est verbum illud: Vidit Deus lucem, id est videre fecit. De hoc supra in duabus collationibus dictum est, et per considerationem scientialem, pro eo quod radiat lux ut veritas rerum, ut veritas vocum, ut veritas morum. Et fuerunt distinctae novem partes doctrinae, quarum tres principales sunt radii, et sunt ex dictamine lucis aeternae, secundum Augustinum. -- Item, quod vidit, id est, videre fecit per contemplationem sapientialem, illuminando animam in se tanquam in speculo, in Intelligentia tanquam in medio delativo, in luce increata tanquam in obiecto fontano, secundum illas sex conditiones, quas imprimit menti; et secundum has consurgit anima in illam lucem ratiocinando, experiendo, intelligendo, ut dictum est. Et ad hoc venerunt philosophi et nobiles eorum et antiqui, quod esset principium et finis et ratio exemplaris.


1. Philosophers Following Darkness



2. God. .. divided the light from the darkness in order that what had been said of the angelsf =|2|=  could also be said of the philosophers. But why have some of them followed darkness? Because of this: although all could see the first cause as the universal principle and universal end, they had different opinions concerning the means. £ For some denied that exemplars of things existed in this cause: the leader of these seems to have been Aristotle =|3|=  who, in the beginning and the end of his Metaphysics, and in many other places, strongly condemns the ideas of Plato. Wherefore he says that God knows only Himself, and does not need the knowledge of any other thing, and produces [not as an Idea, but] as the desired and loved [Reality]. But this supposes that He knows nothing, or no particular thing. Therefore Aristotle is the principle assailant of Platonic ideas in his "Ethics" =|4|=  where he says that the supreme good cannot be an Idea. And the reasons he adduces are worthless, and the commentator answers them.
2. Divisit tamen Deus lucem a tenebris, ut, sicut dictum est de Angelis, sic dicatur de philosophis. Sed unde aliqui tenebras secuti sunt? Ex hoc, quod licet omnes viderint primam causam omnium principium, omnium finem, in medio tamen diversificati sunt. Nam aliqui negaverunt, in ipsa esse exemplaria rerum; quorum princeps videtur fuisse Aristoteles, qui et in principio Metaphysicae et in fine et in multis aliis locis exsecratur ideas Platonis. Unde dicit, quod Deus solum novit se et non indiget notitia alicuius alterius rei et movet ut desideratum et amatum. Ex hoc ponunt, quod nihil, vel nullum particulare cognoscat. Unde illas ideas praecipuus impugnat Aristoteles et in Ethicis, ubi dicit, quod summum bonum non potest esse idea. Et nihil valent rationes suae, et Commentator solvit eas.


3. Upon this error, there follows another, that is, that God has neither foreknowledge nor providence, since He does not have within Himself a rational justification of things by which He could know them. They also say =|5|=  that there are no truths concerning the future except that of necessary things. And from this it follows that all things come about either by chance or by necessity. And since it is impossible that things come about by chance, the Arabs conclude to absolute necessity, that is, that these substances that move the globe are the necessary causes of all things. From this it follows that truth is hidden, that is, the truth of government of worldly things in terms of pain and glory. If, indeed, these substances are inerrant movers, nothing is supposed concerning hell or the existence of the devil: neither did Aristotle ever suppose the existence of the devil, nor happiness after this life, as it appears. Here, then, there is a threefold error: a concealment of exemplarity, of divine providence and of world government.
3. Ex isto errore sequitur alius error, scilicet quod Deus non habet praescientiam nec providentiam, ex quo non habet rationes rerum in se, per quas cognoscat. -- Dicunt etiam, quod nulla veritas de$futuro est nisi veritas necessariorum; et veritas contingentium non est veritas. -- Et ex hoc sequitur quod omnia fiant a casu, vel necessitate fatali. Et quia impossibile est fieri a casu; ideo inducunt necessitatem fatalem Arabes, scilicet quod illae substantiae moventes orbem sunt causae omnium necessariae. -- Ex hoc sequitur veritas occultata, scilicet dispositionis mundialium secundum poenas et gloriam. Si enim illae substantiae movent non errantes, nihil ponitur de inferno, nec quod sit daemon; nec Aristoteles unquam posuit daemonem nec beatitudinem post hanc vitam, ut videtur. Iste est ergo triplex error, scilicet Occultatio exemplaritatis, divinae providentiae, dispositionis mundanae.


4. From this follows a threefold blindness or darkness, that is, concerning the eternity of the world, which seems to be Aristotle's thesis according to all the Greek doctors, for instance Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory Nazianzen, the Damascene, Basil =|6|=  and the commentators of all the Arabs,  who say that Aristotle holds this opinion, and his words are seen to mean it. Never will you find that he said that the world had a principle or a beginning: he even argues against Plato =|7|=  who seems to have been the only one to suppose that time began. And this [opinion of Aristotle] is contrary to the light of truth. From this follows blindness concerning the existence of a single intellect, for if the world is supposed to be eternal, one of these hypotheses must be true: that souls are infinite in number since there would be an infinite number of men; or that the soul is corruptible; or that it is transmitted from body to body; or that there is only one single intellect in all [rational beings], an error attributed to Aristotle by his commentator. =|8|=  From these two propositions it may be concluded that after this life there is neither happiness nor pain.
4. Ex quibus sequitur triplex caecitas vel caligo, scilicet de aeternitate mundi, ut videtur dicere Aristoteles secundum omnes doctores Graecos, ut Gregorium Nyssenum, Gregorium Nazianzenum, Damascenum, Basilium, et commentatores omnium Arabum, qui dicunt, quod Aristoteles hoc sensit, et verba sua sonare videntur. Nunquam invenies, quod ipse dicat, quod mundus habuit principium vel initium; immo redarguit Platonem, qui solus videtur posuisse, tempus incepisse. Et istud repugnat lumini veritatis.$Ex isto sequitur alia caecitas de unitate intellectus, quia, si ponitur mundus aeternus, necessario aliquod istorum sequitur: vel quod animae sunt infinitae, cum homines fuerint infiniti; vel quod anima est corruptibilis; vel quod est transitio de corpore in corpus; vel quod intellectus sit unus in omnibus, qui error attribuitur Aristoteli secundum Commentatorem.$Ex his duobus sequitur, quod post hanc vitam non est felicitas nec poena.


5. These men, then, fell into error and were not separated from darkness: and these are the worst errors. And they are not yet closed by the key of the bottomless pit. =|9|=  These are the obscurities of Egypt: although a great light had been seen in these things through earlier forms of knowledge, yet all light was put out by these errors. And some men, seeing that Aristotle had been so great in other matters and had expressed the truth so well, could not believe that in this he had not said the truth.
5. Hi ergo ceciderunt in errores nec fuerunt divisi a tenebris; et isti sunt pessimi errores. Nec adhuc clausi sunt clave putei abyssalis =|2|= . Hae sunt tenebrae Aegypti =|3|= ; licet enim magna lux videretur in eis ex praecedentibus scientiis, tamen omnis extinguitur per errores praedictos. Et alii videntes, quod tantus fuit Aristoteles in aliis et ita dixit veritatem, credere non possunt, quin in istis dixerit verum.


2. Eternal Light, Examplar of All Things



6. But I say that the eternal light is the exemplar of all things, and that the mind, once lifted up as was the mind of others among the noble philosophers of antiquity, is able to reach it. And in the same light, the first thing to come to the mind is the exemplar of the virtues. As Plotinus =|10 |= writes, "it is absurd that the exemplars of other things be in God, and not the exemplars of the virtues."
6. Dico ergo, quod illa lux aeterna est exemplar omnium, et quod mens elevata, ut mens aliorum nobilium philosophorum antiquorum, ad hoc pervenit. In illa ergo primo occurrunt animae exemplaria virtutum. «Absurdum enim est, ut dicit Plotinus, quod exemplaria aliarum rerum sint in Deo, et non exemplaria virtutum».


7. First to appear, then, in the eternal light, are the exemplary virtues, or the exemplars of the virtues, that is, the height of purity, the beauty of clarity, the strength of power and the straightness of diffusion. Philo, "the most learned of the Jews," writes of these as a philosopher: "Vapor is from the power of God and is a certain pure emanation from the clarity of the omnipotent God; and therefore nothing sullied is found in it." Behold, the height of purity. "Brightness is from eternal light, a spotless mirror of God's majesty and an image of His goodness." And below: "This light, then, is more beautiful than the sun, and its brilliance is incomparably superior to any pattern of stars." Behold, the beauty of clarity. But where there is a mirror and an image and brightness, there is necessarily representation and beauty. "Beauty is nothing else but harmonious proportion." =|11|=  And here, there are proportionate relationships retraced to unity. And because this light is most beautiful, it reaches everywhere on account of its purity.
7. Apparent ergo primo in luce aeterna virtutes exemplares sive exemplaria virtutum, scilicet celsitudo puritatis, pulcritudo claritatis, fortitudo virtutis, rectitudo diffusionis; de quibus Philo, «disseruimus Iudaeorum», loquens ut philosophus. -- Sapientiae septimo: Vapor est enim virtutis Dei et emanatio quaedam est claritatis omnipotentis Dei sincera; et ideo nihil inquinatum in eam incurrit =|4|= ; ecce celsitudo puritatis. -- Candor est enim lucis aeternae et speculum sine macula Dei maiestatis et imago bonitatis illius =|5|= . Et infra: Est enim haec speciosior sole, et super omnem dispositionem stellarum luci comparata invenitur prior =|6|= ; ecce pulcritudo claritatis. Ubi enim est speculum et imago et candor, necessario est repraesentatio et pulcritudo. «Pulcritudo nihil aliud est quam aequalitas numerosa»; ibi autem sunt rationes numerosae ad unum reductae. Et quia est speciosissima, ideo attingit ubique propter suam munditiam.


8. From this it follows that it is also the most powerful. Hence, it is said: Wickedness prevails not over Wisdom. Indeed, she reaches from end to end mightily. Behold, the strength of power. It reaches from the summit or the supreme unto the infinite, from the intrinsic unto the extrinsic, from the first unto the last, for the center =|12|=  of its might is everywhere: and that is the very reason why its power is infinite.
8. Ex quo sequitur, quod sit fortissima; ideo dicitur: Sapientiam non vincit malitia. Attingit a fine usque ad finem fortiter =|1|= ; ecce fortitudo virtutis; attingit a summo vel supremo usque ad infimum, ab intrinseco usque ad extrinsecum, a primo usque ad ultimum, quia ubique est centrum suae potentiae: ideo virtus eius est infinita.


3. Cardinal Virtues



9. And because of this, it enjoys straightness of diffusion. Behold, justice. Hence, it is written that it governs all things well. And since the author expresses himself as a philosopher and as a lover of Wisdom, he writes: Her I loved and sought after from my youth; I sought to take her for my bride and was enamored of her beauty — not only in itself, but also because, coming from her, similar properties are flowering in me. Wherefore he continues: For she teaches moderation and prudence, justice and fortitude, and nothing in life is more useful for men than these.
9. Et ex hoc habet rectitudinem diffusionis; ecce iustitia; et ideo dicit: Disponit omnia suaviter =|8|= . -- Et quia loquitur ut philosophus et ut amator sapientiae; ideo dicit: Hanc amavi et exquisivi a iuventute mea et quaesivi sponsam mihi eam assumere et amator factus sum formae illius =|9|= ; non solum propter se, sed quia ab illa in me consequenter fiunt consimiles proprietates. Unde statim post sequitur: Sobrietatem enim et prudentiam et iustitiam et virtutem docet, quibus utilius nihil est in vita hominibus =|10|= .


10. These are impressed upon the soul by the said exemplary light, and they go down into the cognitive, the affective and the operative faculties. The sincerity of temperance is marked by the height of purity; the serenity of prudence, by the beauty of clarity; the stability of constancy, by the strength of power; the sweetness of justice, by the straightness of diffusion. These are the four exemplary =|13|=  virtues with which the whole of Scriptures is concerned; and Aristotle felt nothing about them, in contrast with ancient and noble philosophers.
10. Haec imprimuntur in anima per illam lucem exemplarem et descendunt in cognitivam, in affectivam, in operativam. Ex celsitudine puritatis imprimitur sinceritas temperantiae; ex pulcritudine claritatis, serenitas prudentiae; ex fortitudine virtutis stabilitas constantiae; ex rectitudine diffusionis suavitas iustitiae. -- Hae sunt quatuor virtutes exemplares, de quibus tota sacra Scriptura agit; et Aristoteles nihil de his sensit, sed antiqui et nobiles philosophi.


11. The same virtues are called cardinal in a threefold sense: either because through them an entrance is made toward acquiring all virtues;! or because they are principal since all virtues are contained within them; or again because it pertains to every rational aspect of human life to be directed and regulated by them in the four directions of the cardinal points of this lesser world, in imitation of the higher world, in matters of action and contemplation.
11. Cardinales dicuntur tripliciter: vel quia per ipsas est ingressus ad acquirendum omnes virtutes; vel quia sunt principales, in quibus integratur omnis virtus; vel quia omnis ratio vitae humanae habet$dirigi et regulari per eas in quatuor cardinibus mundi minoris, ad similitudinem mundi maioris, quantum ad activam et contemplativam.


12. The Philosopher =|14|=  says that "virtue is an intermediate point between two extremes, as the wise man will prescribe." It consists, indeed, in the quality of intermediateness. According to Augustine, in his book on Ethics, virtue is nothing else than a proper measure. Prudence finds this proper measure, so that you do not go too far in anything, but remain close to the center. Hence prudence is the driver =|15|=  of the virtues. Wherefore prudence says: I have found the proper measure; and temperance acts as a watchman and says: I too wanted this; and justice acts as a distributor, willing not only for itself, but also for the other; and because many adversities occur after that, fortitude acts as a defender, lest the proper measure be lost.
12. Philosophus dicit, quod «virtus est medium duarum extremitatum, secundum quod sapiens determinabit»; est enim in medietate consistens. Virtus enim secundum Augustinum, in libro De moribus, non est aliud quam modus. Hunc modum prudentia invenit, ut in omnibus non excedas, sed circa centrum consistas. Unde prudentia auriga est virtutum. Unde dicit prudentia: ego inveni modum; et temperantia custodit et dicit: et hoc volebam ego; iustitia distribuit, ut non tantum velit sibi, sed et alteri; et quia postmodum multiplices adversitates eveniunt, fortitudo defendit, ne perdatur modus.


13. Again, these virtues are called cardinal in the second place because in terms of action the integrating virtues are received [from them]. They consist in modifying, through the addition of circumstances; rectifying—for there is a right reason which leads to the end and is coequal with the laws, =|16|=  ordinating, and stabilizing. A virtue! is so called because it is the strength of the mind for the performance of good and the avoidance of evil. Temperance modifies, prudence rectifies, justice ordinates, and fortitude stabilizes. And each one of them is dependent upon the others. For temperance must be prudent, justice strong, while prudence must be sober, just and strong, etc. Gregory =|17|=  writes: "How can a man be strong unless he is prudent?" Foolhardy is he who attempts what is beyond his strength. And so, the virtues are interrelated.
13. Item, secundo dicuntur cardinales, quia secundum actus accipiuntur integrantes virtutes, qui sunt quatuor: modificare per appositionem circumstantiarum, rectificare -- est enim recta ratio ducens in finem, coaequans legibus --, ordinare, stabilire. Ab hoc dicitur virtus, quia est robur mentis ad bonum faciendum et malum evitandum. Temperantia modificat, prudentia rectificat, iustitia ordinat, fortitudo stabilit. Et omnes se circumincedunt. Oportet enim, quod temperantia sit prudens, iustitia fortis; item, quod prudentia sit sobria, iusta et fortis etc. Gregorius: Quomodo potest esse fortis, nisi sit prudens? Temerarius est enim qui aggreditur quod super vires est; et ideo virtutes sunt connexae.


14. Finally, they are called cardinal in the third sense, for the whole of human life is directed along these four axes. Likewise, the sun has four aspects related to four parts of the world, East, South, North and West, in which it has four properties. Indeed, all life proceeds from the sun: in the East, it purifies, in the South, it gives light, in the North, it stabilizes, and in the West, it reconciles. So also the Sun of Justice places the sincerity of temperance in the East of the soul, the clarity of prudence in the South, the stability of constancy in the North and the sweetness of justice in the West. And in the Apocalypse, John explains in the same way the four sides of the city in relation to the four [cardinal] virtues; =|18|=  and so also were the tribes arranged around the Meeting Tent.
14. Item, tertio modo dicuntur cardinales, quia omnis vita hominis his quatuor cardinibus gubernatur; sicut sol habet quatuor aspectus ad quatuor partes mundi, scilicet orientem, meridiem, aquilonem, occidentem, in quibus habet quatuor proprietates. A sole autem omnis vita: in oriente purificat, in meridie illuminat, in aquilone stabilit, in occidente conciliat. Sic Sol iustitiae in oriente mentis ponit sinceritatem temperantiae, in meridie claritatem prudentiae, in aquilone stabilitatem constantiae, in occidente suavitatem iustitiae. -- Et hoc modo in Apocalypsi Ioannes describit quatuor latera civitatis =|11|=  secundum quatuor virtutes cardinales; et ordinabantur etiam tribus iuxta tabernaculum.


a. Temperance



15. Temperance, which is from the East, is described as follows by Tullius: =|19|=  "Temperance is firm and measured dominion of reason over passion and over other movements of the soul that are not righteous." Its parts are sobriety as regards taste, chastity as regards touch, and modesty as regards the other senses. The theologians call this modesty "discipline."
15. Temperantia, quae est ab oriente, sic describitur a Tullio: «Temperantia est rationis in libidinem aliosque animi motus non rectos firma et moderata dominatio». Partes eius sunt sobrietas in$gustu, castitas in tactu, modestia in ceteris sensibus; quam modestiam vocant theologi disciplinam.


b. Prudence



16. The serenity of prudence, which is from the South, is described as follows: "Prudence is the knowledge of good and evil things, and the distinction between them. Its parts are memory, intelligence and providence." =|20|=  For prudence is concerned with present, past, and future things.
16. Serenitas prudentiae est a meridie, quae sic describitur: «Prudentia est bonorum et malorum scientia et utrorumque discretio, cuius partes sunt memoria, intelligentia, providentia». Prudentia enim est de praesentibus, praeteritis et futuris.


c. Fortitude



17. Fortitude, which is from the North, is thus described: "Fortitude consists in attacking dangers, or confronting them, and enduring them with constant effort." Its parts are confidence, patience, and perseverance. Confidence in attacking, patience in confronting, and perseverance in enduring.
17. Fortitudo ab aquilone, quae sic describitur: «Fortitudo est aggressio periculorum vel susceptio et eorundem constans et laboriosa perpessio». Cuius partes sunt fiducia, patientia, perseverantia: fiducia in aggrediendo, patientia in sustinendo, perseverantia in perseverando.


d. Justice



18. Finally, in the West is the sweetness of justice, which consists in showing reverence—for the laws tend to mitigate punishments. Hence, the purpose of justice is not severity but kindness. It is described as follows: "Justice is a disposition which attributes to each one his deserts, once the common good has been served." According to Tullius, its parts come from law, nature, and custom. From our viewpoint, the first establishes order in regard to superiors, the second in regard to inferiors, and the third in regard to equals.
18. Item, in occidente suavitas iustitiae, quae est in exhibitione pietatis -- volunt enim leges, poenas mitigari; unde finis iustitiae non est severitas, sed benignitas -- quae sic describitur: «Iustitia est habitus, communi utilitate servata, suam unicuique tribuens dignitatem». Partes eius secundum Tullium sunt ex lege, a natura, ex consuetudine; secundum nos una ordinat ad superiores, alia ad inferiores, tertia ad pares.


19. All this accords with the rule of reason; and as the sun gives life while going about the twelve zodiac signs, so also the sun of wisdom, radiating over the hemisphere of our mind and passing on, ordains our life through these twelve aspects of the virtues; and whatever other sciences a man may possess, if he have no virtue, neither does he have life; as also, whatever be the number of stars you possess, if you have no sun within the twelve signs, you have no day.
19. Hoc totum est per regulam rationis; et sicut sol transiens per duodecim signa dat vitam, sic sol sapientialis, in nostrae mentis hemisphaerio radians et transiens, per has duodecim partes virtutum ordinat vitam nostram; et quantumcumque homo habeat alias scientias, nisi habeat virtutes, non habet vitam; sicut, quantumcumque habeas stellas, nisi habeas solem in duodecim signis, non habebis diem.


4. Virtues Correspond To:



a. Four Principal Effects of Light



20. These are of such high nobility that the disposition of the world corresponds to them. Indeed, the virtues correspond to the four effects of light, the four properties of the elements, the four actions of the causes, and the four conditions of a healthy life. First, they correspond to the four principal effects of light. Light cleanses, illumines, perfects, and stabilizes. Temperance cleanses, prudence illumines, justice reconciles, and fortitude confirms.
20. Hae sunt tantae nobilitatis, quod dispositio mundi his correspondet. Virtutes enim configurantur quatuor lucis influentis, quatuor elementorum proprietatibus, quatuor causarum efficaciis, quatuor vitae salubritatibus. -- Primo, quatuor lucis principalibus influentis: lux purgat, illuminat, perficit et stabilit; temperantia purgat, prudentia illuminat, iustitia conciliat, fortitudo roborat.


b. Four Properties of the Elements



21. Again, they correspond to the four properties of the elements: on the earth, there is dryness and adornment; in the water, translucency with vividity of light; in the air, subtlety with softness; in fire, efficacy in action. The first is temperance, which dries and yet adorns and decks with flowers. Prudence corresponds to the translucency of water which is almost embodied with light. Justice matches the sweetness of air: for air goes up and down and moves right and left. Fortitude is comparable to the power of fire. Hence the author of the Canticle, speaking of fortitude, says: For love is strong as death, jealousy as hard as hell. The lamps thereof are fire and flames.
21. Item quatuor elementorum proprietatibus: in terra est ariditas adornata, in aqua perspicuitas cum intensione lucis, in aere Subtilitas cum mulcebritate, in igne virtuositas in actione. Prima est temperantia, quae aridum reddit, et tamen ornat et vestit floribus. Prudentia respondet aquae perspicuitati, quae quasi incorporata est luci. Iustitia respondet aeris mulcebritati; aer enim ascendit et descendit, ad dexteram et sinistram movetur. Fortitudo respondet vigori ignis; unde ille loquens de fortitudine dicit: Fortis est ut mors dilectio; dura sicut infernus emulatio; lampades eius lampades ignis atque flammarum =|12|= .


c. Four Actions of the Causes



22. Once more, they correspond to the four actions of the causes: things are constituted =|21|=  by their efficient, formal, final, and material causes. The efficient cause needs fortitude, the formal cause needs prudence, the final cause needs justice, and the material cause needs temperance, lest it overflow.
22. Item, quatuor causarum efficaciis: efficiens, forma, finis et materia integrant rem. Fortitudo debetur efficienti, prudentia formae; iustitia fini; temperantia materiae, ne defluat.


d. Four Conditions of a Healthy Life



23. Finally, they correspond to the four conditions of a healthy life: temperance, to subtlety of spirit; prudence, to vivacity of the senses; fortitude, to virile strength, and justice, =|22|=  to the proper balance of qualities.
23. Item quatuor vitae salubritatibus: subtilitati spirituum, temperantia; vivacitati sensuum, prudentia; robori virium, fortitudo; coaequatum qualitatum, iustitia.


24. These virtues flow from eternal light in the hemisphere of our mind and they retrace the soul to its origin, as the vertical or direct ray also returns by that same path by which it had come down. And such is blessedness. And so, the first of these virtues are political, the second are for cleansing, and the third, for the soul already cleansed. The political virtues consist in action, the cleansing in contemplation, and those for the soul already cleansed, in the vision of light.
24. Hae virtutes fluunt a luce aeterna in hemisphaerium nostrae mentis et reducunt animam in suam originem, sicut radius perpendicularis sive directus eadem via revertitur, qua incessit. Et haec est beatitudo. Unde primo sunt politicae, secundo purgatoriae, tertio animi iam purgati. Politicae sunt in actione, purgatoriae in contemplatione, animi iam purgati in lucis visione.


25. And, as Origen =|23|=  writes, it is with these that Solomon is concerned; with the political, in Proverbs, with the cleansing, in Ecclesiastes, and with those for the soul already cleansed, in the Song of Songs. And noble philosophers attained the knowledge of them. Hence Macro- bius, =|24|=  quoting Plotinus, writes as follows: "Those who believe that philosophers alone are virtuous declare that none but philosophers are blessed. Since they see wisdom properly so called only in the acknowledgment of the divine, they declare wise only those who seek higher things with the fine point of their mind, understand them through inquiring with clear-sighted diligence, and express them as well as a perceptive life allows: and they say that the practice of the virtues consists in this alone.
25. Et de his agit Salomon, ut dicit Origenes, de politicis in Proverbiis, de purgatoribus in Ecclesiaste, de animis iam Purgatis in Cantico canticorum. Et in notitiam istarum pervenerunt nobiles philosophi. Unde Macrobius, narrans sententiam Plotini, dicit sic: «Qui aestimant nullis nisi philosophantibus inesse virtutes, nullos praeter philosophos beatos esse pronuntiant. Agnitionem enim rerum divinarum sapientiam proprie vocantes, eos tantummodo dicunt esse sapientes, qui superna acie mentis requirunt et quaerendi sagaci diligentia comprehendunt, et quantum vivendi perspicuitas praestat, imitantur, et in hoc solo dicunt esse exercitia virtutum».


26. "And this is how they distribute the functions of these virtues: To prudence, it pertains to despise this world and everything in it, through contemplation of the divine, and to direct every cognitive power of the soul toward the things of God. To temperance, it pertains to give up, as much as nature allows, all those things the use of the body demands. To fortitude, it pertains not to let the soul be terrified as it recedes in a certain way from the body under the leadership of philosophy, nor horrified by the loftiness of the perfect ascent toward things on high. To justice, it pertains to conform the service of each virtue to the single path of one's intention thus explained. And so, because of the precipice of this so rigid definition, political leaders cannot be blessed, or at least, not totally.
26. «Quarum sic officia dispensant: prudentiae esse mundum istum et omnia, quae in mundo sunt, divinorum contemplatione despicere omnemque animi cognitionem in sola divina dirigere; temperantiae, omnia relinquere, in quantum natura patitur, quae corporis usus requirit; fortitudinis, non terreri animam a corpore quodam modo ductu philosophiae recedentem nec altitudinem perfectae ad superna ascensionis horrere; iustitiae, ad unam sibi huius propositi consentire viam uniuscuiusque virtutis obsequium. Atque ita fit, ut secundum hoc tam rigidae definitionis abruptum rerum publicarum rectores beati esse, vel omnino esse non possint».


5. Plotinus: 4 Categories



27. "But Plotinus, a leader with Plato among the teachers of philosophy, offers in his work 'On Virtues' =|25|=  an orderly gradation of these virtues arranged according to a true and natural method of division. He says there are four genera of the fourfold virtues. Among these, the first are called political, the second are for cleansing, the third for the soul already cleansed, and the fourth are called exemplary.
27. «Sed Plotinus, inter philosophiae professores cum Platone princeps, in libro De virtutibus gradus earum vera et naturali divisionis ratione compositos per ordinem digerit. Quatuor sunt, inquit, quaternarum genera virtutum. Ex his primae politicae vocantur, secundae purgatoriae, tertiae animi iam purgati, quartae exemplares».


a. Political Virtues



28. "The political virtues are concerned with man, for he is a social animal. The good men in the government take counsel from them, and guard the cities; by these they venerate their parents, love their children, and are kindly to their neighbors; by these, they take care of the welfare of the citizens; by these, they protect their companions through careful foresight, attract them by a just generosity, and through these, 'they make others remember them for their merit.' =|26|=
28. «Et sunt politicae hominis, quia sociale animal est. His boni viri reipublicae consulunt, urbes tuentur; his parentes venerantur, li-$beros amant, proximos diligunt; his civium salutem gubernant; his socios circumspecta providentia protegunt, iusta liberalitate devincunt, hisque "sui memores alios fecere merendo"».


29. "And it pertains to political prudence that a man direct all things to the norm of reason — his thoughts and whatever he does —and that he will or do nothing besides what is right, but that he attend to human acts as by divine judgments. In prudence are included reason, intellect, circumspection, foresight, docility and care. "Fortitude lifts the spirit above the fear of danger, is afraid of nothing besides evil, and sustains adversity and prosperity with equal strength. Fortitude implies magnanimity, confidence, security, magnificence, constancy, tolerance, and firmness. "Temperance consists in desiring nothing liable to remorse, never exceeding the law of moderation, and taming cupidity under the yoke of reason. The followers of temperance are modesty, shame, abstinence, chastity, decency, measure or moderation, parsimony, sobriety and pudicity. "Justice consists in attributing to each man what is his; and from justice come forth innocence, friendship, concord, devotion, religion, kindness, and humanity. "By means of these virtues, the good man becomes the ruler first of himself and then of the state, justly and providently ruling human affairs while respecting those of God.
29. «Et est politicae prudentiae ad rationis normam quae cogitat, quaecumque agit, universa dirigere, ac nihil praeter rectum velle vel facere, humanisque actibus tanquam divinis arbitriis providere. Prudentiae insunt ratio, intellectus, circumspectio, providentia, docilitas, cautio. -- Fortitudinis est animum supra periculi metum agere, nihilque nisi turpia timere, tolerare fortiter vel adversa vel prospera. Fortitudo praestat magnanimitatem, fiduciam, securitatem, magnificentiam, constantiam, tolerantiam, firmitatem. -- Temperantiae est nihil appetere poenitendum, in nullo legem moderationis excedere, sub iugum rationis cupiditatem domare. Temperantiam sequuntur modestia, verecundia, abstinentia, castitas, honestas, moderamen vel moderatio, parcitas, sobrietas, pudicitia. -- Iustitiae est servare unicuique quod suum est; et de iustitia veniunt innocentia, amicitia, concordia, pietas, religio, affectus, humanitas. His virtutibus vir bonus primum sui atque inde reipublicae rector efficitur, iuste ac provide gubernans humana, divina non deserens».


b. Cleansing



30. "The second category [of virtues], which are called cleansing, pertains to man as fit for God, and are useful only to the spirit of the man who has decided to cleanse himself of the contagion of the body, and to enter, through some kind of flight from human matters, into nothing but the things of God. These virtues belong to free individuals who have cut themselves away from political activities. What each one of them is intended for, we have explained above =|27|=  when speaking of the virtues of philosophers, which some believed to be the only virtues.
30. «Secundae, quas purgatorias vocant, hominis sunt, qui divini capax est, solumque animum eius expediunt, qui decrevit se a corporis contagione purgare et quadam humanorum fuga solis se inserere divinis. Hae sunt otiosorum, qui a rerum publicarum actibus se sequestrant. Harum quid singulae velint, superius expressimus, cum de virtutibus philosophantium diceremus, quas solas quidam aestimaverunt esse virtutes».


c. Simply and Purely Washed of Every Stain of This World



31. "The third category [of virtues] pertains to the soul that is already purged and cleansed and is simply and purely washed of every stain of this world. In this regard, the role of prudence is not only to prefer divine things as the result of a choice, but to know nothing but them, and to look upon them as upon nothing else. The role of temperance is not only to repress earthly cravings, but to forget them completely; that of fortitude, to ignore passions instead of overcoming them, so that a man be incapable of anger and desire nothing; that of justice, to have such mental intercourse with high and divine things that a perpetual alliance be preserved with them by imitating them.
31. «Tertiae sunt purgati iam defaecatique animi et ab omni mundi huius aspergine presse pureque detersi. Illic prudentiae est divina non quasi in electione praeferre, sed sola nosse et haec tanquam nihil sit aliud, intueri; temperantiae, terrenas cupiditates non reprimere, sed penitus oblivisci; fortitudinis, passiones ignorare, non vincere, ut nesciat irasci, cupiat nihil; iustitiae, ita cum superna et divina mente sociari, ut servet perpetuum cum ea foedus imitando».


d. Exemplary



32. "The fourth category [of virtues] represents the exemplary, which exist in the mind of God, called vous as we said, and from the example of which all the others derive in an orderly manner. For if it is a matter of faith that the ideas of other things are found in the mind of God, much more so the ideas of the virtues. In this regard, prudence is the very mind of God; temperance, the fact that this mind is turned upon itself by a perpetual intention; fortitude, the fact that it is always the same and is never changed in anything whatsoever; justice, the fact that by an eternal law, it is not deflected from the continuation of its sempiternal operation. "These are the genera of the virtues, four times four in number, which, more than in any other way, are distinguished in the passions, "
32. «Quartae sunt exemplares, quae in ipsa divina mente consistunt, quam diximus mun vocari, a quarum exemplo reliquae omnes per ordinem defluunt. Nam si rerum aliarum, multo magis virtutum ideas esse in mente divina credendum est. Illic prudentia est ipsa$mens divina; temperantia, quod in se perpetua intentione conversa est; fortitudo, quod semper idem est nec aliquando mutatur; iustitia, quod perenni lege a sempiterna operis sui continuatione non flectitur. -- Haec sunt quaternarum quatuor genera virtutum, quae praeter cetera maximam in passionibus habent differentiam sui». Hucusque Plotinus.


VIII. Seventh Collation



A. Fourth Treatise on the First Vision, Concerning the Threefold Defect of Virtues Among Philosophers, And, Later, Concerning Healing, Rectifying and Ordinating Faith



700 SEVENTH COLLATION Fourth Treatise on the First Vision, Concerning the Threefold Defect of Virtues among Philosophers, and, Later, Concerning Healing, Rectifying and Ordinating Faith


B. Some Philosophers Attacked Ideas



1. GOD saw the light that it was good; and He divided the light from the darkness, etc. This passage is quoted to explain the vision of intelligence which is infused by nature. Concerning the fact that it was good, it makes us see, both through scientific consideration and through the contemplation of wisdom. Through scientific consideration, [it makes us see] in so far as it illumines as light, that is, as the truth of things, the truth of expression, and the truth of behavior. Through the contemplation of wisdom, [it makes us see] in so far as it illumines by means of the influx of a radiation from the eternal light into the soul. It procures the vision of this same light in itself, as in a mirror; in a separate intelligence, as in a medium somewhat removed; in the eternal light, as in the original subject. It is also written that He divided the light from the darkness; and that some philosophers attacked ideas, as a result of which the threefold understanding of truth was hidden: that is, the truth of eternal art, the truth of divine providence, and the truth of the fall of the angels—which follows if angels only have their perfection from motion. The consequence of this is a threefold blindness: concerning the eternity of the world, the unity of the intellect, and the question of punishment and glory.
1. Vidit Deus lucem, quod esset bona, et divisit lucem a tenebris =|1 |= etc. Ad explicandam visionem intelligentiae per naturam inditae sumptum est verbum hoc. Et quantum ad hoc, quod esset bona, videre nos fecit et per considerationem scientialem et per contemplationem sapientialem. Per considerationem scientialem, in quantum illustrat ut lux, scilicet ut veritas rerum et ut veritas vocum et ut veritas morum. Per contemplationem sapientialem, in quantum illustrat per influxum radii a luce aeterna in animam, ut videat illam lucem in se ut in speculo; in Intelligentia separata, ut in medio quodam delativo; in luce aeterna, ut in subiecto fontano. -- Dictum etiam fuit, quod divisit lucem a tenebris, quod quidam ideas impugnaverunt, ex quo triplex intelligentia veritatis occultatur, scilicet veritas artis aeternae, veritas divinae providentiae, veritas ruinae Angelicae; quod sequitur, si Angelus perfectionem suam non haberet nisi per motum. Ex quo sequitur triplex caecitas, scilicet de aeternitate mundi, de unitate intellectus, de poena et gloria.


1. Aristotle



2. Aristotle is seen to have proposed the first [of these errors] and also the last, for he is not found to have placed any happiness after the present life. Concerning the intermediate statement, the Commentator =|1|=  says that such, indeed, was Aristotle's opinion. He may be excused in the matter of the eternity of the world, for he understands it as a philosopher, speaking in the order of nature, i.e., saying that it could not have a beginning by nature. He could have meant that intelligences had perfection through motion in the sense that they are not idle, for there is nothing idle in the foundation of nature. =|2|=  Likewise, while placing happiness in the present life, he may have had an opinion concerning eternal happiness, but did not mention it because it may not have seemed relevant. Concerning the unity of the intellect, it could be said that he understood intelligence to be one in relation to the influencing light, and not in itself, for it is numbered according to the subject.  =|3|=
2. Primam videtur ponere Aristoteles, ultimam etiam, quia non invenitur, quod ponat felicitatem post hanc vitam; de media autem dicit Commentator, quod ipse hoc sensit. -- De aeternitate mundi excusari posset, quod intellexit hoc ut philosophus, loquens ut naturalis, scilicet quod per naturam non potuit incipere. Quod Intelligentiae habeant perfectionem per motum, pro tanto hoc potuit dicere, quia non sunt otiosae, quia nihil otiosum in fundamento naturae. -- Item, quod posuit felicitatem in hac vita, quia, licet sentiret aeternam, de illa se non intromisit, quia forte non erat de consideratione sua. -- De unitate intellectus posset dici, quod intellexit, quod est unus intellectus ratione lucis influentis, non ratione sui, quia numeratur secundum subiectum.


2. Presupposed the Existence of the Cardinal Virtues



3. But whatever Aristotle's opinion, other enlightened philosophers presupposed the existence of ideas: they were the worshipers of a single God, who placed all good in the supremely good God, and believed in the existence of exemplary virtues from which the cardinal virtues flowed, first into the cognitive power, and thence into the affective, and finally into the operative, according to the phrase "knowledge, will and definitive action," as established by the most noble Plotinus =|4|=  in regard to the school of Plato, and Tullius of the Academic school. And so these were seen to be enlightened and to be capable of enjoying happiness as such. Yet, these men lived in darkness, since they did not have the light of faith; we by contrast do have that light. Hence, in the First Epistle of Peter: You, however, are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a purchased people; that you may proclaim the perfections of Him who has called you out of darkness into his marvellous light.
3. Sed quidquid senserit, alii philosophi illuminati posuerunt ideas; qui fuerunt cultores unius Dei, quia omnia bona posuerunt in$optimo Deo, qui posuerunt virtutes exemplares, a quibus fluunt virtutes cardinales, primo in vim cognitivam et per illam in affectivam, deinde in operativam, secundum illud «scire, velle et impermutabiliter operari», sicut posuit nobilissimus Plotinus de secta Platonis et Tullius sectae academicae. Et ita isti videbantur illuminati et per se posse habere felicitatem. -- Sed adhuc isti in tenebris fuerunt, quia non habuerunt lumen fidei, nos autem habemus lumen fidei. Unde in prima Petri: Vos estis genus electum, regale sacerdotium, gens sancta, populus acquisitionis, ut virtutes annuntietis eius qui vos de tenebris vocabit in admirabile lumen suum =|2|= .


3. These Virtues First Have Three Operations



a. Assured Eternity



4. These foremost philosophers, together with enlightened men, presupposed the existence of the cardinal virtues as resulting from an influx into our knowledge, yet they did so without faith. The first they called political virtues, in so far as they direct worldly intercourse; the second, cleansing virtues, concerned with solitary contemplation; the third, virtues for the soul already cleansed, in that they make the soul find its repose in the Exemplar. And so they said that through these virtues the soul was changed, cleansed and reformed.
4. Illi autem praecipui philosophi posuerunt, sic etiam illuminati, tamen sine fide, per defluxum in nostram cognitionem virtutes cardinales. Quae primo dicuntur politicae, in quantum docent conversationem in mundo; secundo, purgatoriae quantum ad solitariam contemplationem; tertio, purgati animi, ut animam quietari faciant in exemplari. Dixerunt ergo, per has virtutes animam modificari, purgari et reformari.


b. Perfect Peace



c. Affective Dispositions Must Be Straightened



5. Yet, they are still in darkness, for it is necessary that these virtues first have three operations: that is, that they ordain the soul to its end; second, that they rectify its affective dispositions; third, that the sick [dispositions] be healed. But they do not possess these operations in themselves. Proof. Augustine says, in "The City of God" =|5|=  that a virtue is not true unless it directs the intention toward God the Fountainhead, where it rests within assured eternity and perfect peace. Assured eternity is incompatible with the possibility of loss, perfect peace is possible only in the reunion of body and soul: and this is certain. If, then, the soul is essentially inclined toward the body, the soul is fully at peace only after the body has been returned to it. The philosophers knew nothing of assured eternity. Indeed, they themselves believed that the soul went up through Capricorn and came down through Cancer, then went through the milky circle, which we call the galaxy, forgot what it had done before, and was united to a body poorly adapted to it, until it went up once again. =|6|=  But this is a false beatitude: one in which the soul had already been, and from which it would have come back.
5. Sed adhuc in tenebris sunt, quia necesse est, ut hae virtutes prius habeant tres operationes, scilicet animam ordinare in finem; secundo, rectificare affectus animae; tertio, quod sanentur morbidi. Has autem operationes non habuerunt in ipsis. -- Probatio. Dicit Augustinus in libro De civitate Dei, quod vera virtus non est, quae non dirigit intentionem ad Deum fontem, ut ibi quiescat aeternitate certa et pace perfecta. Certa aeternitas esse non potest, quae amitti potest; perfecta pax non est nisi in reunione corporis et animae; et hoc certum est. Si enim anima essentialiter inclinationem habet ad corpus, nunquam anima plene quietatur, nisi sibi corpus reddatur. -- Philosophi autem ignoraverunt certam aeternitatem. Posuerunt enim et ipsi, quod anima ascendebat per capricornum et descendebat per cancrum, deinde transiens per lacteum circulum, quem nos galaxiam vocamus, obliviscebatur quae superius fiebant, et uniebatur corpori misero sibi aptato, quousque iterum superius rediret. Haec autem est falsa beatitudo, scilicet quod anima esset in beatitudine et postea reverteretur.


d. Affective Dispositions Must Be Healed



6. Neither did they know perfect peace, for they were unaware that the world had an end and that bodies would rise from their dust. No wonder: for they were investigators on the level of the power of reason, and our reason cannot conceive such things as the resurrection of bodies, and the possibility for contrary elements to endure forever in heaven without interaction.! They did not refer to that life, but placed the soul in a kind of recurring circle. And so they were unaware of faith, without which the virtues are worthless, as Augustine says in book thirteen, chapter twenty, of his work "On the Trinity." =|7|=
6. Pacem etiam perfectam non cognoverunt, quia non cognoverunt, quod mundus haberet finem, et quod corpora pulverizata resurgant. Nec mirum: quia, cum essent investigatores secundum potentiam rationis, ratio nostra non potest ad hoc pervenire, ut corpora resurgant, ut elementa contraria possint sic conciliata in caelo sine reflexione permanere. Non referebant ergo ad illam vitam, sed in abeunte quadam circulatione ponebant animam. Ignoraverunt ergo fidem, sine$qua virtutes non valent, ut dicit Augustinus De Trinitate, libro decimo tertio, capitulo vigesimo.


7. Second, the affective dispositions once ordained must be straightened by these same virtues. These dispositions are four in number: fear, sorrow, joy, and trust. And they are not straightened unless fear is holy, sorrow just, joy true, and trust assured. For if fear is prideful, sorrow unfounded, joy inappropriate, and trust presumptuous, then the affections are distorted. Now these affections cannot be straightened by themselves. Indeed, trust, or hope, is concerned with things unseen, such as the life of beatitude; but this life is given only to those who deserve it; and no one deserves it unless he has sufficient merit. Such things cannot be obtained through the powers of free will: they require God's condescension, that is, grace. The sufferings of the present time are not worthy to be compared to the glory to come. =|8|=
7. Secundo oportet affectus ordinatos rectificare per virtutes istas. Affectus autem quatuor sunt: timor, dolor, laetitia, fiducia. Isti autem non rectificantur, nisi sit timor sanctus, dolor iustus, laetitia vera, fiducia certa. Si autem timor superbus, dolor iniustus, laetitia inepta, fiducia praesumptuosa; tunc affectiones sunt obliquae. Virtutes autem istae per se rectificari non possunt. Fiducia enim sive spes est de hoc quod non videtur, ut de beata vita; beata autem vita non datur nisi dignis; dignus autem nullus est, nisi habeat merita sufficientia. Haec per vires liberi arbitrii haberi non possunt nisi per condescensionem Dei, scilicet per gratiam. Non sunt condignae passiones huius temporis ad futuram gloriam =|3|= .


8. Third, the affective dispositions must be healed in order to be straightened. No one is healed unless he knows his disease, its cause, a physician, and the proper medicine. The disease is a depravation of the affective powers. Now this is fourfold, for through its union with the body, the soul contracts weakness, ignorance, malice, and concupiscence, By means of them are killed the soul's powers to understand, to love, and to act: and so the whole soul is infected. This they did not ignore completely, nor did they know it completely. For they saw these defects, but they thought they were in the imagination, and not part of the inner powers. They imagined that as a sphere is moved against another sphere, so the imagination would lead and incline to exterior things, while the intellect would naturally go to the higher. Yet, they were wrong, for these weaknesses are of the mind, and not only of the senses: the powers to understand, love, and act are infected to the marrow.
8. Tertio necesse est, affectus sanari, ut rectificentur. Non sanatur autem aliquis, nisi cognoscat morbum et causam, medicum et medicinam. -- Morbus autem est depravatio affectus. Haec autem est quadruplex, quia contrahit ex unione ad corpus anima infirmitatem, ignorantiam, malitiam, concupiscentiam; ex quibus inficitur intellectiva, amativa, potestativa; et tunc infecta est tota anima. Has omnino non ignoraverunt, nec omnino sciverunt. Videbant enim hos defectus, sed credebant, eos esse in phantasia, non in potentiis interioribus. Credebant enim, quod sicut sphera movetur contra spheram, sic phantasia moveret et inclinaret ad exteriora, sed intellectus naturaliter ad superiora; et tamen decepti fuerunt, quia hae infirmitates in parte intellectuali sunt, non solum in parte sensitiva: intellectiva, amativa, potestativa infectae sunt usque ad medullam.


e. Medicine: the Grace of the Holy Spirit



9. They did not know the disease because they were unaware of its cause. If, indeed, as the philosophers say, the soul is naturally united to the body, it does not contract a disease—otherwise God would be wasting beings instead of preserving them. But this comes about through sin, from the first principle, that is, Adam. But the fact that Adam ate of the forbidden tree cannot be known through reason, but only by hearing: and so faith is necessary. =|9|=  Wherefore, they did not reach the cause of the disease because they did not believe the prophets. As Augustine says in the thirteenth book, nineteenth chapter, of his work "On the Trinity," "These are the foremost philosophers of the Gentiles, who could see God's invisible attributes... being understood through the things that are made. Yet, because they philosophized without the Mediator, that is, without the man Christ, whom they did not accept as the One who was to come to the prophets and who did come to the apostles, in wickedness they hold back the truth."
9. Morbum nescierunt, quia causam ignoraverunt. Si enim, ut dicunt philosophi, anima naturaliter unitur corpori, non contrahit morbum -- aliter Deus res dissiparet, non conservaret -- hoc tamen fit per culpam a principio originali, scilicet Adam. Hoc autem, quod Adam comedit lignum vetitum =|4|= , per rationem sciri non potest nisi per auditum =|5|= ; et ideo fides necessaria est. Ad causam ergo morbi non venerunt, quia Prophetis non crediderunt; ut dicit Augustinus De Trinitate, libro decimo tertio, capitulo decimo nono: «Illi gentium philosophi praecipui, qui invisibilia Dei per ea quae facta sunt intellecta^, conspicere potuerunt; tamen, quia sine Mediatore, id est sine homine Christo, philosophati sunt, quem nec venturum Prophetis nec venisse Apostolis crediderunt, veritatem detinuerunt =|7|=  in iniquitate».


10. Again, they did not know the Physician. Since the disease had come from a crime against sovereignty, the punishment had to be very heavy. No one, then, could heal, unless he were God and man: He alone would have the power of satisfaction, in whom there would be no concupiscence, and who would have been born, not through the law of nature, but from the Virgin. =|10|=  That He indeed was the Physician, He demonstrated through examples of virtue, documents of truth, incitements to love, and saving remedies. This Physician heals all things: For indeed, neither herb nor application cured them, but Your all-healing Word, O Lord! the Word who was incarnate and crucified and who suffered, and later sent the Holy Spirit into the depths of our hearts.
10. Item, medicum non cognoverunt; cum enim morbus fuisset ex crimine laesae maiestatis, punitio debuit esse gravissima. Nullus ergo potuit sanare, nisi esset Deus et homo, qui posset satisfacere; in quo nec fuit concupiscentia, nec natus per legem naturae, sed de Virgine. Quod autem ille esset medicus, ostendit per exempla virtutis, per documenta veritatis, per incitamenta amoris, per remedia salutis. Iste medicus sanat omnia; etenim neque herba neque malagma sanavit eos, sed tuus, Domine, sermo =|8|= , Verbum incarnatum, crucifixum, passum; et post misit Spiritum sanctum, qui illabitur cordibus nostris.


11. This, then, is the medicine: the grace of the Holy Spirit. Philosophy is unable to grasp such a Physician and such a grace. Why should you glory, you whose science is unable to know your disease, or its cause, or its Physician, or its remedy?
11. Haec ergo est medicina, scilicet gratia Spiritus sancti. Hunc medicum et hanc gratiam philosophia non potest attingere. Quid ergo gloriaris, qui nescis per scientiam tuam nec infirmitatem tuam nec eius causam nec medicum nec medicinam?


12. These philosophers had the wings of ostriches, =|11|=  for their affective powers were not cleansed or ordained or straightened: for this can be obtained only through faith. Hence they proposed a false circle of beatitude, second a false sufficiency of merits in the present world, third an eternal soundness of internal powers. In these three instances, they fell into darkness.
12. Isti philosophi habuerunt pennas struthionum, quia affectus non erant sanati nec ordinati nec rectificati; quod non fit nisi per fidem. Unde primo posuerunt falsam beatitudinis circulationem; secundo, falsam praesentium meritorum sufficientiam; tertio, internarum virium perpetuam incolumitatem. In has tres tenebras inciderunt.


f. Biblical Metaphors



13. But faith, brushing away these obscurities, indicates the disease, its cause, Physician, and medicine; it heals the soul by placing the roots of merits in God who must be satisfied. And so the soul goes forth through faith into assured hope by means of the merits of Christ, and not in a presumptuous fashion. And so faith heals, straightens and ordains: in this manner the soul may be changed, straightened and ordained. The philosophers did not know these roots. Faith alone, then, divides the light from the darkness. Hence, the Apostle says: You were once darkness, but now you are light in the Lord. For faith, that has hope and charity together with good works, heals the soul, and once it has been healed, cleanses and lifts it up and makes it into the likeness of God. Now we are in the true light: not like those who sleep and take the false for the true, an idol for God.
13. Fides igitur, purgans has tenebras, docet morbum, causam, medicum, medicinam; sanat animam, ponendo meritorum radices in Deo. cui placeat; et sic proficit per fidem in spem certam per meritum Christi, non praesumptuose. Sanat ergo, rectificat et ordinat; hoc modo anima potest modificari, rectificari et ordinari. Has radices ignoraverunt philosophi. Fides ergo sola divisit lucem a tenebris. Unde Apostolus: Eratis enim aliquando tenebrae, nunc autem lux in Domino =|9|= . Fides enim, habens spem et caritatem cum operibus, sanat animam et ipsam sanatam purificat, elevat et deiformat. Modo sumus in vera luce; non sic illi qui somniant, qui accipiunt falsa pro veris, ut idolum pro Deo.


14. It should be noted that charity alone heals the affective dispositions. For, according to Augustine in "The City of God," =|12|=  love is the root of all affections. Wherefore love must be healed, otherwise all affections are distorted; but it can be healed only by divine love, which divine love is pure, provident, devoted, and perpetual: pure in regard to temperance, provident in regard to prudence, devoted in regard to justice, and perpetual in regard to fortitude. Charity, =|13 |= then, is the end and form of all the virtues and is from a pure heart and a good conscience and faith unfeigned.
14. Notandum autem, quod sola caritas sanat affectum. Amor enim, secundum Augustinum, De civitate Dei, radix est omnium affectionum. Ergo necesse est, ut amor sit sanatus, alioquin omnes affectus sunt obliqui; non sanatur autem nisi per divinum amorem, qui amor divinus est purus, providus, pius et perpetuus: purus respectu temperantiae, providus respectu prudentiae, pius respectu iustitiae et perpetuus respectu fortitudinis. Caritas ergo est finis et forma omnium virtutum et fundatur super spem de corde puro et fide non ficta =|10|= .


15. And so, these virtues without form or clothing are those of the philosophers, while ours are clothed. But they must be clothed with the gold of love, for all the walls of the temple were covered with gold. Also, with the oil of unction, because all the vessels were sanctified by the oil of unction. And so, they are not divided. The night is far advanced; the day is at hand. Let us therefore... put on the armor of light, that is, the four virtues originated by faith, lifted up by hope, and fulfilled by charity. These four virtues, clothed in such a manner, are symbolized by the four rivers of paradise, the four sides of the city, and the four ornaments of the tabernacle, in so far as they are originated, endowed with form, and stabilized.
15. Hae ergo virtutes informes et nudae sunt philosophorum, vestitae autem sunt nostrae. Vestiri autem debent auro amoris, quia omnes parietes templi vestiti erant auro =|11|= ; similiter oleo unctionis, quia$omnia vasa oleo unctionis sanctificata erant =|12|= . Et sic non dividuntur. -- Nox praecessit, dies autem appropinquavit etc. Induamur ergo arma lucis =|13|= , scilicet quatuor virtutes fide originatas, spe sublevatas et caritate completas. -- Hae quatuor virtutes sic vestitae designantur per quatuor flumina paradisi =|14|= , per quatuor latera civitatis, per quatuor ornamenta tabernaculi, et hoc ut sunt originatae, informatae et stabilitae.


16. They are symbolized by the four rivers of paradise, in so far as they are originated by faith. A river stands for the grace of the Holy Spirit poured out into these four virtues: Phison corresponds to temperance, Gehon to prudence, Tigris to fortitude, and Euphrates to justice. =|14|=  Phison represents the rational power, Gehon the concupiscible, Tigris the irascible, and Euphrates the whole soul.
16. Per quatuor flumina paradisi, in quantum originantur a fide. Flumen est gratia Spiritus sancti diffusi in has quatuor virtutes: Phison respondet temperantiae, Gehon prudentiae, Tigris fortitudini, Euphrates iustitiae. Phison respondet rationali, Gehon concupiscibili, Tigris irascibili, Euphrates toti animae.


17. Again, in so far as they receive their form from charity, they are represented by the four ornaments of the tabernacle, the four sheets, skins of violet, curtains of goat hair, and rams' skins dyed red. =|15|=  The sheets correspond to temperance, the purple skins to the heavenly colors of prudence, the curtains of goat hair to justice, the rams' skins dyed red to fortitude. Or again, in the ornaments of the Dwelling, there are four colors: linen-white, in which there is temperance; violet revealing prudence; purple, the color of royal clothing, meaning justice; and red, that is, the color of fire, fortitude. And in this manner they adorn the Dwelling on all four sides. Likewise, they stabilize, and lead in through the door, through the four sides of the city, stabilized by hope to an equal rule.
17. Item, in quantum informantur caritate, designantur per quatuor ornamenta tabernaculi, quae erant quatuor cortinae, pelles hyacinthinae, saga cilicina et pelles arietum rubricatae =|15|= . Cortina respondet temperantiae, pelles hyacinthinae caelestis coloris prudentiae, saga cilicina iustitiae, pelles arietum rubricatae fortitudini. -- Vel sic: in ornamento templi fuerunt quatuor colores: byssinus, in quo temperantia; hyacinthinis, in quo prudentia; purpureus, indumentum regale, iustitia; coccineus, hoc est flammeus, fortitudo. Ornant ergo domum per quatuor latera. -- Item, stabiliunt et introducunt per portam, per quatuor latera civitatis =|16|= , stabilitae per spem ad normam aequalem.


18. When the three virtues of faith, hope and love are included, they rise up to a series of seven symbolized by the seven stars, the seven women, and the seven loaves of the gospel: and this, in so far as they are resplendent, fecund and strengthening. Their luminosity is represented by the seven stars. Hence, in Job: Have you fitted a curb to the Pleiades, or loosened the bonds of Orion? The Pleiades are those seven stars joined together, commonly known as the Hen and its Chicks. These virtues bring about a stable orbit.
18. Adiunctis ergo tribus virtutibus, scilicet fide, spe et caritate, consurgunt in septenarium designatum per septem stellas =|11|= , per septem mulieres =|18|=  et per septem panes evangelicos =|19|= ; et hoc in quantum sunt fulgidae, fecundae, vigorosae. In quantum sunt fulgidae, per septem stellas. Unde in Iob: Nunquid coniungere valebis micantes stellas Pleiadas, aut gyrum arcturi dissipare? =|2|= ®. Pleiades sunt illae septem stellae coniunctae, quas vulgus gallinam cum pullis vocat. Hae virtutes faciunt gyrum imperturbabilem.


19. Second, their fecundity is represented by the seven women in Isaiah: Seven women will take hold of one man on that day, saying, etc. A man, because these virtues produce virility; and one, because they do not divide him, but make him stable and fruitful.
19. Secundo, ut fecundae, per septem mulieres. Isaias =|21|= : Apprehendent septem mulieres virum unum in die illa, dicentes etc. Virum, quia faciunt hominem virilem; et unum, quia non dividunt eum, sed stabilem faciunt et fecundum.


20. Third, as inducing strength, they are represented by the seven loaves of the gospel, from which the whole body of the elect is fed. For the philosophers, these four virtues became stones, but they are actually seven breads of life. Moses' five loaves were made of barley, but the seven loaves of wheat of the evangelical teaching were made out of the fat of the wheat.
20. Tertio, in quantum vigorosae designantur per septem panes evangelicos, ex quibus pascitur universitas electorum. In philosophis hae quatuor virtutes fuerunt lapides, sed modo sunt septem panes$vitae. Panes Moysi quinque fuerunt hordeacei =|22|= , sed septem panes frumenti in doctrina evangelica ex adipe frumenti =|23|= .


21. Again, you can multiply the four cardinal virtues by the three theological, and then there are twelve: for prudence must be faithful, trusting, and loving; and so it is with the others. And they are represented by the twelve springs, the twelve gems in the High Priest's vestment, and the twelve doors of the City. First, the twelve springs, for as they flow into each other, they make the soul clean. Second, the twelve gems, for they adorn the soul with all the virtues carried in the heart, as these gems were carried on the High Priest's chest. Third, the twelve doors, in so far as they lead in: for in the east, there is the sincerity of temperance; in the south, the serenity of prudence; in the north, the stability of constancy; and in the west, the sweetness of justice.
21. Item, quatuor cardinales ducas in tres theologicas, et sic sunt duodecim, quia prudentia debet esse fidelis, fidens, et amans; et sic de aliis. Et designantur per duodecim fontes =|24|= , per duodecim lapides pretiosos in vestimento Pontificis =|25|= , per duodecim portas civitatis =|26|= : et hoc, in quantum inchoant, promovent et perducunt. -- Primo, per duodecim fontes, quia ut se circumincedunt, faciunt animam mundam. -- Secundo, per duodecim lapides, quia ornant animam in omnibus virtutibus in pectore, sicut illi lapides in pectore Pontificis. -- Tertio, per duodecim portas, in quantum introducunt: nam ad orientem sinceritas temperantiae, ad meridiem serenitas prudentiae, ad aquilonem stabilitas constantiae, ad occidentem suavitas iustitiae.


22. Furthermore, these twelve virtues, doubled in prosperity and adversity, are represented by the twenty-four hours, twelve in the night of adversity and twelve in the day of prosperity. Likewise, they are doubled in the active and the contemplative life: in that sense they are represented by the twenty-four elders who turned sometimes to action and at other times to contemplation, for they do what is sensible and mature. Once more, the twelve virtues are doubled through practical and speculative contemplation: and in this they are revealed by the twenty-four wings of the four animals, each one of which had six wings. And here ends the First Vision and the work of the First Day.
22. Ulterius, istae virtutes duodecim, geminatae in prosperis et in adversis, designantur per viginti quatuor horas, duodecim in nocte adversitatis, et duodecim in die prosperitatis. -- Item, geminatae per activam et contemplativam; et sic per viginti quatuor seniores =|21|= , qui modo volvuntur ad actionem, modo ad contemplationem, quia faciunt sensatum et maturum. -- Item, per contemplativam practicam et speculativam; et sic per viginti quatuor alas quatuor animalium, quorum quodlibet senas alas =|28|=  habet. -- Et in hoc terminatur prima visio et opus primae diei.


IX. Eighth Collation



A. On the Second Vision, That Is, on Understanding Lifted Up by Faith first Treatise, Concerning the Scope of Faith



800 EIGHTH COLLATION On the Second Vision, That Is, on Understanding Lifted Up by Faith —First Treatise, Concerning the Scope of Faith


1. GOD called the firmament heaven. And there was evening and morning, the second day. There now follows the work of the second day, which is the second vision of understanding, lifted up by faith: and of this it is not said that God "saw" but that He "called" it. Literally speaking, this heaven is lofty, stable, and visible: it is lofty as regards its position, stable as regards its form, and visible as regards its clarity. It is lofty: hence in Proverbs, The heaven above and the earth beneath. By the very fact that the heaven is noble, it holds the highest place in the order of the universe, and the earth the lowest. It is  also stable as regards its form, for it moves without changing place, but within its place, around a center. =|1|=  Hence in Job: Do you spread out with Him the firmament of the skies, hard as a brazen mirror? It is finally visible as regards the multitude of its adornments. Hence, in Job, His spirit hath adorned the heavens. And, in Ecclesiasticus, The beauty, the glory of the heavens are the stars, that rise to adorn the heights of God. Because of the latter quality, heaven is called =|2|=  caelum, from caelando, "by engraving," and not [from celando,] "by concealing": by carving, since it is written with the diphthong ae, for it is adorned and so to speak engraved with lights.
1. Vocavit Deus firmamentum caelum; factum est vespere et mane, dies secundus =|x|= . Sequitur opus secundae diei, quae est secunda visio intelligentiae per fidem sublevatae, et de ea non dicitur: vidit, sed vocavit. Ad litteram hoc caelum est sublime, stabile et spectabit: sublime quantum ad situm, stabile quantum ad formam, spectabile quantum ad claritatem. Sublime est; unde in Proverbiis: Caelum sursum, et terra deorsum =|2|= ; hoc ipso, quod caelum est nobile, in ordine universi superiorem locum obtinet, et terra infimum. -- Est etiam stabile quantum ad formam, quia movetur non mutando locum, sed in loco et circa medium; Iob: Tu forsitan cum eo fabricatus es caelos, qui solidissimi quasi aere fusi sunt-- Est etiam spectabile quantum ad multitudinem ornatuum; Iob: Spiritus eius ornavit caelos =|4|= ; et Ecclesiasticus: Species caeli, gloria stellarum, mundum illuminans in excelsis Dominus =|5|= . Ab ista conditione ultima denominatur caelum a caelando, non ab abscondendo, sed a sculpendo, quia scribitur per ae diphthongum, quia ornatum et quasi sculptum est luminaribus.


2. Firmament means a vision of faith. For faith makes the soul or intelligence lofty, since it goes beyond every reason and investigation of the mind. It makes it stable, because it excludes doubt and vacillation; it makes it visible, because it displays its multiformed light. And so, the solidity)" of faith is also called heaven, because it makes understanding lofty through investigation, stable when it establishes the truth, and visible when it fills it with a manifold light. Hence in Daniel: The wise shall shine brightly like the splendor of the firmament. But no one is wise unless he is taught by God, for "No one comes to the Father but through Me," says the Saviour. And in John: "They all shall be taught of God." No one is taught in matters of faith except through God; and because it comes about through God's voice, it is said: God called the firmament heaven. It is not said, God saw the firmament, but called it, because the solidity of faith consists rather in belief than in contemplation. For belief is through the ear, because, as the Apostle wrote to the Romans, faith depends on hearing, and, before that, with the heart a man believes unto justice.
2. Per firmamentum autem intelligitur visio fidei. Fides enim reddit sublimem animam vel intelligentiam, quia transcendit omnem rationem et investigationem rationis; reddit stabilem, quia excludit dubitationem et vacillatione!!!; reddit etiam spectabilem, quia multiformem ostendit claritatem. Vocatur ergo fidei firmitas caelum, quia facit intelligentiam sublimem per investigationem; stabilem, dum stabilit in veritate; spectabilem, dum replet eam multiformi lumine. Unde Daniel: Qui docti fuerint fulgebunt quasi splendor firmamenti. Sed nemo doctus est, nisi doceatur a Deo, quia nemo venit ad Matrem nisi per me =|1|= , ait Salvator; et in Ioanne: Erunt omnes docibiles Dei =|8|= . Ad fidem nullus docetur nisi per Deum; et quia venit a voce Dei, ideo dicitur: Vocavit Deus firmamentum caelum =|9|= . Unde non dicit: vidit Deus firmamentum, sed vocavit, quia firmitas fidei magis est in credulitate quam in contemplatione; credulitas autem est per auditum, quia fides ex auditu*, ut ait Apostolus ad Romanos, et antea: Corde creditur ad iustitiam  =|11|= .


3. Now faith consists more precisely in the confession of truth than in the communication of light. Hence, with the mouth profession of faith is made unto salvation. Therefore in a certain sense faith sees, and in another it does not see. The merit of faith is founded on non-seeing, the light of faith on believing. There exists therefore a firmament-heaven, the substance of things to be hoped for. And it consists in light, because it is the evidence of things that are not seen. Wherefore it has both light and clouds. God called the firmament heaven. In Ecclesiasticus it is written: The firmament on high is His beauty, the beauty of heaven with its glorious shew. And here, three things are touched upon: loftiness, stability, and beauty. For this vision of faith is lofty, stable and beautiful. This faith is most noble, most solid and most splendid. Many possess it, however, without knowing it, for the face of faith is covered: it wears a kind of dark veil. It turns sinful souls into the most exalted. Hence, in the Acts, He .. . cleansed their hearts by faith.
3. Fides autem magis est in confessione veritatis quam in communicatione lucis; unde ore confessio fit ad salutem =|12|= . Unde fides quodam modo videt, quodam modo non videt; unde non videre est fidei meritum, credere autem fidei lumen. Est ergo firmamentum-caelum, quia substantia sperandarum rerum; et est lumen, quia argumentum non apparentium =|13|= , unde habet lumen et habet nubem. -- Vocavit Deus firmamentum caelum =|14|= ; in Ecclesiastico: Altitudinis firmamentum species caeli in visione gloriae =|15|= . Et haec tria tangit hic, scilicet sublimitatem, stabilitatem et speciositatem. Est enim haec visio fidei alta, firma et speciosa. Haec fides nobilissima est, firmissima et speciosissima. Multi tamen habent hanc fidem, et eam non cognoscunt, quia fides habet faciem velatam; unde habet quoddam velamen nigrum ante faciem. Facit etiam de turpibus animabus altissimas; unde in Actibus: Fide purificans corda eorum =|16|= .


4. Now, the loftiness (scope) of faith consists in two things: the extreme of altitude and the extreme of depth. Concerning the first, Ecclesiasticus says: Heavens height, earth's breadth, the depth of the abyss: who can explore these? As if he were saying, above all human reason there is the understanding of this: faith's loftiness, love's expansion, and the veneration brought about by the fear of God. Concerning the second, there is in Ecclesiastes: What exists is far-reaching: it is deep, very deep: who can find it out? That is, by means of reason. For it goes beyond our powers of investigation. And although in bodies height and depth are the same, they are distinguished by reason. The Apostle makes this distinction when he writes: You may be able to comprehend ... what is the breadth and length and height and depth.
4. Altitudo autem fidei in duobus est: in altitudine sublimitatis et in altitudine profunditatis. De prima altitudine Ecclesiasticus dicit: Altitudinem caeli et latitudinem terrae et profundum abyssi quis dimensus est? =|11|= . Quasi diceret, super omnem humanam rationem est nosse sublimitatem fidei, dilatationem caritatis, venerationem divini timoris. -- De secunda, in Ecclesiaste: Alta profunditas; quis inveniet eam? =|10|=  scilicet per rationem; transcendit enim investigationem nostram. Et licet altitudo et profunditas in corporibus idem sint, distinguuntur tamen secundum rationem; et Apostolus distinguit, cum dicit: Ut possitis comprehendere, quae sit longitudo, latitudo, sublimitas et profundum =|19|= .


5. Concerning these two, Ecclesiasticus says: In the highest heavens did I dwell, my throne on a pillar of cloud. The height of faith consists in understanding the eternal God, its depth, in knowing God made man. Of the first, it is written: It is higher than the heavens; what can you do? Concerning the second, there is added: It is deeper than the nether world; what can you know? The depth of God made man, that is, the humility, is such that reason fails. The height of God is beyond investigation. Hence, such knowledge is too wonderful for me; too lofty for me to attain. Likewise the words in the highest heavens are used to indicate the teaching of faith that God is eternal. The words, God's throne on a pillar of clouds, refer to the teaching about God made man. About these two, the Apostle writes to the Romans: Oh, the depth of the riches of the wisdom and of the knowledge of God! How incomprehensible are His judgments and how unsearchable His ways! Wisdom refers to the understanding of the eternal God, knowledge to the knowing of God made man. Wherefore the firmament was made in the midst of the waters, that is, faith, in order that the soul may know those things that are above the firmament and those that are below it. And such wisdom concerns divine things, and such knowledge, human things.
5. De his duobus Ecclesiasticus: Ego in altissimis habito, et thronus meus in columna nubis =|20|= . Altitudo fidei consistit in cognitione Dei aeterni, profunditas autem in cognitione Dei humanati. De primo scriptum est: Excelsior caelo est, et quid facies? =|21|= . De secundo subiungitur: Profundior inferno, et unde cognosces? =|22|= . Profunditas Dei humanati, scilicet humilitas, tanta est, quod ratio deficit. -- Altitudo Dei investigabilis est; unde mirabilis facta est scientia tua ex me; confortata est, et non potero ad eam =|23|= . -- Item, in altissimis dicit, in quantum fides docet Deum aeternum; thronus meus in columna nubis =|24|=  dicit, in quantum docet Deum humanatum. De his duobus Apostolus ad Romanos: O altitudo divitiarum sapientiae et scientiae Dei, quam incomprehensibilia sunt iudicia eius et investigabiles viae eius! =|25|= . Sapientia quantum ad notitiam Dei aeterni, scientia quantum ad notitiam Dei humanati. Unde firmamentum factum est in medio aquarum, hoc est$fides, ut cognoscat anima ea quae sunt super firmamentum, et quae sub firmamento sunt. Et haec sapientia est divinarum rerum, et scientia humanarum.


6. That wisdom through which God judges all things is incomprehensible. But most incomprehensible is wisdom that travels along roads that are beyond investigation. Concerning this, it is said in Proverbs: Three things are too wonderful for me, yes, four I cannot understand: the way of an eagle in the air, the way of a serpent upon a rock, the way of a ship on the high seas, and the way of a man with a maiden. The way of an eagle in the air came about in the ascension of Christ; the way of a serpent upon the rock, in the resurrection, for a serpent is renewed upon the rock where it sheds its old skin; the way of a ship on the high seas, in the passion; the way of a man with a maiden, in the incarnation, which the author says he cannot understand. And it is true in terms of human reason, but not so in terms of faith.
6. Incomprehensibilis est sapientia, per quam iudicat omnia; sed maxime incomprehensibilis, quae vadit per vias investigabiles. De quo in Proverbiis: Tria sunt difficilia mihi, et quartum penitus ignoro: viam aquilae in caelo, viam colubri super petram, viam navis in medio mari, et viam viri in adolescentula =|26|= . Via aquilae in caelo fuit in Christi ascensione; via colubri, in resurrectione, quia coluber in petra innovatur, ubi dimittit vetustam pellem; via navis in mari, in passione; via viri in adolescentula, in incarnatione, quam penitus se dicit ignorare; et verum est secundum humanam rationem, sed secundum fidem secus est.


7. Hence, there is a twofold dimension to the firmament: one concerned with the highest, the other with the lowest; one which makes known the eternal God, the other which reveals God made man. Of these two aspects, Isaiah says, in chapter six, in a vision which was the root of all his other visions: I saw the Lord seated on a high and lofty throne, with the train of his garment filling the temple. Seraphim were stationed above; each of them had six wings: with two they veiled their faces, with two they veiled their feet, with two they hovered aloft. "Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts!" they cried one to the other. "All the earth is filled with His glory." And immediately there follows upon this the blinding of the Jews and the enlightenment of the Gentiles. Hence, John says: When he saw the Lord, Isaiah said again: "He has blinded their eyes, and hardened their hearts." Hence the enlightenment of the Gentiles became the blinding of the Jews. And it is in reference to this that the Apostle cries out: Oh, the depth of the riches, etc.
7. Est ergo duplex altitudo firmamenti: una, per quam suprema respicit; altera, per quam infima; una, per quam docet cognoscere Deum aeternum; altera, Deum incarnatum. De his duobus dicitur Isaiae sexto in visione, quae omnium suarum visionum fuit radix: Vidi Dominum sedentem etc., usque ibi: Plena est omnis terra gloria eius =|21 |= Et statim sequitur excaecatio Iudaeorum et illuminatio gentium. Unde dicit Ioannes: Haec dixit Isaias, quando vidit Dominum =|28|=  ; et sequitur: Excaeca cor populi huius et aures eius aggrava =|29|= . Unde illuminatio gentium fuit excaecatio Iudaeorum. Et de hoc exclamat Apostolus: O altitudo divitiarum =|30|=  etc.


8. Wherefore Isaiah says I saw, that is, through the vision of understanding lifted up by faith and stabilized in the height of eternal wisdom, in which there is a twofold light, inflaming and seraphic. Because it is seraphic, it gives rise to the threefold cry; and faith makes the soul seraphic in a double way, and makes the minds winged with six wings.
8. Dicit ergo Isaias: Vidi* =|1|= , scilicet visione intelligentiae per fidem sublevatae et stabilitae in sublimitate sapientiae aeternae, per quam est duplex lumen inflammativum et seraphicum; quod quidem seraphicum facit clamare tripliciter; et facit fides duplici seraphicatione animam seraphim et facit mentes alatas senis alis.


9. For indeed, our intellect enlightened by faith cries out three times: Holy, holy, holy. And there are two Seraphim established in us through faith, and each one makes the triple exclamation, but refers only once to the Lord God. For the understanding of God is the understanding of three Persons with unity of essence. Wherefore there are three that hear witness (in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit; and these three are one). And so the intellect is made to resemble a Seraph, that is, it is enlightened and inflamed through faith, and cries out Holy three times. The other Seraph answers Holy, holy, holy, for as in the eternal God there are trinity of Persons and oneness of essence, so also in God made man there are trinity of natures:): and unity of Person. =|3|=  And these are the two roots of faith, and a man who ignores them believes nothing: they refer to the body, the soul and the divinity. The holy Christ has a holy body, the holy Christ has a holy soul, the holy Christ has a holy divinity. He is holy without, holy within, and holy above.
9. Intellectus enim noster per fidem illuminatus clamat tripliciter: Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus =|32|= . Sunt enim duo Seraphim stabiliti in nobis per fidem, et quilibet clamat triplici exclamatione, tamen non nisi semel Dominus Deus =|00|= . Notitia enim Dei est notitia trium personarum cum unitate essentiae; unde tres sunt, qui testimonium dant in caelo, Pater, Verbum et Spiritus sanctus, et hi tres unum sunt =|34|= . Intellectus ergo seraphicatus, id est illuminatus et inflammatus per fidem, clamat$ter sanctus. Alter Seraph respondet: Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus: quia sicut in Deo aeterno est trinitas personarum cum unitate essentiae, ita etiam in Deo humanato sunt tres naturae cum unitate personae. Et isti sunt duae radices fidei, quas qui ignorat nihil credit: ut corpus, anima, Divinitas. Sanctus Christus sanctum habet corpus; sanctus Christus sanctam habet animam; sanctus Christus sanctam habet Divinitatem. Sanctus exterius, sanctus interius, sanctus superius.


10. These are the two knowledges of faith illuminating and inflaming in a threefold manner while being retraced to unity. They [the Seraphim] are said to cry, out of admiration, because both [forms of knowledge] are admirable. Wherefore in the Psalm: O Lord, our Lord, how glorious is Your name over all the earth! You have made him little less than the angels, and crowned him with glory and honor. And in truth this name is admirable in so far as it refers to the eternal God, for it implies a true distinction of Persons together with unity of essence, through which they are supremely conforming to each other, supremely in accord, supremely coequal, coeternal, con- substantial, and coessential. Likewise, it is admirable [in so far as it refers to God made man], because the three natures are conjoined: the highest with the lowest, without debasement; the first with the last, without alteration; the simple with the composite, without composition.
10. Hae sunt duae cognitiones fidei illuminantes et ardentes triformiter ad unitatem reductae. Clamare autem dicuntur propter admirationem, quia utrumque est admirabile; unde in Psalmo: Domine Dominus noster, quam admirabile est nomen tuum in universa terra! Minuisti eum paulo minus ab Angelis; gloria et honore coronasti eum =|35|= . Et vere admirabile nomen quantum ad Deum aeternum, quia ibi est vera distinctio personarum cum unitate essentiae, per quam sunt summe conformes, summe concordes, summe coaequales, coaeternae, consubstantiales, coessentiales. -- Item, est admirabile, quoniam tres naturae coniunctae sunt: supremum cum infimo sine depressione, primum cum ultimo sine innovatione, simplex cum composito sine compositione.


11. It is in these three aspects that all admirable things are rooted: and in them taken together does the knowledge of God's divinity and humanity consist, for the incarnation cannot be known unless one is aware of the distinction of Persons. For if you do not know the Trinity, the Father could have been incarnated and have suffered as well as the Son: and this is Sabellianism and Patripassianism. Likewise, if you suppose the Trinity and not the incarnation, you have a witnessing in heaven, but you do not receive it on earth. Yet, since there are three that hear witness... [on earth]: the Spirit and the water and the blood. The spirit refers to the Godhead, the water to the body, and the blood, wherein is the life of the soul, to the soul. Through blood, indeed, Christ united the Spirit with the water, for by means of the soul, the Godhead was joined to a body.
11. In his tribus omnia mirabilia radicantur; et sunt iuncta cognitio Divinitatis et humanitatis, quia incarnatio non cognoscitur, nisi cognoscatur distinctio personarum. Si enim non cognoscas Trinitatem, ita bene Pater incarnatus est vel passus ut Filius; et es Sabelliana et Patripassianus. -- Item, si ponas Trinitatem et non incarnationem, testimonium habes in caelo, et non accipis in terra; cum tamen tres sint, qui testimonium dant in terra, spiritus, aqua et sanguis =|36|= . In spiritu Divinitas, in aqua corpus, in sanguine, ubi est vita animae =|37|= , anima. Per sanguinem enim Christi spiritus aquae iungitur, quia mediante anima Divinitas coniungitur corpori.


12. And so, we have two Seraphim crying out in admiration. There now remains to be explained why they have six wings, and then will be seen those matters which pertain to faith. Faith is both toward the eternal God and toward God made man. Faith toward the eternal God contains one explanation of the six wings, and this in a twofold way: either as regards the distinction of the Persons, or as regards the diffusion of the Trinity in the creatures, by means of essence, power, and operation. =|4|=  In reference to the first, there are three articles [of faith]: concerning the unbegotten Father, the only-begotten Son proceeding from the Father only, and the Holy Spirit breathed by both. These are the three wings on the right side, that is, in eternity. Now, as regards emanation, nothing can be added or subtracted, as if there were, for instance, a producing being and none produced, for this would be [a contradictory] infinity; or as if there were a being who was only produced, and none that was only producing, for this would be [a contradictory] infinity on the part of the first. Hence it is necessary to assume the simultaneity of producing and produced beings, so that they may be compatible with each other. Otherwise, there would be in the Godhead a distinction without order. Now, a distinction without order is confusion. Hence, it is necessary that the Holy Spirit proceed from both. And this is what all the wise Greeks say, and so, there is no controversy except in wording. Consequently, the error is found only among the foolish Greeks.
12. Habemus ergo duos Seraphim clamantes et admirantes; restat dicere, quare sex alas habent, et tunc videbuntur ea quae fidei sunt. Fides enim est in Deum aeternum et humanatum. -- Fides in Deum aeternum est una illustratio senarum alarum; et hoc dupliciter: aut quantum ad distinctionem personarum, aut quantum ad diffusionem Trinitatis in creaturam secundum essentiam, virtutem et operationem. -- Primo modo sunt tres articuli, scilicet Patris ingeniti, Filii unigeniti a solo Patre, Spiritus sancti ab utroque spirati. Isti sunt tres alae in$latere dextero, scilicet in aeternitate; nec potest addi nec minui ad emanationem, ut scilicet sit producens tantum et non productum, quia sic esset infinitas; si esset tantum productum, et non producens tantum, sic esset infinitas ex parte ante; ergo necesse est ponere producens et productum simul, ut ad invicem cohaereant. Aliter in divinis esset distinctio sine ordine; distinctio autem sine ordine confusio est: unde necesse est, quod Spiritus sanctus procedat ab utroque; et hoc dicunt omnes sapientes Graeci, nec est controversia nisi de nomine; et per consequens iste fuit error in fatuis Graecis.


13. Likewise, on the left there are three wings inasmuch as there is diffusion into the creature out of a single essence, power and operation. And in this regard, there is a threefold operation, in so far as the one God is the Creator, the Sanctifier and the Retributor: for everything that flows out of Him is in the order of essence or of grace or of glory. And so the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit are a single Creator through essence, a single Sanctifier through grace, and a single Retributor through glory. But the first is before time, the second in time, and the third after all time. The first is in the beginning of time, the second in its course, and the third in its consummation. There is, however, a creation of souls in the course of time, for "My Father works even until now, and I work." Retribution also comes about in the midst of time, as in the case of souls, but it is completed later. Again, creation is attributed =|5|=  to the Father because He is mighty, sanctification  to the Holy Spirit because He is good, and retribution to the Son, because He shall judge and appear as a King.
13. Similiter in sinistro sunt tres alae, in quantum ab una essentia, virtute et operatione est diffusio in creaturam. Et secundum hoc est triplex operatio, in quantum unus Deus est creator, sanctificator et praemiator; quia omne, quod ab ipso emanat, aut est natura, aut gratia, aut gloria. Et sic Pater, et Filius, et Spiritus sanctus unus creator per naturam, unus sanctificator per gratiam, unus praemiator per gloriam. Primum autem est ante tempus, secundum in tempore, tertium post omne tempus. Primum est in initio temporis, secundum in decursu, tertium in consummatione. -- Est tamen creatio animae in decursu temporis, quia Pater meus usque modo operatur, et ego operor*. Praemiatio etiam fit in medio temporis, ut animarum, sed post fiet perfecta. -- Item, creatio attibuitur Patri, quia potens; sanctificatio Spiritui sancto, quia bonus; praemiatio Filio, quia iudicabit et rex apparebit.


14. But how does one wing correspond to the other? It can be said that sanctification may be considered either as mercy, which comes about through redemption and hence is attributed to the Son; or as grace and hence is attributed to the Holy Spirit. Likewise, retribution may be considered in regard to the judgment of the one who passes sentence, and in this sense it is attributed to the Son; or in regard to the love of the one who rewards, in which case it is attributed to the Holy Spirit. The intermediate operation leads to the last, and so are the three wings set in place.
14. Sed quomodo respondebit ala alae? Dicendum, quod sanctificatio aut consideratur quantum ad veniam, quae quidem fit per redemptionem, et sic attribuitur Filio; aut quantum ad gratiam, et sic attribuitur Spiritui sancto. -- Similiter praemiatio consideratur secundum iudicium sententiantis, et sic attribuitur Filio; aut quantum ad amorem praemiantis, et sic Spiritui sancto. Media autem operatio pervenit ad ultimam; sic tres alae disponuntur.


15. The other Seraph is closer to us and also has six wings: three in the order of descent and three in the order of ascent; in the order of descent, beginning with the wing over the head, through the intermediate one, to the wing covering the feet. These are the three articles concerning the incarnation, crucifixion and descent into hell in the order of the soul. For it begins with the top, because it was necessary that He unite to Himself a nature in which He would become visible and through which He would come down, for He Himself is by nature immutable. Then He came to the cross, and finally to hell. These are the wings on the left.
15. Alter Seraph propinquior est nobis et habet similiter sex alas: tres secundum descensum, et tres secundum ascensum; secundum descensum, veniendo ab ala super caput per medium ad alam super pedes. Hi sunt tres articuli secundum incarnationem, crucifixionem, descensum ad inferos secundum animam. Incepit enim a summo, quia necesse fuit, ut uniret sibi naturam, in qua appareret et per quam descenderet, quia ipse de se immutabilis est; deinde venit ad crucem; demum ad infernum. Hae alae in sinistro.


16. Likewise, there are three in the order of ascent: resurrection out of hell into the world, ascension out of the world into heaven, and the coming out of heaven for the judgment, so that there be a rising out of the Church Militant into the Church Triumphant. But first there comes about a stripping of hell in the resurrection, an opening of the door in the ascension, and a consummation of the kingdom in the judgment. And nothing is more certain than these things.
16. Tres similiter ascendendo: resurrectio de inferis in mundum, ascensio de mundo in caelum, de caelo adventus ad iudicium, ut sit$ascensio ab Ecclesia militante in triumphantem. Sed primo fiet expoliatio inferni in resurrectione, apertio ianuae in ascensione, consummatio regni in iudicio; his nihil certius.


17. These six wings are the six perfect considerations of God in the three Persons and the three operations; the other six in the second series are the six considerations of God incarnate. In these things, therefore, are contained the twelve articles of faith, of which the twelve apostles were the preachers. =|6|=  For a wing lifts up in order to transcend every human reason. In the absence of this twofold consideration, there is no worshiper of God.
17. Hae sex alae primae sunt sex considerationes perfectae Dei in tribus personis et tribus operibus; aliae sex secundae, sex considerationes Dei incarnati: in his ergo duodecim articuli fidei, cuius praedicatores sunt duodecim Apostoli. Aia enim sublevat ad transcendendum omnem humanam rationem. Sine hac duplici consideratione nullus est cultor Dei.


18. As a symbol of this, the High Priest had two stones on his breastplate: one on the right side and the other on the left. And on these were written the twelve names of the sons of Israel: six names on one stone and six names on the other—and they were made of lucid and ardent onyx, through which faith in the humanity and divinity is expressed. And they are likewise expressed in the Symbol (Creed) composed by the twelve apostles. And a sacrifice made in such faith as this is pleasing to God.
18. In cuius designatione Pontifex in superhumerali habebat lapides duos: unum in dextero latere, et alterum in sinistro; et in illis duodecim nomina filiorum Israel: sex nomina in lapide uno, et sex in altero, et erant in lapide onychino lucido et ardenti =|39|= , in quo fides humanitatis et Divinitatis exprimitur; quae similiter exprimuntur in Symbolo a duodecim Apostolis composito. In hac fide sacrificium placet Deo.


19. On the stones, the names were listed according to birth, but in the Symbol, according to the words of the apostles. Hence, "I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth" —here is one article concerning the unbegotten Father. 'And in Jesus Christ, His only- begotten Son, our Lord." This second article concerns the Son begotten of the Father. Then follow six articles related to the humanity [of Christ]: "Who was conceived of the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary," the third article. "Suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried," the fourth article. "He went down into hell," the fifth. "On the third day, He arose from the dead," the sixth. "He ascended into heaven, where He sits at the right hand of the Father Almighty," the seventh. "Whence He shall come to judge the living and the dead," the eighth. "I believe in the Holy Spirit," the ninth. "In the Holy Catholic Church," the tenth. "In the communion of saints and the remission of sins," the eleventh. "In the resurrection of the flesh and eternal life," the twelfth. And these  according as the Holy Spirit institutes them, unites them and purifies them in accordance to the three last operations besides the last [article].
19. In lapidibus ordinabantur nomina secundum nativitatem ipsorum, sed in Symbolo secundum dicta Apostolorum. Unde: «Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem, creatorem caeli et terrae»; ecce, unus articulus Patris ingeniti. -- «Et in Iesum Christum, Filium eius unicum, Dominum nostrum»; secundus, Filii geniti a Patre. -- Deinde sequuntur sex ad humanitatem pertinentes. «Qui conceptus est de Spiritu sancto, natus ex Maria virgine», tertius articulus. -- «Passus sub Pontio Pilato, crucifixus, mortuus et sepultus», quartus articulus. -- «Descendit ad inferos», quintus. -- «Tertia die resurrexit a mortuis», sextus. -- «Ascendit ad caelos, sedet ad dexteram Dei Patris omnipotentis», septimus. -- «Inde venturus est iudicare vivos et mortuos», octavus. -- «Credo in Spiritum sanctum», nonus. -- «Sanctam Ecclesiam catholicam», decimus. -- «Sanctorum communionem, remissionem peccatorum», undecimus. -- «Carnis resurrectionem, vitam aeternam», duodecimus. -- Et haec, secundum quod Spiritus sanctus instituit, unit, purificat quantum ad tres ultimas operationes praeter ultimum.


X. Ninth Collation



900 NINTH COLLATION Second Treatise on the Second Vision, Concerning the Threefold Firmness of Faith


A. Second Treatise on the Second Vision, Concerning the Threefold Firmness of Faith



1. GOD called the firmament heaven, etc. It has been said " that the scope of faith consists in two things, the extreme of loftiness and the extreme of depth. The scope of faith has been discussed: its firmness now remains to be covered. But if faith is lofty, how can it be certain? For the higher a thing is, the less it is known; and the less it is known, the more doubtful it must necessarily be. Wherefore we should understand that the firmness of this faith is threefold. It consists first in the witness of truth expressed through the uncreated Word; second, in the witness of truth expressed through the incarnate Word; third, in the witness of truth expressed through the inspired Word.
1. Vocavit Deus firmamentum caelum =|1|=  etc. Dictum est, quod altitudo fidei in duobus consistit: in altitudine sublimitatis et in altitudine profunditatis. De altitudine fidei dictum est, sed nunc dicendum est de eius firmitate. Sed si alta, quomodo certa? Quia res, quanto altior, tanto minus nota; et quanto minus nota, tanto magis dubitabilis. -- Et ideo intelligendum, quod huius fidei firmitas est triplex. Prima est ex testimonio veritatis expressae per Verbum increatum; secunda, ex testimonio veritatis expressae per Verbum incarnatum; tertia, ex testimonio veritatis expressae per Verbum inspiratum.


B. Uncreated Word



2. The first [the uncreated word] is referred to in the fifth chapter of the First Epistle of John: For there are three that hear witness [in heaven: the Father, the Word and the Holy Spirit; and these three are one] . Witness is given by the Three, but it is expressed through the Word, for the Word expresses the Father, and Itself, and the Spirit, and all other things besides. Hence, in the Psalm: By the word of the Lord the heavens were established; and all the power of them by the spirit of His mouthy The heavens, that is the heavenly beings, were confirmed through faith by the Word of God; and through this same Word, both the heavenly and the sub-heavenly beings were confirmed, and hence it is said: And all the power of them by the spirit of His mouth. Wherefore Scriptures, explaining the mystery of the heavenly and sub-heavenly hierarchies, say in another place: Your word, O Lord, endures forever; it is firm as the heavens; that is, the word of the Trinity. Through all generations your truth endures; You have established the earth and it stands firm.
2. De prima in primae Ioannis quinto: Tres sunt, qui testimonium dant in caelo, Pater, Verbum et Spiritus sanctus; et hi tres unum sunt =|2|= . A tribus datur testimonium, sed exprimitur per Verbum, quia Verbum et Patrem et se ipsum et Spiritum sanctum exprimit et omnia alia Unde in Psalmo: Verbo Domini caeli firmati sunt; et spiritu oris eius omnis virtus eorum =|0|= . Caeli, id est caelestes, per fidem Verbo Dei firmati sunt; et isto Verbo firmantur et caelestes et subcaelestes, unde dicit: Et spiritu oris eius omnis virtus eorum. Unde Scriptura explicans mysterium hierarchiae caelestis et subcaelestis, in alio loco dicit: In aeternum, Domine, Verbum tuum permanet in caelo*, scilicet Trinitatis; in generationem et generationem veritas tua; fundasti terram et permanet =|5|= .


3. The Church, represented by the name "earth," was founded upon this Word. Hence, in Isaiah: Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand and weighed the heavens with his palm? Who hath poised with three fingers the bulk of the earth? This the Word did, through whom all things were made. His hand, by which all things are created, that is, formed or made distinct and adorned, with three fingers lifts and suspends the earth, that is, the ecclesiastic hierarchy which He creates, distinguishes and adorns. =|1|=  This hand measures the waters, this hand holds all things as an object is held in the fist. This is the hand of the eternal Word. This witnessing transcends any judgment by a creature. Hence the living creatures lowered their wings when a voice came from above the firmament. How shall we hear the thunder if we hardly see the lightning of this speech?
3. Super hoc Verbum fundata est Ecclesia, quae terrae nomine figuratur. Unde Isaias: Quis mensus est pugillo aquas et caelos palmo ponderavit? Quis appendit tribus digitis molem terrae? =|6|= . Hoc facit Verbum, per quod facta sunt omnia =|1|= . Manus eius, per quam cuncta creantur, formantur seu distinguuntur et ornantur, tribus digitis levat et suspendit terram, scilicet ecclesiasticam hierarchiam, quam creat, distinguit et ornat. Haec manus metitur aquas et omnia tenet in manu, sicut in pugillo res tenetur. Haec est manus Verbi aeterni. -- Hoc testimonium transcendit omne iudicium cuiuslibet creaturae. Unde animalia volatilia demittebant alas suas, cum fieret vox super firmamentum'' =|8|= . Quomodo ergo nos audiemus tonitruum =|9|= , si sermonis eius scintillam vix apprehendimus?


C. Incarnate Word



4. But [God] condescended to us, for He expressed Himself through the incarnate word: and this is the second witness, of which John writes: He who is from the earth belongs to earth, and of the earth he speaks. He who comes from heaven is over all. The witnessing of Christ was greater than that of John the Baptist, for He did not speak by means of the supporting power of someone else, since His spirit could see all things. And so, whoever is from heaven can truly reveal the things of heaven. Wherefore [Jesus] said to Nicodemus: "If I have spoken of earthly things to you, and you do not believe, how will you believe if I speak to you of heavenly things?" That is why the Father witnessed for the Son by voice, and the Holy Spirit came down in the form of a dove, in order that the witnessing be most solid. For [Jesus] said: "What My Father has given Me is greater than all."
4. Condescendit autem nobis, quia se exprimit per Verbum incarnatum; et hoc est secundum testimonium; de quo in Ioanne: Qui de terra est de terra loquitur; qui de caelo venit super omnes est =|10|= . Testimonium Christi maius fuit testimonio Ioannis Baptistae =|11|= , quia non alio supponente loquitur, quia anima eius omnia vidit; unde qui de caelo est revera caelestia revelare potest. Unde dixit Nicodemo: Si terrena dixi vobis, et non creditis; quomodo, si dixero vobis caelestia, credetisP =|12|= . Hinc Filio Pater testatur in voce, Spiritus sanctus in columbae specie =|13|= , ut testimonium eius sit solidissimum; quia Pater, inquit, quod dedit mihi maius omnibus es t =|14|= .


5. Christ is the foundation of this faith. For other foundation no one can lay, but that which has been laid, which is Christ Jesus. For He is the cornerstone of which Isaiah and Peter speak: See, I am laying a stone in Sion, a stone that has been tested, a precious cornerstone as a sure foundation. And the Apostle: You are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets with Christ Jesus Himself as the chief cornerstone.
5. Huius autem fidei Christus est fundamentum; et nemo potest aliud fundamentum ponere praeter id quod positum est, quod est Christus Iesus =|15|= . Iste est lapis angularis, de quo facit Isaias et Petrus mentionem: Ecce ponam in fundamentis Sion lapidem angularem, probatum, speciosum =|16|= ; et Apostolus: Superaedificati supra fundamentum Apostolorum et Prophetarum, ipso summo angulari lapide, Christo Iesu =|17|= .


D. Inspired Word



6. The third firmness is that which proceeds from the witness of truth as expressed through the inspired word: and this occurred with all the prophets. And we have heard this Word, for it is the Spirit that bears witness that Christ is the truth. Some have actually seen Him in the flesh. Hence in Luke: "Blessed are the eyes that see what you see! For I say to you, many prophets and kings have desired to see what you see, and they have not seen it."
6. Tertia firmitas est ex testimonio veritatis ut expressae per Verbum inspiratum; et hoc fuit in omnibus Prophetis =|18|= ; et nos audivimus hoc verbum quia Spiritus sanctus testificatur, quoniam Christus est veritas =|19|= . Aliqui viderunt eum in carne =|20|= . Unde in Luca: Beati oculi, qui vident quae vos videtis. Dico vobis, quod multi reges et Prophetae voluerunt videre quae vos videtis, et non viderunt =|21|= .


E. Holy Spirit



7. But the Holy Spirit radiated in the hearts of the preachers so that they could preach and write all the truth. God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spoke in times past to the fathers by the prophets, last of all in these days has spoken to us by His Son. And later it is said: For if the word spoken by angels proved to be valid; and still later: For it was first announced by the Lord and was confirmed unto us by those who heard Him; God also, according to His own will, bearing them witness by signs and wonders, and by manifold powers, and by impartings of the Holy Spirit. And this threefold firmness of faith is explained: first, as expressed through the Uncreated Word, when He says, at sundry times, etc., and, being the brightness of His glory. Second, as expressed through the Incarnate Word, in the passage: He has effected man's purgation from sin. Third, as expressed through the Inspired Word, in the passage: For it was first announced by the Lord.
7. Radiavit autem Spiritus sanctus in cordibus praedicatorum ad omnem veritatem praedicandam et scribendam; ad Hebraeos primo: Multifariam multisque modis olim Deus loquens Patribus in Prophetis, novissime diebus istis locutus est nobis in Filio =|22|= . Et postea dicitur: Si enim qui per Angelos dictus est sermo factus est firmus =|23|= ; et sequitur: Quae cum initium accepisset enarrari per Dominum, ab eis qui audierunt, in nos confirmata est, contestante Deo signis et portentis et variis virtutibus et Spiritus sancti distributionibus =|24|= . -- Et explicatur hic triplex firmitas fidei: primo, ut expressa per Verbum increatum, cum dicit: Multifariam etc., et: Qui cum sit splendor gloriae =|25|= ; secundo, ut per Verbum incarnatum, ibi: Purgationem peccatorum faciens =|26|= ; tertio, ut per Verbum inspiratum, ibi: Quae cum initium accepisset enarrari per Deum =|21|= .


8. This Holy Spirit, acting in the minds of the chosen, brings about Scriptures and gives firmness to the Christian faith. And because it acts more specially in the apostles, they are said to be the twelve foundation stones. The Apocalypse reads: And I saw the Holy City, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, etc. And it is said that the twelve names of the apostles were written on these foundation stones; not only the witnessing of the apostles, but also various witnessings of the Holy Spirit on many topics, among which are the twelve reasons for the firmness of faith, which are the twelve foundations. For through the concurrence of divers witnessings, the Holy Spirit strengthened this faith so that it would not be smitten; although this firmness was shaken violently in the beginning when the martyrs were crucified by idolaters. It was also shaken in intermediate times by different heresies. It will be shaken most violently at the end of the time of the Church through torment, argument, and the working of miracles. Hence, woe to those who are with child, or have infants at the breast in those days! And the meaning here is, woe to those whose faith is not sufficiently strong. Clearly, then, it is necessary that faith be strengthened by the Inspired Word.
8. Hic Spiritus sanctus in mentibus electorum facit Scripturas et dat firmitatem fidei christianae; et quia specialiter in Apostolis, ideo dicuntur duodecim fundamenta civitatis. In Apocalypsi: Vidi sanctam civitatem Ierusalem novam, descendentem de caelo a Deo =|28|=  etc.; et dicitur, quod in fundamento duodecim nomina Apostolorum erant scripta =|29|= ; non tantum autem testimonium Apostolorum, sed varia testimonia Spiritus sancti in multis; in quibus sunt duodecim rationes firmitatis fidei, quae sunt duodecim fundamenta. Per concursum enim diversorum testimoniorum Spiritus sanctus fidem firmavit inconcussam; licet vexata fuerit haec firmitas in principio Ecclesiae, ubi cruciabantur Martyres ab idolatris; vexata similiter fuit in medio tempore diversis haeresibus; vexabitur maxime in fine Ecclesiae per tormenta, per argumenta, per miracula. Unde vae pregnantibus et nutrientibus in his diebus =|30|= , hoc est, vae teneris in fide. Oportet ergo, quod fides firmetur per Verbum inspiratum.


F. This Firmness Arises out of Four Elements



9. Now, this firmness arises out of four elements comparable to the four sides of the city: out of the assured knowledge of the witnesses, their outstanding reputation, their full accord, and their solid opinion. For when there is assured knowledge [on the part of the witnesses] and yet their reputation is not good, they are not believed; but only when a man is good is it known that he is telling the truth. And if he has assured knowledge and an outstanding reputation, if many contradict him, there still may be doubt. And if all three are present—knowledge and reputation and accord —but opinions are not solid, some doubt is still possible.
9. Consurgit autem haec firmitas ex quatuor quasi ex quatuor lateribus civitatis =|31|= ; ex testificantium notitia certa, ex testificantium fama praeclara, ex testificantium concordia plena et ex testificandum sententia firma; quia, si sit notitia certa, non sit autem fama bona; non creditur sibi, sed quando bonus est homo, scitur, quod veritatem dicit. Et si habeat certam notitiam et famam claram, sed tamen multi sibi contradicunt; adhuc potest esse dubitatio. Si autem haec tria habeat, et notitiam et famam et concordiam, et tamen non habet sententiam firmam; dubitatio esse potest.


1. Assured Knowledge



10. Assured knowledge is referred to in the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, Chapter twelve: I know a man. .. who... was caught up to the third heaven... and heard secret words, that is, assured knowledge by means of ascent to the third heaven, and again, by means of descent to the first through representations of all the heavens. Hence, in the twenty-fourth chapter of Ecclesiasticus: I made that in the heavens there should rise light that never faileth. That is, in heavenly men, a firm light of faith. The threefold heavens refer to a threefold vision: purely intellectual, intellectual combined with imaginary, and intellectual combined with manifest bodily vision. The first is found in the minds of angels, the second in the minds of prophets, and the third in the minds of the apostles. The certainty of Scriptures consists in the concurrence of these visions.
10. De notitia certa dicitur secundae ad Corinthios duodecimo: Scio hominem raptum usque ad tertium caelum, et audivit arcana =|32|=  hoc est, certa notitia per ascensum usque ad tertium caelum, et iterum per descensum usque ad primum per illustrationes omnium caelorum; unde Ecclesiastici vigesimo quarto: Ego feci\ ut oriretur in caelis lumen indeficiens =|33|= , id est in caelestibus viris lumen fidei firmum. Per triplex caelum triplex visio intelligitur: intellectualis pura, intellectualis adiuncta cum visione imaginaria et intellectualis cum visione corporali manifesta. Prima invenitur in mentibus Angelicis; secunda, in mentibus propheticis; tertia, in mentibus apostolicis. Harum visionum concursu est certitudo Scripturae.


11. The purely intellectual vision existed in the minds of the angels and of the Lawmaker. For the Law was delivered by angels. Angels gave it forth, composed it, for they could see the pure truth in the eternal light. Moses was raised up to this vision more completely than any other prophet, for it is written: Should there he a prophet among you, in visions will I reveal Myself to him, in dreams will I speak to him; not so with my servant Moses! Throughout My house he bears My trust: face to face 1 speak to him, plainly and not in riddles. The presence of the Lord he beholds. And as a sign of this, he fasted forty days and forty nights; he also saw the angel who appeared in the bush; and Stephen explains that the Lord was not present except through a creature subject to Him, but that an angel was present.
11. Visio intellectualis pura fuit in mentibus Angelicis et in Legislatore. Lex enim per Angelos ordinata est =|34|= ; Angeli eam dederunt, eam scripserunt, qui puram veritatem videbant in luce aeterna. Ad hanc visionem fuit Moyses sublimatus ultra omnes Prophetas, quia scriptum est: Si fuerit Inter vos Propheta Domini, in visione apparebo ei, vel per somnium loquar ad illum; at non talis servus meus Moyses. Ore enim ad os loquor ei, et palam et non per aenigmata et figuras Dominum videt =|35|= . Et in signum huius ieiunavit quadraginta diebus et quadraginta$noctibus =|36|= , qui etiam vidit Angelum, qui in rubo apparuit ei =|37|= . Et exponit beatus Stephanus, quod non fuit ibi Dominus nisi per subiectam creaturam, sed Angelus fuit =|38|= .


12. The second certainty existed in the minds of prophets. In the Second Epistle of Peter, we read: We have the word of prophecy, surer still, to which you do well to attend, as to a lamp shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts. This, then, you must understand first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture is made by private interpretation. For not by will of man was prophecy brought at any time; but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit. Yet, the visions of the prophets were imaginary, as was the case with Isaiah and Daniel.
12. Secunda certitudo fuit in mentibus propheticis. In secunda Petri: Habemus firmiorem propheticum sermonem, cui bene facitis attendentes quasi lucernae lucenti in caliginoso loco, donec dies illucescat, et lucifer oriatur in cordibus vestris. Hoc primum intelligentes, quod omnis prophetia Scripturae propria interpretatione non fit. Non enim voluntate humana allata est aliquando prophetia, sed Spiritu sancto inspirati, locuti sunt sancti Dei homines =|39|= . Visiones tamen Prophetarum fuerunt imaginariae, ut Isaiae, Danielis.


13. The third is certainty deriving from an intellectual vision combined with bodily vision. This occurred in the minds of the apostles. Hence in John: What was from the beginning, what we have heard, what we have seen with our eyes, what we have looked upon and our hands have handled,... the Word of Life. And we announce to you nothing else than what we have seen. Wherefore Thomas wanted to touch, and was told: "Because thou hast seen Me, thou hast believed." And elsewhere it is written: He who saw it has borne witness; and in the Acts: He charged us to testify. And the blessed Virgin Mary, the teacher of the Apostles and Evangelists came in contact with this Word in her womb and on her lap.
13. Tertia est certitudo ex visione intellectuali iuncta cum corporali. Haec fuit in mentibus apostolicis. Unde Ioannes: Quod fuit ab initio, quod vidimus oculis nostris, quod perspeximus, et manus nostrae contrectaverunt de Verbo vitae =|40|= ; et non aliud, quam quod vidimus, annuntiamus vobis =|41|= . Unde Thomas tangere voluit et audivit: Quia vidisti me, Thoma, credidisti =|42|= ; et alibi: Qui vidit testimonium perhibuit =|43|= ; et in Actibus: Praecepit nobis testificari =|44|= . Et beata Virgo Maria, doctrix Apostolorum et Evangelistarum, contrectavit hoc Verbum in utero et in sinu.


14. These three concurrent visions or certainties, the angelic, the prophetic, and the apostolic, provide the certainty of faith and Scriptures. Paul had all three, for he saw Christ bodily: And last of all, he writes, as by one bom out of due time, He was seen also by me. And he was also lifted up to the intermediate and to the highest visions, that is, to the intellectual. Wherefore it is well said: I made that in the heavens there should rise light that never faileth.
14. Hae tres visiones sive certitudines concurrentes, Angelicae, propheticae, apostolicae, dant certitudinem fidei et Scripturae. Has tres Paulus habuit, qui Christum corporaliter vidit: Novissime, inquit, tanquam abortivo visus est et mihi =|45|= \ qui etiam ad mediam et tandem ad supremam visionem fuit sublimatus, scilicet ad intellectualem. Bene ergo dictum est: Ego feci in caelis, ut orietur lumen indeficiens =|4|= ^.


2. Outstanding Reputation



15. The second firmness comes from the outstanding reputation of the witnesses. This consists in three things: the high reputation of their merits, miracles and martyrdom. The high reputation of merits belonged to the patriarchs. Hence in Ecclesiasticus: Let us now praise men of renown. The patriarchs did not perform miracles, but they were famous for their merits. They were the beginning of Scriptures which are concerned with the apparitions that occurred to them.
15. Secunda firmitas est ex testificantium fama praeclara. Haec in tribus consistit: in praeclaritate meritorum, miraculorum et martyriorum. -- Praeclaritas meritorum fuit in Patriarchis. Unde in Ecclesiastico: Laudemus viros gloriosos =|41|= . Patriarchae miracula non fecerunt, sed famosi fuerunt in meritis. Hi fuerunt initium Scripturae, quae agit de apparitionibus illis factis.


16. The high reputation of both merits and miracles belonged to the Lawmaker. Consider the great miracles in the plagues of Egypt, the passing of the Red Sea, the desert where for forty years shoes and clothes did not wear out; consider Josue who made the sun stop, who divided the waters as they entered the holy land, and the waters were turned back to their source. Add to them Elias and Eliseus: Elias who closed the heavens, gave rain, multiplied food, and went up into heaven in a fiery chariot. Consider Eliseus who, when alive, brought a man back to life, and did the same when he was dead, and who captured men. And so there were miracles before the Law and after the Law and in the giving of the Law, and only in this one people. It follows that these men, so full of love and dear to God, were established in truth. This, then, is the certainty of faith.
16. Praeclaritas meritorum et miraculorum fuit in Legislatore. Vide magna miracula facta in flagellatione Aegypti =|48|= , in transitu maris rubri =|49|= , in deserto, ubi per quadraginta annos non sunt attrita calceamenta nec vestimenta =|50|= , ubi etiam manna de caelo pluit illis =|51|= . Vide Iosue, qui solem fecit stare =|52|= , qui aquas divisit in ingressu terrae promissionis, et aquae reversae sunt in suam originem =|53|= . Adiunge his Eliam$et Elisaeum; qui Elias caelum claudebat, pluviam dabat et cibum augmentabat =|54|= , qui in curru igneo ascendit in caelum =|55|= . Vide Elisaeum, qui vivens mortuum suscitavit =|56|= , mortuus etiam mortuum suscitavit =|57|= , qui homines capiebat =|58|= . Ante Legem ergo et post Legem et in datione Legis facta sunt miracula, et non nisi in hoc populo. Ex quo sequitur, quod isti viri amantissimi et cari Deo fuerunt in veritate fundati. Haec est ergo certitudo fidei.


17. The third high reputation concerns merits, miracles and martyrdom. And this certainty of truth appears when a man wills to die for the truth he preaches, such as Isaiah who was cut up, Ezechiel who was killed, Jeremiah and also the other prophets. Which of the prophets have not your fathers persecuted? =|2|=  If heretics claim they too died for the truth and gained merits, yet they do not have the third requirement, miracles. For it was never heard that a heretic performed a miracle either before, after, or at the time of his death.
17. Tertia praeclaritas est meritorum, miraculorum et martyriorum. Et haec certitudo veritatis apparet, quando homo vult mori pro veritate, quam praedicat, ut Isaias serratus est, Ezechiel interfectus, Ieremias et alii etiam Prophetae. Unde dicitur Iudaeis: Quem Prophetarum non sunt persecuti patres vestri? =|59|= . -- Si dicant haeretici, quod ipsi moriuntur pro veritate et habent merita; tertium tamen non habent, scilicet miracula; nunquam auditum est, quod haereticus vel ante vel post mortem vel in morte fecerit miracula.


18. Concerning these heavens, we read: When I behold Your heavens, the work of Your fingers, that is, the heavenly men in whom we see this threefold light, the work of God's fingers. The magicians of Pharaoh lacked this third finger, that is, the miracles.
18. De istis caelis legitur: Quoniam videbo caelos tuos, opera digitorum tuorum =|60|= , scilicet viros caelestes, in quibus videmus hanc triplicem claritatem, quae sunt opera digitorum Dei. -- In isto digito tertio, scilicet miraculi, deficiunt magi Pharaonis =|61|= .


3. Full Accord of the Witnesses



19. The third firmness of faith consists in the full accord of the witnesses, and is found in three things: in the words of Scriptures, in the decrees of the councils, and in the writings of the saints. As examples of the first, there is the Psalm: =|3|=  From the midst of the rocks they shall give forth their voices. That is, from the midst of the two cherubim of which the Lord speaks, meaning from the space between them, that is, from the midst of the Two Testaments. Isaiah says: The virgin shall be with child; and Luke: Thou shalt conceive. One says: Christ shall be slain; and the Evangelist: Put Him (Jesus) to death. Whatever, then, had been foretold by the prophets was fulfilled through Christ. Isaiah had said: The Lord is riding on a swift cloud on His way to Egypt; the idols of Egypt tremble before Him. This came about in Christ. Never was any prophet or philosopher found who could do away with idolatry: yet that is what Christ did through His apostles all over the earth.
19. Tertia firmitas fidei est ex testificantium concordia plena, quae est in tribus: in eloquiis Scripturarum, in decretis Conciliorum, in documentis Sanctorum. -- De primo Psalmus: De medio petrarum dabunt voces =|62|= y hoc est de medio duorum Cherubim =|6|= *, de quibus loquebatur Dominus, sive de quorum medio, scilicet de medio duorum testamentorum. Isaias dicit: Ecce, Virgo concipiet =|64|= , et Lucas dicit: Ecce, concipies =|65|= . Alius dixit: Occidetur Christus =|66|= ; et Evangelista: Christus occiditur =|61|= . Quidquid ergo dictum est per Prophetas, impletum est per Christum. Isaias dixerat: Ascendet Dominus super nubem levem et ingredietur Aegyptum, et movebuntur simulacra =|68|= ; hoc factum est per Christum; nec unquam inventus est aliquis Propheta, vel philosophus, qui idolatriam potuerit removere; quod tamen Christus fecit per Apostolos ubique terrarum.


20. These are the true witnesses of Scriptures: the prophets and the apostles. Nor can it be said that the apostles bribed the prophets so that their prophecies would accord with what eventually came about in Christ. If they had lived at the same time, there could have been some suspicion: but the prophets came before the apostles. And so this truth is infallible. If, then, the contingent is firmly foretold and known with certainty, it is impossible to see it in any other way than as certainly true. To conclude: The Old and the New Testament agree, standing as they do in major conformity and harmony; and they are like the twenty-four elders around the throne of Christ, so that there be no doubt.
20. Hi veri testes sunt Scripturae, Prophetae et Apostoli. Nec potest dici, quod Apostoli subornaverunt Prophetas, ut sic dicerent, sicut evenit in Christo. Si enim eodem tempore fuissent, posset haberi suspicio; sed illi praecesserunt. Veritas ergo ista est infallibilis. Si enim contingens dicatur firmiter esse futurum et cognoscatur certitudinaliter; impossibile est, quod videatur alicubi nisi in veritate certa. -- Vetus ergo testamentum et novum in magna consonantia et harmonia conve-$niunt et sunt sicut viginti quatuor seniores =|69|=  circa thronum Christi, ut nulla sit dubitatio.


21. The second firmness (agreement) is found in the decrees of the councils, for those matters that had been in doubt were confirmed there. Arius taught that the Father was greater than the Son in the order of essence; and through this, an attempt was made to prove that the Son was not equal to the Father. And in the First Council in which some very holy men participated—St. Nicholas was one of them =|4|=  —in which, I say, there were three hundred and eighteen bishops, the catholic faith was confirmed, that is, the universal faith; and this was done under the authority of Peter and of the other Fathers. Now four of these councils were the most important =|5|=  — there were seven in all—because they gave witness to this faith.
21. Secunda firmitas est in decretis Conciliorum, quia illa quae in dubium veniebant, ibi confirmata sunt. Arius dicebat, quod Pater esset Filio maior secundum essentiam; et per hoc nitebatur ostendere, non esse Filium aequalem Patri. Et in primo Concilio, ubi fuerunt viri sanctissimi -- beatus Nicolaus fuit ibi -- ubi, dico, fuerunt trecenti decem et octo episcopi, ibi fides confirmata est catholica, scilicet universalis; et hoc factum est auctoritate Petri et aliorum Patrum. Unde quatuor Concilia principalia fuerunt -- quia septem fuerunt -- quae dant testimonia huic fidei.


22. The third firmness (agreement) is found in the writings of the doctors and of those who were wise with the knowledge of things worldly or divine: Dionysius [the Pseudo-Areopagite], Gregory Nazianzen, Gregory of Nyssa, [John] the Damascene, Basil, Athanasius, [John] Chrysostom. Among the Latins, Hilarion, Gregory, Augustine, Ambrose, Jerome. The writings of all these are in accord: they say the same thing, they have the same flavor. It is of these that Job says: Who can declare the order of the heavens? Or who can make the harmony of heaven to sleep? Such is the accord between Scriptures, the councils and the doctors.
22. Tertia firmitas est in documentis Doctorum et sapientum in mundana sapientia et divina, ut Dionysii, Gregorii Nazianzeni, Gregorii Nysseni, Damasceni, Basilii, Athanasii, Chrysostomi. Latinorum similiter: Hilarii, Gregorii, Augustini, Ambrosii, Hieronymi. Documenta istorum concordant et idem dicunt, idem sapiunt. -- De his dicit Iob: Quis enarrabit caelorum rationem, et concentum caeli quis dormire faciet? =|10|= . Haec est concordia Scripturarum, Conciliorum et Doctorum.


4. Solid Opinion of the Witnesses



23. The fourth reason for the firmness of faith consists in the solid opinion of the witnesses. This solidity results from the fact that reason agrees, for reason cannot contain contradiction. So the judgment rests on a demonstration of reason: that thoughts about God must be supreme and of the highest order. Now this is threefold: thoughts about God must be the highest in the order of piety, the highest in the order of truth, and the highest in the order of goodness.
23. Quarta ratio firmitatis fidei est ex testificantium sententia firma; quae firmitas habetur ex hoc, quod consentit rationi, quia ratio non potest contradicere. Iudicium enim rationis illustratae est, quod de Deo summe est sentiendum et altissime. Hoc autem est tripliciter: de Deo sentiendum est altissime et piissime, altissime et verissime, altissime et optime.


24. Indeed, reason demands that thoughts about the highest God be the highest and the most pious, =|6|=  for God's essence exists in the most noble mode. The universal form is more noble than the particular, for the latter exists in many; yet the particular is superior to the universal in one sense, for the particular is not multiplied within any one being, while the universal is multiplied in many. Wherefore the divine essence had to contain whatever nobility exists in the creature, so that it be one in many and yet not multiplied. =|7|=  Thoughts of God must be most pious also because the divine essence is the origin of all things, creates all things, and because all things proceed directly from it. Unless you admit that the totality of beings proceeds from God, you are not thinking of God most piously. Plato commended his soul to its Maker, =|8|=  but Peter commended his to its Creator.
24. Ratio ergo dictat, quod de Deo altissimo est sentiendum altissime et piissime, quod illa essentia est nobilissimo modo. Forma universalis nobilior est particulari, quia est in multis; particularis autem uno modo nobilior universali, quia particularis est in uno non numerata, sed universalis in multis est numerata: ergo essentia divina habere debet, quod nobilitatis est in creatura, ut sit una in multis non numerata. -- Sentiendum est etiam piissime, quod illa essentia est origo omnium, creans omnes res, et quod immediate ab ipsa omnes res procedunt. Nisi tu sentias, quod totalitas rerum ab ipsa procedit; non sentis de Deo piissime. Plato commendavit animam suam factori; sed Petrus commendavit animam suam Creatori.


25. Second, thoughts about God must be the highest in the order of truth, for He Himself is the Truth ruling all things, illuminating all things, straightening all things, disposing all things. Wherefore, in the Psalm: The Lord is my light and my salvation; whom should I fear? The power of government should not in any way be attributed to the constellations of heaven.
25. Secundo sentiendum est etiam de Deo altissime et verissime, quia ipse est veritas omnia gubernans, omnia illustrans, omnia rectificans, omnia disponens; unde in Psalmo: Dominus illuminatio mea et salus mea, quem timebo? =|11|= . Non ergo gubernatio est attribuenda astris.


26. Third, thoughts about God must be the highest in the order or goodness, because He is the Best, and out of this [Goodness] He supremely pours Himself and loves. Wherefore He has not spared even His own Son, and by giving Him to us, He gave us all that He knew, all that He could give. The Son said: All things that the Father has are mine. The Father gave us a Son born of us, He gave us One who suffered for us and rose again for our sake, by reason of His very great love wherewith He has loved us, etc. Hence, it is well said: because of the loving-kindness of our God. God's inner goodness is the very reason why He loved to the highest possible degree and was filled with the deepest possible mercy. All this was seen in the resurrection, for by means of that same supreme kindness by which He had created all things, He now restored all things; by His supreme truth, He judged all things; by His supreme goodness, He glorified all things.
26. Tertio sentiendum est de Deo altissime et optime, quod sit optimus, ex quo se summe diffundit et diligit. Unde proprio Filio suo non pepercit =|12|= y et donando illum nobis dedit quidquid scivit, quidquid potuit. Omnia, inquit Filius, quaecumque habet Pater, mea sunt =|73|= . Dedit autem Pater nobis Filium natum de nobis, dedit nobis passum pro nobis, resuscitatum propter nos, quia propter nimiam caritatem, qua dilexit nos =|14|=  etc. Unde bene dicitur: Per viscera misericordiae Dei nostri =|15|=  ; intima Dei bonitas facit, quod summe diligat, summe mise-$; reatur. -- Haec omnia apparebunt in resurrectione, quia per summam pietatem, qua omnia creavit, omnia restaurabit; per summam veritatem omnia iudicabit; per summam benignitatem omnia glorificabit.


G. A Threefold Flow out of This Light



27. From this understanding there comes forth in the soul a threefold flow out of this light, through which it is steadied in God. The first is the strength of virtue, the second the zeal of truth, and the third the rapture of love. The strength of virtue is first, because nothing is difficult to the soul that has an unperturbed faith, for "If thou canst believe, all things are possible to him who believes." Indeed, he is ready to sustain anything for God's sake, since virtue is made steady by faith.
27. Ex hoc sensu nascitur in anima triplex influxus ab illa luce, per quam stabilitur anima in Deo. Primus est robur virtutis; secundus, zelus veritatis; tertius, excessus amoris. -- Robur virtutis est primus, quia nihil difficile est animae habenti fidem inconcussam, quia, si potes credere, omnia possibilia sunt credenti =|76|= : quia paratus est sustinere omnia propter Deum, quia per fidem stabilitur virtus.


28. The second flow is the zeal of truth, so that a man be aroused with indignation against anything evil or false and be immediately attracted to anything good. Let him despise every wickedness, like Elias, who foretold about Achab and Jezabel that hounds would devour them. Achab said: "Hast thou found me thy enemy?" And Elias replied: "I have found thee because thou art sold, to do evil in the sight of the Lord," as if he were saying, "Anyone who is against God is against me."
28. Secundus influxus est zelus veritatis, ut homo indignetur contra omne malum et falsum et afficiatur statim ad omne bonum. Dedignetur omne malum, sicut Elias, qui prophetaverat de Achab et Iezabel, quod comederent eos canes. Dixit Achab: Num invenisti me inimicum tuum? Respondit Elias: Inveni, eo quod venundatus sis, ut faceres malum in conspectu Domini =|11|= , quasi diceret: quicumque est contrarius Deo, est contrarius mihi.


29. The third flow consists in the rapture of love: at such times, the soul always perceives inner joy even in the face of insults and hardships. And it is at its highest when the burning soul feels that the Lord makes it taste the children's bread. And everyone believes such a man is a fool, while he himself believes the others to be fools, and they are indeed. Now this is the highest point of faith, the summit: to be inebriated by actual experience and to have no desire for the world. This will be the defense of such a soul in the time of the Antichrist, referred to in the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians: God sends them a misleading influence that they may believe falsehood. Concerning the summit of faith, which is love, the Apostle says: Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress—all the way to the words, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. And, in another passage, being rooted and grounded in love. That is the firmament of heaven. Hence, in the Psalm: The heavens proclaim your wonders, that is, the marvels of the soul which they feel within them. Such experiences make faith most secure. And so, when the soul considers the Most High in a manner that is most pious, true, and good, then it is lifted up by zeal and the rapture of love to the third heaven, yet not in such a perfect way as Paul. And then the house is built on rock.
29. Tertius influxus est excessus amoris, quando anima in vituperes, in tribulationibus semper sentit iucunditatem interius; hoc maxime est, quando ardens sentit, quod Dominus facit gustare panem filiorum =|1S|= . Et hunc reputant omnes stultum, et ipse reputat omnes stultos, et secundum veritatem sunt. Hoc autem est summum fidei et apex, ut per experientiam inebrietur et iam nil curet de mundo. Hoc enim defendet tempore antichristi, de quo secundae ad Thessalonicenses secundo: Mittet illis Deus operationem erroris, ut credant mendacio =|19|= . -- De apice fidei, qui amor est, Apostolus dicit: Quis nos separabit a caritate Christi? Tribulatio? an angustia? usque ibi: quae est in Christo$Iesu, Domino nostro =|80|= . Et alibi: In caritate radicati et fundati =|81|= . Hoc est firmamentum caeli. Unde in Psalmo: Confitebuntur caeli mirabilia tua =|82|= , scilicet animae mirabilia, quae in se sentiunt. Hae enim experientiae faciunt fidem stabilissima!!!. -- Quando ergo anima sentit de Altissimo piissime, verissime et optime; tunc zelo et excessu amoris rapitur anima usque ad tertium caelum, etsi non ita excellenter, ut Paulus =|83|= . Et tunc domus fundatur supra firmam petram =|84|= .


XI. Tenth Collation



A. Third Treatise on the Second Vision, Which Begins to Deal with the Splendor of Faith



1000 TENTH COLLATION Third Treatise on the Second Vision, Which Begins To Deal with the Splendor of Faith 148 collations on the six days there are twelve signs through which the sun runs its course. These twelve signs are merely clusters of stars which have divers influences because of their different configurations and lights. And the sun, in combination with these, affects the course of life on earth at different times and according to the different influences. These thoughts also, arising from the considerations of faith, are compared to the clarity of pearls because they are bright, vivifying and joyful in the manner of pearls. For pearls have brightness or refulgence, while they also comfort through their efficacy, and rejoice the heart.


1. GOD called the firmament heaven, etc. The loftiness and firmness of faith have been explained. Now we must speak of its splendor. Heaven is called =|1|=  caelum, because engraved (caelatum), that is, sculptured with stars. Genesis explains how splendid is this faith. "Look at the heavens and, if you can, count the stars." . . . "So shall your posterity be." The promise of a bodily posterity was made to Abraham, for it is written: "So shall your posterity be." The promise of a spiritual posterity was also made to him, for through faith he was to be the father of a multitude. The flesh of Abraham gave forth offspring and was thus multiplied. All the more so would his spiritual begetting be fruitful: for he begot spiritually through his fruitful mind. Now, the great number of thoughts arising out of faith transcend in clarity the light of the stars. Hence, in the Apocalypse: He took me up in spirit to a mountain, great and high, and showed me the holy city Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven. And I saw that it had twelve gates, and over each gate a pearl, so that each gate was of a single pearl.
1. Vocavit Deus firmamentum caelum =|1|=  etc. De altitudine fidei et eius firmitate dictum est; nunc de speciositate dicendum est. Dicitur enim caelum quasi caelatura id est sculptum luminibus. Quomodo speciosa sit haec fides, habetur in Genesi: Suspice caelum et numera stellas, si potes; sic erit semen tuum =|2|= . Pollicitatio seminis carnalis facta est ad Abraham, quia sic, inquit, erit semen tuum\ pollicitatio etiam seminis spiritualis ei facta est, eo quod pater multarum gentium =|3|=  per fidem futurus. Caro Abraham generavit semen, et multiplicatum est; multo fortius eius generatio spiritualis fuit fecunda et generavit spiritualiter mente fecundata. Pullulationes speculationum orientium ex fide sunt transcendentes claritatem siderum. In Apocalypsi: Sustulit me in spiritu in montem magnum et altum, et vidi Ierusalem descendentem de caelo =|4|= . Et vidit, quod habebat duodecim portas =|3|= , et super quamlibet portam margarita una, et portae ex singulis margaritis =|6|= .


2. These thoughts of faith are compared to the stars and also to twelve pearls. Although these stars are countless,
2. Hae speculationes fidei comparantur sideribus et comparantur duodecim margaritis. Licet enim sint stellae illae innumerabiles, tamen sunt duodecim signa, per quae sol currit. Ista duodecim signa nihil aliud sunt nisi quaedam stellae, quae secundum varias figuras et varietatem luminum habent diversas influentias; et sol illis coniunctus variis temporibus secundum diversas influentias habet vitam ministrare in mundo. -- Hae autem, ut dictum est, orientes ex fide speculationes comparantur claritati margaritarum, quia sunt fulgidae, vivificae, iucundae ad modum margaritae, quae habet fulgorem sive fulget, confortat per efficaciam, cor iucundat.


3. It is in this way that men enter into contemplation, nor can anyone in the world attain the visions of the Apocalypse unless he understands such things as these. Since, then, according to the Apostle, there is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another of the stars, we, lifted up through faith, are being transformed... from glory to glory, and this, with faces unveiled, so that in a sense we are made to become similar to the twelve stars and to the twelve pearls. There are twelve thoughts we have received through faith: these are the notions that God is the First, that He is triune, that He is the Exemplar of things, the Creator of the world, the One who gave form to the soul, and the Giver of life; that God united to the flesh was crucified, that He is the Remedy of the minds, the Retribution of crimes and the eternal Reward.
3. Secundum hoc igitur ingrediuntur ad contemplationem, nec potest ad visiones Apocalypsis homo mundanus accedere, nisi intelligat ista. Cum igitur secundum Apostolum sit alia claritas solis, alia lunae, alia stellarum =|1|= , nos sublimati per fidem transformamur a claritate in claritatem =|8|=  et hoc, revelata facie, ut similes simus duodecim stellis et duodecim margaritis. -- Duodecim speculationes sunt, quas habemus ex fide; credere Deum primum, Deum trinum et unum, et exemplar rerum, ut creantem mundum, ut formantem animam, dantem spiritum. -- Deum carni unitum, Deum crucifixum, medelam mentium, vitale pabulum, ultorem scelerum, praemium aeternum.


4. Note also that some objects of faith are not only understandable through reason, they are particular facts, such as that Abraham begot Isaac; other objects of faith are merely understandable; and when they are understood, they are supported by solid reasons.
4. Nota etiam, quod quaedam sunt credibilia, non tamen intelligibilia per rationem, ut Abraham genuit Isaac =|9|= , sive facta particularia; quaedam autem credibilia sunt intelligibilia; et quando intelliguntur, rationes solidas habent.


B. Brightness of Faith



5. In order to establish the sufficiency of these twelve ideas, let us note that the brightness of faith must be considered as related to pre-existent truth, efficient truth, restoring truth, and perfecting truth.
5. Ad sufficientiam horum duodecim nota, quod claritas fidei speculanda est ut veritatis praeexistentis, ut veritatis efficientis, ut veritatis reficientis, ut veritatis perficientis.


1. Pre-existent Truth



6. As related to pre-existent truth, in three ways: as regards essence, as regards excellence, or as regards refulgence. The divine essence is the first thing that comes to the mind. When Moses inquired about God's name, he was told: "I am who am," that is, every kind of goodness and power. As regards excellence: God is one, triune, and true. As regards refulgence, He is the Exemplar of all things.
6. Ut veritatis praeexistentis tripliciter: vel quantum ad essentiam, vel quantum ad excellentiam, vel quantum ad refulgentiam. Esse enim divinum primum est, quod venit in mente. Unde Moysi quaerenti, quod esset nomen Dei; respondit Deus: Ego sum qui sum =|10|= ; et in hoc comprehendit quidquid est sive bonum, sive potens. -- Secundo, quantum ad excellentiam, ut Deus unus, trinus et verus. -- Tertio, quantum ad refulgentiam, ut exemplar rerum.


2. Efficient



7. If, now, the brightness [of faith] is considered as the efficient truth, this also is threefold: either as it originates nature, or as it enlightens intelligence, or as it inspires grace. It originates nature, that is, the world, which is not only believable but also understandable. As enlightening intelligence, it is the form of the soul, that is, of the human and angelic intellect, so that God is the object of understanding; wherefore it enjoys a perpetual relationship to the image of creation, restoration, and making alike: for the image is an essential dependency and relationship. As inspiring grace, it is the fulfillment, and this is both credible and understandable. For the will is not perfected except through the infused gift of the Holy Spirit.
7. Si autem claritas consideratur ut veritas efficiens, hoc est tripliciter; aut in quantum inchoat naturam; aut in quantum illustrat intelligentiam; aut in quantum inspirat gratiam. Inchoat naturam sive mundum, quod non solum est credibile, sed etiam intelligibile. Ut illustrat intelligentiam; et sic format animam, scilicet intellectum humanum et ' Angelicum, ut sit Deus obiectum intellectus; et hinc est, quod habet rationem perpetui quantum ad imaginem creationis, reparationis, similitudinis; quia imago =|11|=  est essentialis dependentia* et relatio. Ut inspirat gratiam; hic est consummatio, et hoc est credibile et intelligibile. Voluntas enim non perficitur nisi per donum Spiritus sancti infusum.


3. Restoring



8. Again, if we consider the brightness of truth  as restoring, a threefold light shines forth likewise in the soul: as to the principle, or as to the price paid, or as to the effect of the human and angelic restoration. The first consists in seeing God as united to the flesh, which is credible and understandable; the second, in seeing Him as the price paid, that is, as attached to the cross; the third, in seeing Him as the effect, that is, God as the medicine of the soul. Wherefore He is the Principle of our creation, restoration, and retribution.
8. Si auten claritas veritatis consideratur ut reficiens, similiter tripliciter claritas refulget in anima: aut quantum ad humanae et Angelicae reparationis principium, vel quantum ad pretium, vel quantum ad effectum. Primo est speculari Deum carni unitum, quod est credibile et intelligibile; si ut pretium, sic cruci affixum; si ut effectus, sic Deus medicina est animae. Est ergo principium nostrae creationis, reparationis, praemiationis.


4. Perfecting



9. If, now, it is considered as fulfilling or perfecting, this again is threefold: it may be seen as vital food for the militant and triumphant Church, as the punishment of crimes, and as the final reward. It is fitting that God be first; hence He is credible and understandable, and this in terms of influence by reason of the laws of mercy, justice and peace; in relation to the first, as Virtue; in relation to the second, as Truth; in relation to the third, as Equity. These are the twelve gates that are mentioned in the psalm: Open to me the gates of justice, for "He who is just lives by faith."
9. Si autem consideratur ut consummans sive perficiens, sic tripliciter: ut vitale pabulum Ecclesiae militantis et triumphantis, ut ultor scelerum, ut finale praemium. Oportet, Deum esse primum; ergo est credibile et intelligibile, et hoc secundum influentiam secundum legem$clementiae, iustitiae et concordiae: secundum primum, ut virtus; secundum secundum, ut veritas; secundum tertium, ut aequitas. -- Hae sunt duodecim portae, de quibus Psalmus: Aperite mihi portas iustitiae. Iusti intrabunt in eam =|12|= ', quia iustus ex fide vivit =|13|= .


C. First Object of Speculation is the Fact That God is



10. The first object of speculation is the fact that God is. The first name of God is "To Be" which is most manifest and most perfect — and therefore, first. Hence nothing is more manifest, for anything said of God is retraced to being: this then is truly God's proper name. God would not have said to Moses, that is to the Giver of the Law, "I am who am," unless He were First. Later, He said: "The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob," by which He expressed the mystery of the Trinity. Thirdly, He said: "Who gives one man speech?" by which He explains that He is the Exemplar.
10. Primum speculabile est, Deum esse. Primum nomen Dei est esse, quod est manifestissimum et perfectissimum, ideo primum; unde nihil manifestius, quia quidquid de Deo dicitur reducitur ad esse; hoc est proprie proprium nomen Dei. Deus non dixisset Moysi sive latori Legis: Ego sum qui sum =|1|= *, nisi esset primus. Postea dixit: Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac, Deus Iacob =|15|=  ; in quo mysterium Trinitatis expressit. Tertio dixit: Qui fecit os hominis et linguam =|16|= ; in quo explicavit, se esse exemplar.


11. The fact that God is first is most manifest because from every proposition, both affirmative and negative, it follows that God is. Even if you say: "God is not," it follows that God is, for every proposition implies itself as both affirmative and negative. For instance, if Socrates does not run, it is true that Socrates is not running. =|2|=
11. Deum esse primum, manifestissimum est, quia ex omni propositione, tam affirmativa quam negativa, sequitur, Deum esse, etiam si dicas: Deus non est, sequitur: si Deus non est, Deus est; quia omnis propositio infert se affirmativam et negativam, ut si Socrates non currit, verum est, Socratem non currere.


1. Going from the Posterior to the Prior, from the Inferior to the Higher, from the Temporal to the Aeviternal, and from the Aeviternal to the Eternal



12. Now, this truth may also be considered in a certain mirror that comforts and provides sight. For every creature contributes to the making of this mirror and is joined to this mirror from the viewpoints of order, origin, and fulfillment. The first, in three ways: by going from the posterior to the prior, from the inferior to the higher, from the temporal to the aeviternal, and from the aeviternal to the eternal.  For it is evident that if something is posterior, there is something prior: and also something that is first. And so, in this order, through the posterior, the prior and the first are attained. All things, indeed, are either posterior, or intermediate, or first.
12. Consideratur etiam haec veritas, quasi in quodam speculo, quod confortat et dat visum. Omnis enim creatura concurrit ad hoc speculum faciendum et iungitur in hoc speculo secundum viam ordinis, originis, completionis. -- Primo tripliciter: secundum rationem posterioris ad prius, inferioris ad superius, temporis ad aevum et aevi ad aeternitatem. Manifestum enim est, si est posterius, est prius: ergo et primum: ergo in isto ordine per posteriora ad priora et ad primum pervenitur. Omnia enim vel sunt posteriora, vel media, vel prima.


13. Second, there is the progression from the inferior to the superior, and from the superior to the highest, which have a relationship of order and dependency in the order of nature. And here, the notions of superior and inferior are not used in the line of the predicaments, but in the sense of more noble and less noble.
13. Secundo est ordo inferioris ad superius, et superioris ad summum, quae habent essentialem ordinem et dependentiam secundum ordinem naturae. Et non dicitur hic superius et inferius secundum lineam praedicamentalem, sed secundum magis nobile et minus nobile.


14. Third is the progression from time to aeviternity and from aeviternity to eternity: for if anything exists for the sake of something else that is created, this other thing also exists for the sake of something else, that is, the uncreated. For instance, if a temporal thing exists for the sake of the soul, and the soul exists for the sake of God, it is then necessary that God exist by Himself and for His own sake. And so, in terms of causality, dignity, and final purpose, all things declare that there is a first, supreme, and last Being, that is, in the order of finality. This, then, is the argument from the viewpoint of order.
14. Tertio est ordo temporis ad aevum et aevi ad aeternitatem: quia, si est aliquid propter aliud creatum, ergo et illud aliud est aliquid propter aliud, scilicet increatum, et illud erit propter se; ut si est res temporalis propter animam, et anima propter Deum; necessario ergo Deus per se et propter se est. -- Secundum ordinem ergo causalitatis, dignitatis et finis omnia declarant, esse primum, summum et ultimum, scilicet in ratione finiendi. Hoc ergo secundum rationem ordinis.


2. Order of Origin



15. There is another way in which every creature declares that God is: according to the order of origin. If, indeed, there is a created being, there is an uncreated Being; if there is a being by participation, there is a Being by essence; if there is a composite being, there is a simple Being; if there is a multiform being, there is a uniform or identical Being.
15. Alio modo omnis creatura dicit, Deum esse secundum rationem originis: ut si est ens creatum, est ens increatum; et si est ens per participationem, est ens per essentiam; si est ens per compositionem, est ens per simplicitatem; si est ens per multiformitatem, est ens per uniformitatem vel identitatem.


16. First it should be established that every created being demands a cause, and that the sum total of caused beings supposes a universal first Cause. Then I ask about this Cause: "Is it created or is it not?" If it is, we recede into an infinite series; if not, the point is made. Again, then, a being by participation receives being from One that is being by essence, for it flows from Him. Likewise, every composite being is made of component parts; and parts, while depending upon each other, must proceed from Something that is absolutely simple. And the same with multiformity: if a multiform being exists, there must be One that is uniform, as is the case with numbers, for it is necessary to return to the unit. And this is the argument by way of origin.
16. Primo dicendum, quod omne creatum ponit causam, et universitas causatorum ponit causam primam universalem. Tunc quaero de causa illa: aut est creata aut non; si sic, erit abire in infinitum; si non, habeo propositum. -- Item, ens per participationem ab eo habet esse, quod est ens per essentiam, quia fluit ab eo. -- Similiter, omne compositum est a componentibus; similiter et partes, cum sint dependentes ad invicem, sunt ab aliquo simplicissimo absoluto. -- Similiter de multiformitate; si enim est ens per multiformitatem, est ens per uniformitatem, ut in numeris, quia necesse est devenire ad unitatem. Hoc ergo ratione originis.


3. Order of Fulfillment



17. The third way is in the order of fulfillment. If a potential being exists, there is an actual Being; if a mutable being exists, there is an immutable Being; if a qualified being exists, there must be an unqualified Being; if a dependent being exists, there must be an absolute Being; if a being exists within a genus, there must be a Being outside of all genera. And so a potential being comes forth from an actual Being, =|3|=  which is necessary in case diverse beings exist. Likewise, a mutable being flows from an immutably fixed Being. Again, a creature essentially depends upon a first Being, and matter and form and even accident depend more upon God than upon its own subject: for God may make it exist without subject, as is the case with the Sacrament of the altar, =|4 |= but He cannot make it escape from depending upon Him. Once more, if a qualified being exists, there must be an unqualified Being under those aspects which by nature are apt to exist unqualifiedly. =|5|=  If, for instance, a qualifiedly wise being exists, there must be One that is wise unqualifiedly, so that the qualification is removed. If "white" is found in white teeth, there must exist pure whiteness. Finally, if there exists a being within a genus, there must be one outside of all genera. For a being within a genus has limiting differences: and such a being does not enjoy power, being and action in a universal sense. Hence God is Being outside of genus and above genus. =|6|=
17. Tertio modo ratione completionis. Si est esse potentiale, est esse actuale; si est esse mutabile, est esse immutabile; si est esse secundum quid, est esse simpliciter; si est esse dependens, est esse absolutum; si est esse in genere, est esse extra genus. -- Ens autem potentiale venit ab esse actuali necessario in diversis; sed in eodem esse potentiale praecedit esse actuale. -- Similiter, mutabile est fluens ab immutabili fixo. -- Similiter, creatura essentialiter dependet a primo, et materia et forma, et etiam accidens magis dependet a Deo quam a suo subiecto; quia Deus potest facere, ut sit sine subiecto, ut in Sacramento altaris, sed non, quod non dependeat ab eo. -- Similiter, si est ens secundum quid, est et ens simpliciter in his quae nata sunt esse simpliciter; ut si est sapiens secundum quid, est sapiens simpliciter, ut removeatur instantia: est albus dente: ergo est albus simpliciter. -- Si est ens in genere, est ens extra genus. Ens enim in genere habet differentias coarctantes; et tale non habet posse, esse et agere universaliter. Unde Deus est ens extra genus et supra genus.


18. And so, these thoughts concerning order, origin, and fullness lead to this first Being which all creatures represent. But this name is written in all things: and it is upon these conditions of being that the most certain reasonings are founded. Hence it is said: =|7|=  "The first of all created things is being." But I say: the first of all intelligible things is the First Being.
18. Hae igitur speculationes ordinis, originis, et completionis ducunt ad illud esse primum, quod repraesentant omnes creaturae. Hoc enim nomen scriptum est in omnibus rebus; et sunt hae conditiones entis, super quas fundantur certissimae illationes. Unde dixit ille: «Prima rerum creatarum omnium est esse»; sed ego dico: prima rerum intellectualium est esse primum.


XII. Eleventh Collation



A. Fourth Treatise on the Second Vision, Which is the Second on the Splendor of Faith and Deals with the Vision of God's Trinity



1100 ELEVENTH COLLATION Fourth Treatise on the Second Vision, Which is the Second on the Splendor of Faith and Deals with the Vision of God's Trinity


1. BUT we all, with faces unveiled, reflecting as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into His very image from glory to glory, as through the Spirit of the Lord. We have spoken of the second vision, that is, of understanding lifted up by faith, as expressed through the words "heaven," or "firmament," meaning lofty, firm, and beautiful. We have spoken of the two first and were beginning to cover the third, that is, beauty, which is a manifold speculation about faith. Of this, it was said to Abraham, that is, to the believer: "Look at the heavens and, if you can, count the stars." And to John: He took me up in spirit to a mountain, etc. And by the twelve signs through which the sun of understanding runs as it traverses the hemisphere of our intelligence, producing the day and the year of faith; and by the twelve gates, each one made of a single pearl, may be understood the twelve principal ideas to which the others may then be retraced, and according to which the others are ruled and directed: and these [twelve principal ideas] are bright, vivifying, and joyful. The first of these ideas was to consider God as the first Being; the second, to consider Him as triune. Both the saints and the doctors deal with them, but the saints by means of intellectual vision and the doctors by means of investigation. And so we have said of the first mirror}: that it is being. Now this is the most manifest and perfect name of God, for all things depending upon God are comprised within this name: "I am who am." This name is properly His, and it was said of it in what manner all things represent Him by way of order, origin and fulfillment, or immediate relationship. This name written in the soul gives it light so that it may see.
1. Nos vero omnes, revelata facie gloriam Domini speculantes, in eandem imaginem transformamur a claritate in claritatem, tanquam a Domini spirituDictum est de secunda visione, scilicet intelligentiae per fidem elevatae, quae intelligitur per caelum vel firmamentum, quod est altum, firmum, speciosum. Dictum est de duobus primis, et inceptum de tertio, scilicet speciositate, quae est multiformis speculatio fidei. -- De qua dictum est Abrahae, hoc est credenti: Suspice caelum et numera stellas, si potes =|2|= ; dictum est a Ioanne: Sustulit me in montem =|3|=  etc. Et per duodecim signa, per quae currit sol intellectualis in hemisphaerio nostrae intelligentiae et facit diem et annum fidei, et per duodecim portas ex singulis margaritis =|4|=  intelliguntur duodecim speculationes principales, ad quas aliae reducuntur, et secundum quas aliae regulantur et diriguntur; et istae sunt fulgidae, vivificae, iucundae. -- Prima erat speculari, Deum esse primum; secunda, Deum esse trinum et unum. Circa has procedunt Sancti et doctores; sed Sancti per viam speculationis, doctores per viam investigationis. Dictum est ergo de primo speculo, scilicet quod est esse; hoc enim est nomen Dei manifestissimum et perfectissimum, quia omnia, quae sunt Dei, comprehenduntur in hoc nomine: Ego sum qui sum =|5|= . Hoc nomen Dei est proprie proprium, de quo dictum, quomodo omnes res repraesentant ipsum per viam ordinis, originis et completionis vel connexionis. Hoc speculum componitur ex omnibus creaturis, ut patuit. Hoc nomen in anima scriptum illustrat eam ad speculandum.


2. Augustine =|1|=  explains this power as follows: "But we all, with faces unveiled, reflecting as in a mirror the glory of the Lord: Not 'as in mirrors,' that is, from afar, but 'as in a mirror.' " But we still see through this mirror in an obscure manner, for a man who sees clearly is in the state of beatitude. Augustine indicates the form of this mirror in the fifteenth book of his work "On the Trinity," chapter four, =|2|=  where he seeks to show both God's unity and trinity. This is what he says: "It is not only the authority of the divine books that proclaims that God is one: everything around us, including ourselves because of the universal nature of things, manifests the fact that it has a most outstanding Creator, who gave us a mind and natural reason through which we see that the living beings are superior to the non-living, the sensible to the senseless, the intelligent to the non-intelligent, the immortal to the mortal, the powerful to the weak, the just to the unjust, the beautiful to the deformed, the good to the wicked, the incorruptible to the corruptible, the invisible to the visible, the bodiless to the bodily, the blessed to the wretched. And because of the fact that, without any doubt, we place the Creator above created things, it is fitting that we profess that He is supremely living, that He perceives and knows all things, that He is free from death, corruption, and change, that He is not a body but a Spirit, the most powerful, just, beautiful, good, and happy of them all."
2. Praedictam igitur auctoritatem Augustinus sic explanat: «Nos autem, revelata facie gloriam Domini speculantes, non a specula, scilicet de longe, sed a speculo»; sed hoc speculum est cum aenigmate adhuc, quia, si videretur sine aenigmate, esset homo beatus. Hoc speculum format Augustinus decimo quinto De Trinitate, capitulo quarto, ubi vult ostendere unitatem et Trinitatem Dei; dicit sic: «Neque enim divinorum librorum auctoritas tantummodo praedicat, esse Deum verum; sed omnis quae nos circumstat, ad quam nos etiam pertinemus, universa rerum natura Proclamat, se habere praestantissimum conditorem, qui nobis mentem rationemque naturalem dedit, qua viventia non viventibus, sensu praedita non sentientibus, intelligentia non intelligen-$tibiis, immortalia mortalibus, impotentibus potentia, iniustis iusta, speciosa deformibus, bona malis, incorruptibilia corruptibilibus, immutabilia mutabilibus, invisibilia visibilibus, incorporalia corporalibus, beata miseris praeferenda videamus. Et per hoc, quoniam rebus creatis Creatorem sine dubitatione praeponimus, oportet, ut eum et summe vivere et cuncta sentire atque intelligere, et mori et corrumpi mutarique non posse, nec corpus esse, sed spiritum omnium potentissimum, iustissimum, speciosissimum, optimum beatissimumque fateamur».


B. [augustine] Presupposes Twelve Conditions



3. He [Augustine] presupposes twelve conditions: [that God is] eternal, immortal, incorruptible, immutable—these are the first four; [that He is] living, wise, powerful, and beautiful—here again are four; [that He is] a just, good, happy and holy Spirit—these are the final four. From the first foursome, let us take one attribute, eternal, for it contains the other three: if God is eternal, by the same token He is immortal; and if He is immortal, He is incorruptible; and if incorruptible, immutable also. From the second foursome, let us take wise, for it contains the other three. If He is wise, He is therefore living; and if living, He is powerful; and if powerful, beautiful also, for wisdom is the most beautiful form: wherefore He is the Wise One. I... was enamored of her beauty. Out of the third foursome, let us take one attribute: happy, which contains within itself the other three. For if He is a happy Spirit, therefore He is good, and hence just, and also holy. And so, in these three attributes, eternal, wise, and happy, the whole Trinity shines forth, for eternity is appropriated to the Father, wisdom to the Son, and happiness to the Holy Spirit. =|3|=
3. Duodecim ponit conditiones: aeternus, immortalis, incorruptibilis, immutabilis, ecce quatuor; item, vivus, sapiens, potens, speciosus, et ecce quatuor; item, iustus, bonus, beatus, sanctus spiritus, ecce quatuor. -- De primo quaternario accipiatur unum nomen, scilicet aeternus, quod alia tria comprehendit: quia si est aeternus, eo ipso est immortalis; et si immortalis, eo ipso incorruptibilis; et si incorruptibilis, eo ipso immutabilis. -- De secundo quaternario accipiatur sapiens, quod alia tria comprehendit: quia, si sapiens, ergo vivus; si vivus, ergo potens; si potens, ergo speciosus, quia sapientia est forma pulcherrima; unde Sapiens: Amator factus sum formae illius =|6|= . -- De tertio quaternario accipiatur aliud nomen, scilicet beatus, quod comprehendit in se alia tria: quia, si beatus, ergo bonus, ergo iustus, ergo sanctus spiritus. In his ergo tribus, scilicet aeternitate, sapientia, beatitudine, iam relucet Trinitas, quia aeternitas appropriatur Patri, sapientia Filio, beatitudo Spiritui sancto.


4. Now, he (Augustine) =|4|=  also reduces these three to one, taking wisdom, and showing the Trinity [within it]. For by necessity, if there is wisdom, there is a mind which knows itself and loves itself and others. Nor should it be understood that the Father is mind in such a way that the Son is not: this is insanity. On the contrary, the Father is mind, the Son is mind, and the Holy Spirit is mind. Again, the Son is knowledge, the Father is knowledge, and the Holy Spirit is knowledge—and the same with the rest. But in the [human] soul, this is different, for the mind is not knowledge. =|5|=  And so wisdom consists in knowledge. Where there is knowledge, it is necessary that there be the emanation or generation of a word, and from this generation there comes about the production of a binding love. And if the producing one is the Father, the word is the Son, and the bond the Holy Spirit, in whom trineness is really distinct — while it is not distinct in wisdom and mind as they exist in the soul. This comes from the truth of wisdom. And this is what Anselm says in his "Monologue." =|6|=  And so, from the fact that the supreme Spirit understands itself, the Son is begotten and the Holy Spirit breathed forth. Such is the mirror of Augustine. But as for us, like Ruth, let us gather the gleanings after the harvesters by following our teachers.
4. Adhuc etiam redigit ad unum haec tria et accipit sapientiam et ostendit Trinitatem: quia necesse est, si est sapientia, ut sit mens, quae cognoscat se et diligat se et alia. Nec tamen intelligendum est, quod ita sit Pater mens, quod Filius non sit, immo est insania; quin immo Pater est mens, Filius mens, Spiritus sanctus mens. Item, Filius notitia, Pater notitia, Spiritus sanctus notitia, et sic de aliis. Hoc autem in anima est aliter, quia mens non est notitia. Sapientia igitur in cognitione est; ubi autem est cognitio, necesse est, ut sit emanatio sive generatio verbi, ex qua generatione sequitur productio amoris nectentis; et sic producens est Pater, verbum est Filius, nexus Spiritus sanctus, in quibus est trinitas vere distincta, non in sapientia et in mente, sicut est in anima. Hoc est ex veritate sapientiae. Et hoc dicit Anselmus in Monologio. Ex hoc enim, quod summus Spiritus se intelligit, Filius generatur, Spiritus sanctus spiratur. Hoc est speculum Augustini. Sed nos cum Ruth =|7|=  colligamus spicas post messores secundum doctores nostros.


5. There is a twofold mirror of the Trinity: the mental, explaining mental names of God; the material, explaining substituted names. The first consideration is that intelligence lifted up by faith says that God is trine and one by reason of the four principles contained in the divine essence, that is, because of the condition of perfection, and the conditions of perfect production, productive diffusion, and diffusive love—each one leading to the next.
5. Est autem duplex speculum Trinitatis: unum intellectuale/ quod facit intelligere nomina dicta de Deo intellectualia; secundum est magis materiale, quod fit per nomina transumptiva. -- Prima speculatio est, quod intelligentia per fidem elevata dicit, Deum esse trinum et unum, propter quatuor, quae sunt in divino esse, scilicet propter conditionem perfectionis, propter conditionem perfectae productionis, productivae diffusionis, diffusivae dilectionis; et unum sequitur ex altero.


C. Origin



6. Indeed, there is here the summit of perfection, from which it follows that the First Principle enjoys perfect origin, order, and indivision. In terms of origin, the perfection of a producer is higher than that of a non-producer; and the originating perfection of a producer who brings forth a being who also produces is higher than that of one who brings forth a being who does not produce. And so, if there is here the fullness of originating perfection, there must necessarily be a Father bringing forth a Son who also produces, and a Holy Spirit who is produced.
6. Est enim ibi summa perfectio, ex qua fit, quod primum principium habet perfectionem originis, ordinis, indivisionis. -- Est autem origo originans perfectior quam non originans, et perfectior est origo originans originantem quam originans non originantem: ergo si ibi est perfecta origo, necesse est, esse Patrem producentem Filium originantem et Spiritum sanctum originatum.


D. Order



7. Again, from the viewpoint of order: where there is order, there is proper relationship to the beginning, the intermediate stage, and the end, otherwise disorder would befall the things of God. And so, as said above, it is fitting from the viewpoint of order that there be three Persons here.
7. Item, a parte ordinis sic: ubi est perfectus ordo, ibi est ratio principii, medii et ultimi; alioquin inordinatio accideret in divinis, sicut supra dictum est: oportet ergo per rationem ordinis, ut sint ibi tres personae.


E. Indivision



8. Once more, from the viewpoint of indivision: it is necessary that there be indivision here, otherwise it would be retreating from perfection and from unity. For indivision is unity; =|7|=  but unity exists in the originating and the originated, in universals and particulars, in the will and in nature. Unity in originating principles is that of simplicity; in the composite, or originated beings, that of wholeness or fullness; in universals, that of conformity; in particular beings, that of countlessness; in the will, that of unanimity; in nature, that of inseparability. The unity of simplicity in originating principles is deficient in that, although the principle itself is simple, yet it may be unable of itself to produce another without the help of a third. The unity of wholeness or plenitude in things originated is deficient in that it is not of itself, nor simple. The unity in universals is deficient, that is, uniformity is deficient, for it is counted together with other things: for although it exists in many things, it is yet counted in them4 The unity in individuals is deficient, for the form is counted together with matter. =|8|=  The unity of the will is deficient, for intentions are not so closely joined that they cannot be separated through disagreement. Finally, the unity of inseparability is deficient in natures, for the union of the form is not so strong that it cannot be separated by artificial means. Wherefore this [perfect indivision] must be presupposed in God.
8. Item, a parte indivisionis sic: necesse est, ibi esse indivisionem, alioquin recederetur a perfectione et ab unitate. Est enim indivisio unitas; unitas autem est in principiis et principiatis, in universalibus et particularibus, in voluntate et natura. Unitas in principiis est simplicitatis; in compositis sive principiatis totalitatis seu plenitudinis; in universalibus conformitatis, in particularibus innumerabilitatis, in voluntate unanimitatis, in natura inseparabilitatis. -- Unitas simplicitatis in principiis est defectiva; quia, licet quodlibet principium sit simplex, non tamen de se sufficiens est ad producendum aliud sine alio principio. -- Item, unitas totalitatis sive plenitudinis in principiatis deficit, quia non est ex se nec simplex. -- Item, unitas in universalibus deficit, scilicet conformitatis, quia numeratur cum alia; licet enim sit in pluribus, numeratur tamen in illis. -- Item, unitas in individuis deficit, quia cum. materia numeratur forma. -- Item, unitas voluntatis deficit, quia non ita coniunguntur animi, quin separari possint per discordiam. -- Item, unitas inseparabilitatis deficit in naturis, quia non est tam fortis unio formae, quin possit per artificium separari. -- Haec autem in Deo ponenda.


9. Again, in the first Being, there is a proper relationship to perfect production. Production may be of something similar or dissimilar, equal or inequal, consubstantial or essentially different. By necessity, if there is production of something dissimilar, the production of something similar is presupposed. This is clearly shown as follows: similar is related to dissimilar as the same is related to different, as the one to the many. But the same necessarily precedes the different, and the one precedes the many: =|9|=  hence the production of the similar precedes the production of the dissimilar. But the creature is produced from the first being, and is dissimilar: wherefore by necessity there is produced something similar, which is God. Again, according to Boethius, =|10|=  inequalities have their origin from equality. Likewise, if something essentially different is produced by God, by necessity there must be produced first something substantially the same, for before the extrinsic there is the intrinsic, as is evident. For the concept in the mind — something intrinsic — precedes the extrinsic expression of the speaker. Likewise, from the eternal substance there does not come forth something different unless there is also produced something substantially the same. Hence in God there is the production of something similar, equal and consubstantial before the production of anything dissimilar, unequal and essentially different.
9. Item, in primo esse est ratio perfectae productionis. Est autem productio similis et dissimilis, aequalis et inaequalis, consubstantialis et essentialiter differentis. -- De necessitate, si est productio dissimilis,$praeintelligitur productio similis; quod sic patet: simile habet se ad dissimile, sicut idem ad diversum, sicut unum ad multa; sed de necessitate idem praecedit diversum, et unum multa: ergo productio similis productionem dissimilis. Sed creatura producitur a primo esse et est dissimilis: ergo de necessitate producitur simile, quod est Deus. -- Item, secundum Boethium inaequalitates oriuntur ab aequalitate: si ergo producitur a Deo quod est inaequale, scilicet creatura, necessario praecedit productio aequalis, quod est Deus. -- Item, si producitur a Deo essentialiter differens, necessario ante producitur substantialiter idem, quia ante extrinsecum est intrinsecum, ut patet: quia verbum dicentis extrinsecum praecedit mentis conceptus ut aliquid intrinsecum: ergo similiter a substantia aeterna non manat differens, nisi producatur substantialiter idem: ergo in Deo prius est productio similis, aequalis, consubstantialis quam dissimilis, inaequalis, essentialiter differentis.


10. But is it not true, you will say, that by understanding the first being as consisting in a single supposit, as do the Gentiles, they further understand substance, power and operation? Hence without understanding the Trinity or emanation, it is possible to understand production. I answer: Understanding is twofold: one that is perfect and complete and fully resolving; and with such an understanding, it does not pertain to understand in this way. But a defective understanding may understand in a semi-complete way, so that it resolves into several those things which in God are one and in other beings are not one. =|11|=  
10. Sed quid? dices, nunquid intelligendo, primum esse unum esse suppositum, ut gentiles, adhuc intelligunt substantiam, virtutem et operationem? Ergo, non intellecta trinitate vel emanatione, est intelligere productionem. Respondeo: intellectus duplex est: perfectus et plenus et plene resolvens; et tali intellectu non est intelligere sic; intelligere autem semiplene potest intellectus defectivus sic, quod resolvat in plura, quae in Deo sunt unum, aliter non.


F. Actual



G. Complete



H. Final



11. The third relationship to the mirror consists in the fact that in God there is a proper relationship to productive diffusion. God's being is supreme good, wherefore it supremely diffuses itself in a threefold outpouring: utterly actual, complete, and directed toward an end, that is, most final. Because it is utterly actual, it always is, always was, and always shall be; it always begets, always has begotten, and always shall beget. Now no creature can have so great a power that it always is, always was, and always shall be; wherefore by necessity it (God's being) must emanate as an eternal being. =|12|=  Again, such diffusion is not utterly complete in any creature, for God does not grant to the creature the full splendor of exemplarity: He confines his grant to begetting the Son who is entitled to say: "All things that the Father has are mine." No creature can say such a thing. Likewise, this production is utterly final, in that the producing being grants all that He can. But the creature is unable to receive all that God can grant. And so, as the point adds nothing to the line—nor do a million points =|13|=  — the goodness of a creature adds nothing to that of the Creator, because the finite adds nothing to the infinite. Wherefore, by necessity, such diffusion in the fullness of its possibilities can exist only in something greater than which nothing can be conceived. But it is possible to think of something greater than any creature, and to conceive an increase in the creature itself. But in the Son, there is production, as in the Father. If, then, nothing can be conceived that is greater than the Father, the same may be said of the Son. If the Father also did not diffuse Himself in the most final way, He would not be perfect.
11. Item, tertia ratio speculi est, quia in Deo est ratio productivae diffusionis sic. Illud esse est summe bonum, ergo summe diffundit se triplici diffusione: actualissima, integerrima, ultimata sive ultimatissima. Quia actualissima, semper est, semper fuit, semper erit; semper generat, semper generavit, semper generabit. Hoc non potest habere creatura, quod semper sit, semper fuerit et semper futura sit: ergo necesse est, ut emanet aeternus. -- Item, integerrima non est haec diffusio in creatura, quia Deus non dat totum decorem exemplaritatis creaturae, immo non dat nisi generando Filium, qui dicere potest: Omnia, quae habet Pater, mea sunt*; hoc non dicit aliqua creatura. -- Item, haec diffusio est ultimata, ut det producens quidquid potest;$creatura autem recipere non potest, quidquid Deus dare potest. Unde sicut punctus ad lineam nihil addit, nec etiam mille millia punctorum; sic bonitas creaturae bonitati Creatoris nihil addit, quia finitum infinito nihil addit. Ergo necesse est, ut haec diffusio secundum totum posse sit in aliquo, quo maius cogitari non potest; omni autem creatura aliquid maius cogitari potest, et etiam ipsa creatura maior se cogitari potest. Sed in Filio est productio, sicut in Patre. Si ergo Patre nihil maius cogitari potest: ergo nec Filio. Si Pater etiam ultimata diffusione non se diffunderet, perfectus non esset.


I. Fourth Diffusion is by Reason of Love



12. The fourth diffusion is by reason of love. Indeed, it is required that, wherever there is happiness, there be also supreme love, and consequently, love on the supreme level. Now, love can be reflexive, relational, or charitable. The relational love by which I love another is superior to the reflexive love by which I love myself. But charitable love is superior to both, for it implies both lover and beloved: wherefore that is the form it assumes in the Godhead. And so it is with this love that the Father loves the Son, and it is infinite ardor. =|14|=  Also, there is here a love that is gratuitous, properly due, and mutual. Again, there is here a love that is pure, full, and perfect: as flowing out and outpoured, in the Son; as poured back, in the Holy Spirit. And for all these reasons, that mirror is ennobled.
12. Quarta diffusio est per rationem dilectionis. Necessario enim oportet, quod ubi beatitudo est, ibi summa sit dilectio, et per consequens dilectio in summo. Est autem dilectio reflexa, connexiva, caritativa. Connexiva dilectio perfectior est, qua alterum diligo, quam reflexa, qua me diligo; caritativa autem perfectior ceteris est, quae habet dilectum et condilectum: ergo haec est in divinis. Hac ergo dilectione Pater diligit Filium, et est infinitus ardor. -- Item, est ibi dilectio gratuita, debita, permixta. -- Item, est ibi dilectio pura, plena, perfecta, ut effluens et effluxa in Filio, ut refluxa in Spiritu sancto. Ex istis rationibus omnibus fit illud speculum nobile.


13. Yet, there is another mirror made of the accumulation of small things. Wherefore take note that, while the whole Trinity is light in the order of understanding, the Word naturally has the power of expressing. =|15|=  But every creature proclaims the eternal generation,! and the twelve modes of generation we find in creatures express and represent it. For there is a first mode of generation by means of diffusion, a second by means of expression, and a third by means of propagation.
13. Est autem aliud speculum, congregatum ex parvis. Unde nota, quod licet tota Trinitas sit lumen intelligendi, Verbum tamen naturaliter habet rationem exprimendi. Omnis autem creatura clamat generationem aeternam, et hanc exprimunt et repraesentant duodecim generationes, quas reperimus in creaturis. Est enim primus modus generationis per diffusionem, secundus per expressionem, tertius per propagationem.


1. Diffusion



14. By means of diffusion, as of brightness out of light, of heat out of fire, of a river out of its headspring, of rain out of a full or humid cloud. In the first diffusion, equality is lacking, for brightness is not the same as light. In the second, closeness is lacking, for heat is not close to fire, since it is the principle neither of its form nor of its origin, but is merely an accident. =|16|=  In the third, simultaneity is lacking, for a spring diffuses itself by flowing, and not all at once. In the fourth, fullness is lacking, for not all of the rain is drawn out of a cloud, but only successive drops. Now, join these four conditions to a single diffusion, one of splendor having equality, of heat having closeness and substantiality, of a river or fountain having simultaneity, and of rain having fullness: and in this way, you will have a trace of the eternal generation.
14. Per diffusionem, ut splendoris a luce, ut caloris ab igne, ut fluminis a fonte, ut imbris a nube plena sive rorida. -- In prima diffusione deficit aequalitas, quia splendor non aequatur luci. -- In secunda deficit intimitas, quia calor non est intimus igni sive ut informanti, sive ut originanti; est enim accidens. -- In tertia deficit simitas, quia fons diffundit se per partes, non totus insimul. -- In quarta deficit integritas, quia non tota pluvia excutitur a nube, immo per guttas. -- Iungas has quatuor conditiones ad unam diffusionem, quae sit splendoris habentis aequalitatem, caloris habentis intimitatem et substantialitatem, rivuli sive fontis habentis simultatem, imbris habentis integritatem: et sic habes vestigium generationis aeternae.


15. Hence, the Son is sometimes compared to brightness: Being the brightness of His glory, etc.; at other times, to a flame, as in Moses' bush which represented the person of the Son; or again, as a river or spring: But a spring rose out of the earth. A river rose in Eden. Again, He is sometimes compared to rain: For just as from the heavens the rain and snow come down and do not return there till they have watered the earth, etc. And, later: So shall my word be that goes forth from my mouth, that is, from the Father's heart.
15. Unde Filius aliquando comparatur splendori, ad Hebraeos primo: Qui cum sit splendor gloriae =|9|=  etc.; aliquando flammae, ut in rubo Moysi =|10|= , ubi fuit expressa persona Filii; aliquando fluvio vel fonti, ut in Genesi: Fons ascendebat de terra, et fluvius egrediebatur de loco voluptatis =|n|= ; aliquando imbri, ut in Isaia: Quomodo descendit imber et nix de caelo et illic ultra non revertitur, sed inebriat terram =|12 |= etc., et sequitur: Sic erit verbum meum, quod egreditur de ore meo =|13|= , scilicet de corde Patris.


2. Expression



16. The second mode [of generation] is by means of expression: as in the case of the species coming out of the object, the imprint out of the seal, the speech out of the speaker, or the concept or thought out of the mind. And in these, there is deficiency. In the first, the reality of the object is lacking, for the species in the eye or in the soul is not the reality of the thing. =|17|=  In the second, simplicity is lacking, for the image or figure does not consist in a point or in something simple, but has parts. In the third, permanence is lacking, for speech passes away and does not remain. In the fourth, substance is lacking, for the concept of the mind is neither a substance nor a hypostasis.! Take away such defects, and suppose an expression like the species deriving from the object but having reality, like the imprint produced by the seal but having simplicity, like the word coming forth from the speaker but having permanence, like the concept proceeding from the mind but having substance: and then you have the first part of the mirror.
16. Secundus modus est per modum expressionis: ut speciei ab obiecto, ut imaginis a sigillo, ut sermonis a loquente, ut conceptus sive cogitatus a mente. -- Et in his est defectus. In prima deficit rei veritas, quia species in oculo vel in anima non est veritas rei. -- In secunda deficit simplicitas, quia imago sive figura non est in puncto vel in simplici, sed partes habet. -- In tertia deficit stabilitas, quia sermo transit et non manet. -- In quarta deficit substantialitas, quia conceptus mentis non est substantia vel hypostasis. -- Auferas hos defectus et pone expressionem quae sit ut speciei ab obiecto habentis veritatem, ut imaginis a sigillo habentis simplicitatem, ut sermonis a loquente habentis stabilitatem, ut conceptus a mente habentis substantialitate!^ et tunc habebis alteram partem speculi.


17. The Psalm refers to the first [manner of expression]: My heart overflows with a goodly theme. And there follows: Fairer in beauty are you than the sons of men. Wisdom refers to the second: For she is the refulgence of eternal light, the spotless mirror of the power of God, the image of His goodness. And the Apostle: He is the image of the invisible God. Job refers to the third: God speaketh once, and repeateth not the selfsame thing the second time. Understand this as meaning "in the Son," in the sense that He always is, and will never cease to be nor even be changed. In the fourth [manner of expression], suppose substantiality, for the concept of the eternal mind is a hypostasis, and this mental concept is most noble and perfect. Hence, in Proverbs: When there were no depths I was brought forth. And so He [the Expression] is sometimes called the Word, the Species, the Image, the Word remaining forever, the Concept —not as existing within [a mind], but as being substantial: a hypostasis. And in this way we have the other part of the mirror.
17. De primo, Psalmus: Eructavit cor meum verbum bonum =|14|= , et sequitur: Speciosus forma prae filiis hominum =|15|= . -- De secundo, Sapientiae septimo: Candor est lucis aeternae et speculum sine macula et imago bonitatis illius =|16|= ; et Apostolus: Qui est imago invisibilis Dei =|11|= . -- De tertio, Iob: Semel loquitur Deus et idipsum non repetit =|18|= . Unde pone in Filio, quod semper sit et non deficit nec vertitur. -- Quarto pone substantialitatem. Conceptus enim mentis aeternae est hypostasis, et iste conceptus mentalis est nobilissimus, perfectissimus. Unde in Proverbiis: Nondum erant abyssi, et ego iam concepta eram =|19|= . Aliquando ergo vocatur filius, species, imago, verbum manens in aeternum =|20|= , con-. ceptus vero non inhaerens, sed substantialis et hypostasis. Sic ergo habemus aliam partem speculi.


3. Propagation



18. The third mode of generation is by means of propagation, and this in a fourfold way: as of a growth coming from a seed, a tree from a root, a conceived offspring from the belly or womb of the mother, or children from a begetting father. In the first mode of generation, formal beauty is lacking, for in the seed the form is vague and hidden. It is not so in the case of the Son. In the second, conformity is lacking, for although there is a single root, it is different in shape from the branches even though they produce a single tree. In the third, actuality is lacking, for although the mother is in a certain sense the active principle of the offspring, yet she is much more of a passive principle.! In the fourth, eternal coexistence is lacking.
18. Tertia generatio est per modum propagationis, et hoc quadrupliciter: ut germinis a semine, ut arboris a radice, ut prolis conceptae a ventre vel utero materno, ut filii a patre principiante. -- In prima generatione deficit formositas, quia in semine est forma confusa et occulta; sed non sic filius. -- In secunda deficit conformitas, licet enim sit una radix, tamen differt in forma a ramis, licet unam arborem faciant. -- In tertia deficit actualitas, quia mater est principium, etsi$aliquo modo activum prolis, potissime tamen passivum. -- In quarta deficit coaevitas.


19. Now, take away these defects and suppose first formal beauty. In this sense, there is Isaiah: The branch of the Lord will be luster and glory, and the fruit of the earth will be honor and splendor. Second, suppose conformity: The Son conforms to the Father to the point that He is the tree of life... in the midst of the garden. Hence, in Proverbs: She is a tree of life to those who grasp her. Third, suppose actuality: in this sense, you have the Psalm: With Thee is the principality in the day of Thy strength, in the brightness of the saints: from the womb before the day star I begot Thee. From the womb, says the Psalmist, which is in relation to the warmth of the Father's bosom, from which He does not withdraw. Fourth, suppose eternal coexistence. In this sense, there is the Psalm: This day I have begotten You, that is in eternity, or in My eternal today.
19. Aufer ergo hos defectus et pone primo formositatem. Unde Isaias: Erit germen Domini in magnificentia et gloria, et fructus terrae sublimis =|21|= . -- Secundo pone conformitatem; sic Filius est conformis Patri, ut sit lignum vitae in medio paradisi =|22|= ; unde in Proverbiis: Lignum vitae est his qui apprehenderint eam =|20|= . -- Tertio pone actualitatem. Unde in Psalmo: Tecum principium in die virtutis tuae in splendoribus Sanctorum; ex utero ante luciferum genui te =|24|= . Ex utero dicit, ubi est ratio fovendi in sinu Patris =|23|= , a quo non recessit. -- Quarto pone coaevitatem. Unde in Psalmo: Ego hodie genui te =|26|= ; hoc est in aeternitate, sive in meo hodie aeterno.


20. Now, bring these twelve conditions together, and you will have a mirror for the contemplation of the divine Exemplar, the Word who represents all things: as the Brightness producing out of Light, in a condition of perfect equality [with this Light]—and likewise with the other conditions. And by these conditions are resolved all the arguments Arius draws from imperfect modes of generation. =|18|=
20. Has duodecim conditiones aggrega, et habebis speculum ad contuendum exemplar divinum sive Verbum, quod omnia repraesentat: ut splendor procedens a luce cum perfectione aequalitatis, et sic de aliis. -- Et per has conditiones solvuntur omnia argumenta Arii, per quae arguit a generationibus imperfectis.


21. Of these twelve modes of generation, it is said in Genesis: "I had another dream," he said. "The sun, the moon and eleven stars were worshiping me." Now, this One is the most comely Joseph whom all things worship: temporal beings cry out by means of the moon, and spiritual beings, by means of the sun and the eleven stars. The modes of generation of creatures correspond to eleven of the conditions, while the twelfth is lacking: it came about in the generation of the Son of God. Wherefore there are here eleven stars, a quantity short of twelve which is a rising number,  =|19|=  for all beings are defective in relation to the mode of generation of this One, and tend toward the generation of the Word: for all beings point to the generation of the Word. Hence, when one considers brightness as coming from light, the mind must be transferred to the consideration of the eternal generation —and so with the other examples. And in this there is a great pleasure of which it is said in the Psalm: For You make me glad, O Lord, by Your deeds; at the work of Your hands, 1 rejoice. Wherefore [the Apostle] says: We all, with faces unveiled, reflecting as in a mirror the glory of the Lord.
21. De his duodecim generationibus dicitur in Genesi: Vidi per somnium quasi solem et lunam et stellas undecim adorare me =|21|= . Iste est ille Ioseph pulcherrimus, quem adorant omnia; et clamant temporalia per lunam, spiritualia per solem, et undecim stellae. Generationes creaturarum sunt secundum undecim conditiones, deficiente duodecima, quae est in generatione Filii Dei; ideo ponuntur hic undecim stellae in numero deficiente a duodenario, qui est numerus excrescens, quia omnia respectu illius generationis habent defectum et inclinant se ad generationem Verbi; omnia enim indicant generationem Verbi. -- Unde quando videtur splendor a luce, transferenda est mens ad considerandam generationem aeternam; et sic de aliis. -- Et ibi est magna delectatio, de qua in Psalmo: Delectasti me, Domine, in factura tua; et in operibus manuum tuarum exsultabo =|28|= . Dicit ergo: Nos autem, revelata facie gloriam Domini speculantes =|29|= .


22. Now, there is another interpretation, and it is more proper. There is generation by means of diffusion as is the case of brightness or luminosity coming forth from light. And while in such case there is coetemal duration, there is yet a lack of equality, for brightness is not the same as light. There is another form of diffusion as in fire coming forth from fire. And while in such case there is equality—as is evident when one candle is lit from another, for there is as much light in the one as in the other, as often as they are lit —yet, consubstantiality is lacking. Again, there is the diffusion of a runlet from a fountain, and here there is con- substantiality or intimacy, for the same water which is in the runlet is also in the fountain, =|20|=  yet there is some lack of nobility in the origin, for the water comes from below, through a number of passages, after purification from brine to freshness. Finally, there is the diffusion of rain from a cloud, and here there is nobility of origin, for this diffusion has the virtues of the sky through which the cloud pours out the rain. Yet, there is a lack of formal beauty, since the cloud is seen to obscure and befoul the sky. Now, put together what pertains to nobility, such as coeternal duration, equality, consubstantiality and formal beauty, and you have one aspect of the mirror.
22. Alio modo sic, et est magis proprie. Est generatio per diffusionem ut splendoris vel luminis a luce; et ibi est coaevitas, deficit tamen aequalitas, quia splendor non aequatur luci. -- Item, est diffusio, ut ignis ab igne, et ibi est aequalitas, ut patet, quando una candela accenditur ab alia, quod tantum est lumen in una, sicut in alia,$et quotquot accendantur; deficit tamen consubstantialitas. -- Item, est diffusio rivuli a fonte, et hic est consubstantialitas vel intimitas, quia eadem aqua, quae est in fonte, est in rivulo; sed deficit nobilitas ortus, quia de imo, et per quosdam meatus et colationem de aqua salsa fit dulcis. -- Item, est diffusio imbris a nube, et ibi est nobilitas ortus, quia habet virtutes caeli, per quas infundit imbrem nubes; deficit tamen formae decor, quia videtur nubes caelum obscurare et deturpare. -- Iunge quod nobilitatis est, ut coaevitatem et aequalitatem, consubstantialitatem et formae decorem; et habes unam partem speculi.


23. Again, there is generation by means of expression, as in the species proceeding from the object, and here there is formal beauty which was lacking in the case of rain. And what is admirable here is the manner in which the species is generated: for it does not come from material air, since it does not point to essence, but to a manner of being, wherefore it is sufficient that it have an originating principle, which is intermediate between a material and an effective principle. Hence God gave to every object this power, that it give birth to its likeness, and this out of a natural fecundity. And so, in so far as an object gives birth to its image, it represents the eternal generation [of the Son from the Father]. And in so far as the intention of the mind combines this likeness with actual vision, it represents the incarnation of the Word. =|21|=  But this generation of the species is short of perfection, since there is here no fixed form, but different manners of generation as is evident when mirrors are placed in different positions; and there are also different manners of representation, close up or from a distance.
23. Item, est generatio per expressionem ut speciei ab obiecto; et hic est formae decor, qui deficiebat in generatione imbris. Et hoc est mirabile, quomodo talis species generatur; quia non de materia aeris, quia, cum non dicat essentiam, sed modum essendi, sufficit, ut habeat principium originativum, medium inter principium materiale et principium effectivum. Unde Deus dedit virtutem hanc cuilibet rei, ut gignat similitudinem suam et ex naturali fecunditate. Unde secundum quod obiectum gignit similitudinem suam, sic repraesentat generationem aeternam; secundum quod intentio animae eam oculo unit, sic repraesentat incarnationem Verbi. -- Haec generatio speciei deficit, quia non est ibi formae fixio, sed vario modo habet generari, ut patet in speculis vario modo ordinatis; et diversimode habet repraesentare, prope, vel longe.


24. Once more, there is generation by means of impression as in the imprint from a seal, and here there is fixity of form which is lacking in the preceding case: but what is missing here is the power of life. There is the generation of speech from the speaker, and here there is the power of life, for speech implies a certain vital strength: and this is evident in the case of two people who say the same thing— one will express it and impress it better than the other. Wherefore Jerome =|22|=  writes: "The act of live speech has some unknown kind of latent energy." And in the case of the words of Christ, there is no doubt that when they were proffered and heard from His mouth, they had greater virtue and power than when written. And yet, what is lacking here is the permanence of life, for speech passes away. There is the generation of a concept by the mind: and here there is permanence of life, for every concept remains in the memory; but what is lacking is the power of substantial fecundity, for this thought is not a substantial power. Now suppose these four joined together, formal beauty, the fixity of form, the power of life and the permanence of life: and you have the second aspect of the mirror.
24. Item, est generatio per expressionem ut figurae a sigillo, et hic est formae fixio, quod deficit in praecedenti, deficit tamen vitae vigor. -- Item, est generatio sermonis a dicente, ubi est vitae vigor, quia sermo quandam vim vitae secum habet; ut patet, quod duobus dicentibus eandem veritatem, unus melius alio exprimit et imprimit. Unde Hieronymus: «Habet nescio quid latentis energiae vivae vocis actus» etc. Unde verba Christi, non est dubium, quin, prolata et audita de ore eius, maioris virtutis et potestatis erant quam scripta. Hic tamen deficit vitae mansio, quia sermo transit. -- Item, est generatio conceptus a mente; et ibi est vitae mansio, quia omnis cogitatus in memoria manet; sed hic deficit fecunditatis substantialis virtus, quia ille cogitatus non est substantialis virtus. -- Haec quatuor iungantur, scilicet formae decor, formae fixio, vitae vigor, vitae mansio, et habes secundam partem speculi.


25. Finally, there is generation by means of propagation, as in germination from a seed. And here there is substantial power which was lacking in the preceding instances, although lacking in the present case is the strength of life. There is the generation of a shoot growing from the root, and here is strength of life, but there is no sensing of life: for the producing element does not feel the produced, nor does the produced perceive its origin. There is the generation of a fetus coming forth from the belly or womb, and here there is sensing of life, but the active power is lacking, for the belly is in a sense a receptive rather than an active element. There is generation as of a son by his father, and here are present all the aforesaid conditions except one, that of light, which is coeternal duration, and which is to be supposed in the generation of the Son of God. And the name eternal generation is applied to this final instance, the generation of the Son by the Father. And Christ confirmed this very point when He said: "Go, therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit." He did not say, "In the name of light and brightness." These, then, are the eleven stars worshiping Joseph, the most comely son, that is, the eleven noble conditions mentioned above; but the twelfth, eternal coexistence, is found in the Son of God.
25. Item, est generatio per propagationem ut germinis a semine; et hic est virtus substantialis, in qua ultimum deficit, scilicet deficit$vitae robur. -- Item, est generatio ut surculi a radice; et hic est vitae robur, sed deficit vivax sensus; non enim sentit vel producens productum, vel productum suam originem. -- Item, est generatio ut fetus a ventre vel utero; et hic est vivax sensus, sed deficit virtus activa, quia venter est quasi receptaculum potius quam activum. -- Item, est generatio ut filii a patre; et ibi sunt omnes dictae conditiones praeter unam, scilicet lucis, quae est coaevitas, quae ponenda est in generatione Filii Dei; et ab ista ultima generatione, scilicet Filii a Patre, denominatur generatio aeterna. Et hoc ratificavit Christus, cum dixit: Ite, docete omnes gentes, baptizantes eos in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus sancti =|30|= ; non dixit: in nomine lucis et splendoris.$Hae sunt undecim stellae adorantes Ioseph, Filium pulcherrimum, scilicet undecim conditiones nobiles iam dictae, sed duodecima, scilicet coaevitas, est in Filio Dei.


XIII. Twelfth Collation



A. Fifth Treatise on the Second Vision, Which is the Third on the Splendor of Faith and Deals with God as the Exemplar of All Things



1200 TWELFTH COLLATION Fifth Treatise on the Second Vision, Which Is the Third on the Splendor of Faith and Deals with God as the Exemplar of All Things


1. BUT we all, with faces unveiled, reflecting as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, etc. We have spoken of the loftiness of faith that exceeds reason's power of investigation, as is evident in the Twelve Articles signified by the Twleve Stars and the Twelve Wings of the Seraphim. We have spoken of its firmness signified by the Twelve Foundations of the City. Likewise, [we have spoken] of its beauty signified by the Twelve Doors of the City and the Twelve Pearls which are the speculations of faith, and are bright as lightning, vivifying and joyful in so far as they are related to the Two Doors of the East: first of all, [we have spoken of] the consideration of God as the First and the Most Pure, and secondly, of the consideration of Him as Trine and One.
1. Nos vero omnes, revelata facie gloriam Domini speculantes =|1|=  etc. Dictum est de altitudine fidei, quia excedit investigationem rationis, ut patet in duodecim articulis designatis per duodecim stellas et per duodecim alas Seraphim. -- Dictum est de firmitate eius designata per duodecim fundamenta civitatis. -- Item, de speciositate designata per duodecim portas civitatis et per duodecim margaritas, quae sunt speculationes fidei, et sunt fulgidae et vivificae et iucundae quantum ad duas portas orientales =|2|= , scilicet speculari, Deum esse primum et purissimum; secundo, Deum trinum et unum.


B. Exemplar of All Things



2. What follows concerns the Third Door, referring to the fact that He is the Exemplar of all things. It must be assumed by faith that God is the Creator of things, the Ruler of actions, the Teacher of intelligences, the Judge of merits. And from this we may understand that He is the Cause of causes, the Art originating in an outstanding manner, the Leader governing most providently, the Light declaring or representing most manifestly, the Right retributing and judging most justly.
2. Sequitur de tertia porta, scilicet quod sit exemplar omnium rerum. Supponendum enim est per fidem, quod Deus est conditor rerum, gubernator actuum, doctor intellectuum, iudex meritorum. Et ex hoc intelligitur, quod est causa causarum et ars praestantissime originans, dux providentissime gubernans, lux manifestissime declarans vel repraesentans, ius rectissime praemians et iudicans.


1. Creation Comes Forth Through Art



3. The first is demonstrated in this manner. The creature comes forth from the Creator, but not through nature, since it is of another nature. Hence it comes forth through art, since there is no other noble manner of emanation besides through nature and through art, that is, out of an act of the will. =|1|=  And this art is not separate from Him, wherefore He is both acting through art and willing, and hence it is necessary that He possess both expressed and expressive reasons. And if He gives to this [created] being a form through which it is distinguished from other beings, or a property (individuality) by which it is distinguished from others [of the same kind], He must necessarily possess the Ideal Form, or rather the Ideal Forms. This is how they are called in several instances by the Saints. =|2|=
3. Primum ostenditur sic. Creatura egreditur a Creatore, sed non per naturam, quia alterius naturae est: ergo per artem, cum non sit alius modus emanandi nobilis quam per naturam, vel per artem sive ex voluntate; et ars illa non est extra ipsum: ergo est agens per artem et volens: ergo necesse est, ut habeat rationes expressas et expressivas. Si enim det huic rei formam, per quam distinguitur ab alia re, vel proprietatem, per quam ab alia distinguitur; necesse est, ut habeat formam idealem, immo formas ideales. Sic enim in plurali vocantur a Sanctis.


2. Governing Leader



4. Again, because He is the Preserving Cause, He is a Governing Leader. For He is the first in the government of all actions inasmuch as they are liable to be governed: and not like an artisan who leaves his home, and yet preserves and rules his belongings,  =|3|=  Therefore He has within Himself the most direct norms. Nor is it in the same manner that the creature flows forth from the Creator by means of expressive forms or reasons, and that the rules for its preservation flow from Him by means of the direction of eternal laws.
4. Item, quia est causa conservans, est dux gubernans. Praeest enim ad dirigendum omnes actus, secundum quod gubernabiles sunt; non sicut artifex, qui domum dimittit, sed res conservat et dirigit. Ideo habet apud se normas directissimas. Nec est idem modus, ut creatura$manat a Creatore secundum formas vel rationes expressas, et secundum quod a mente divina emanant regulae ad conservationem ipsarum secundum directionem aeternarum regularum.


3. Teacher



5. Again, because He Himself is the Teacher, He teaches infallibly and makes assertions in such a way that He could not possibly have done otherwise. In the opinion of all the doctors, =|4|=  Christ teaches interiorly, so that no truth is known except through Him, not through speech as it is with us, but through inner enlightenment. Wherefore He must necessarily have within Himself the most clear species, which He cannot possibly have received from another. He Himself, then, is intimate to every soul =|5|=  and He shines forth by means of His most clear species upon the obscure species of our understanding. And in this manner, these obscure species, mixed with the darkness of images, are lit up in such a way that the intellect understands. If, indeed, to know a thing is to understand that it cannot be otherwise than it is, by necessity He alone will make it known who knows the truth and possesses the truth within himself.
5. Item, quia ipse doctor est, docet infallibiliter et certificat sic, quod impossibile est, aliter se habere. Secundum sententiam omnium doctorum Christus est doctor interius, nec scitur aliqua veritas nisi per eum, non loquendo, sicut nos, sed interius illustrando; et ideo necesse est, ut habeat clarissimas species apud se, neque tamen ab alio acceperit. Ipse enim intimus est omni animae et suis speciebus carissimis refulget super species intellectus nostri tenebrosas; et sic illustrantur species illae obtenebratae, admixtae obscuritati phantasmatum, ut intellectus intelligat. Si enim scire est cognoscere, rem aliter impossibile se$habere; necessarium est, ut ille solus scire faciat, qui veritatem novit et habet in se veritatem.


4. Justice



6. Again, He is a Justice, most rightfully retributing in accord with the most just laws. If it repays justly, by necessity it must possess the most just laws.
6. Item, est ius rectissime remunerans per leges iustissimas. Si ergo iuste praemiat, necesse est, ut habeat leges iustissimas.


7. Now, Scripture speaks of Him who is the Exemplar, by whom every creature lives in the eternal forms,  What was made in Him was life. For it lives through knowing and loving; and anyone who denies this denies eternal predestination.  For God knew the creature from all eternity and loves it [now], since He made it for glory and grace. Once more, He proposes the most direct norms. Hence, the Apostle and Jeremiah say: I will put my laws into their mind, and upon their hearts I will write them. For He inscribed them first in [human] nature, then in industry or progress, third in grace, and fourth in glory. In every state, He puts forth His rules: wherefore by necessity He must possess them within Himself.
7. Loquitur autem Scriptura de ipso, ut est exemplar, quo omnis creatura vivit in formis aeternis; Ioannis primo: Quod factum est in ipso vita erat =|3|= . Vivit autem per cognitionem et amorem; et qui hoc negat negat praedestinationem aeternam. Nam ab aeterno novit Deus creaturam et amat eam, quia praeparavit eam gloriae et gratiae. -- Item, habet normas directissimas; unde Apostolus et Ieremias dicunt: Dabo leges meas in visceribus eorum et in corde superscribam eas =|4|= . Superscribit enim primo in natura; secundo, in industria seu in progressu; tertio, in gratia; quarto, in gloria. In quolibet statu dat normas suas: ergo necesse est, ut in se habeat eas.


8. Furthermore, because He is illuminating light: For she is fairer than the sun and surpasses every constellation of the stars. For although the sun possesses the means by which it can radiate, it yet does not have the species described within itself. Wherefore more beautiful is this Exemplar which has light and also the clear species of light. Finally, He is a judge who judges by His own power. Scrolls were opened. And another scroll was opened, which is the book of life, and the book of the conscience. =|7|=  Through the power of the book of life, the soul lives and is open to judgment; and if the book of the conscience coincides with the book of life, it is approved; but if they differ, it is reproved. Hence the Psalm: Your eyes have seen my actions; in Your book they are all written. In other words, that which had been written earlier is now made manifest: it is not written anew. In this book are inscribed all the eternal laws. And so God is the eternal Exemplar, and this is a matter of faith which believes that God is the creator of all things, etc.
8. Item, quia est lux illustrans; in Sapientia: Est enim haec speciosior sole et super omnem dispositionem stellarum luci comparata invenitur prior =|5|= ; quia, licet sol habeat rationem radiandi, non tamen species in se descriptas habet: et ideo illud exemplar est pulcrius, quia cum hoc, quod lucem habeat, etiam species claras habet. -- Item, est ius per se iudicans; in Apocalypsi: Libri aperti sunt, et alius liber apertus est, scilicet liber vitae =|6|=  et liber conscientiae. Per librum vitae habet anima vivere et iudicari; et si liber conscientiae concordat cum libro vitae, approbatur; si autem discordat, reprobatur; unde in Psalmo: Imperfectum meum viderunt oculi tui, et in libro tuo omnes scribendo I, 3-4.  =|4|=  Heb 8, 10; Ier 31, 33.  =|5|=  Sap 7, 29.  =|6|=  Ap 20, 12.$tur =|1|= , id est manifestabuntur scripti, non de novo scribentur. In hoc libro scribuntur omnes leges aeternae. -- Deus ergo est exemplar aeternum, et hoc est fidei, quae credit, Deum esse conditorem rerum etc.


9. And speculation applied to this sees it (the Exemplar) as art representing in the most outstanding way. Now, such art is both one and manifold. How this can occur cannot be seen unless there come about an illumination from the everlasting mountains, and when despoiled are the stouthearted, that is, the foolish. For it is fitting to think of God in the highest way. Speculation is also manifold, for it represents many things distinctly and certainly. Hence I will see myself better in God than in myself. And yet it is supremely one.
9. Et super hoc fertur speculatio, ut sit ars praestantissime repraesentans. Haec autem ars et est una et multiplex. Quomodo autem hoc esse possit, videri non potest, nisi veniat illuminatio a montibus aeternis, et tunc turbabuntur insipientes corde =|8|= , id est stulti. Oportet enim alte sentire de Deo. -- Est autem multiformis, quia multa repraesentat distincte et certitudinaliter. Unde melius videbo me in Deo quam in me ipso. Est tamen summe una.


10. In this regard it is worthy of note that the first cause is both first and immediate. Because it is first, it has nothing from another, but all from itself. It is also immediate, for the first cause is superior to the intermediary. And so, because it is first, and therefore supremely powerful, it can do many things; because it is immediate, it is supremely actual, since the immediate cause is in act. It is also supremely actual because it is immediate, because act is more immediate than potency. Nor is it supremely actual in the order of efficiency nor in relation to an extrinsic act, for it does not bring about immediately everything it can: wherefore it is supremely actual in relation to an intrinsic act, which is "to say." And so, from all eternity God has said that such a thing is to be: and it comes about in time. This same cause, also, because it is one, is supremely simple; and because supremely simple, infinite, for "a power or cause, the more it is one and simple, the more it is infinite," =|8|=  not, however, through an extension of its mass, but through that of its power.
10. Ad hoc notandum, quod causa prima et est prima et immediata; quia prima, ideo nihil habet ab alio, sed omnia ab ea; et est immediata, quia causa immediata nobilior est quam mediata. Quia ergo prima, ideo potentissima: ergo multa potest; item, quia immediata, ideo est actualissima, quia causa immediata in actu est; est etiam actualissima, eo quod immediata, quia actus immediatior est quam potentia. Non autem est actualissima secundum efficientiam sive secundum actum extrinsecum, quia non facit statim quidquid potest: ergo est actualissima secundum actum intrinsecum, qui est dicere. Unde ab aeterno dixit hoc fiendum, et hoc in tempore. -- Haec etiam causa, quia est una, est summe simplex; et eo quod summe simplex, est infinita, quia «virtus vel causa, quanto magis unita et simplex, tanto magis infinita», non quidem distensione molis, sed virtutis.


11. Such light is beyond reach and is yet the closest to the soul, even more than it is to itself. It is also unconfinable, and yet supremely intimate. This can be seen by none but a man suspended beyond himself in a lofty vision; and when we wish to see by means of simple intuition how such art is one and yet manifold, we cannot conceive how infinite it is, except in terms of extension, because the imagination interferes: and so we cannot see by simple intuition, except through reasoning.
11. Haec lux est inaccessibilis =|9|= , et tamen proxima animae, etiam plus quam ipsa sibi. Est etiam inalligabilis, et tamen summe intima. -- Hoc autem videre non est nisi hominis suspensi ultra se in alta visione; et quando volumus videre simplici intuitu, quomodo illa ars est una, et tamen multiplex; quia immiscet se phantasia, cogitare non possumus, quomodo infinita sit nisi per distensionem: et ideo videre non possumus simplici intuitu nisi ratiocinando.


12. Now, because such art is a cause, it follows that there is in it a representation of the things that can be caused, and this in a manner that is not caused. Because such reasons are causes, =|9|=  they are uncaused; and it follows that they are the causes of contingent things unfailingly. For what is contingent is represented there in an unfailing way; and so it expresses unfailingly a mode that occurs accidentally in a thing, for it expresses it in relation to what is in and with [this cause] itself. And so there is true contingency on the part of the object and unfailingness on the part of God.
12. Quia ergo illa ars est causa, sequitur, quod in illa arte est repraesentatio causabilium incausabiliter; quia rationes illae causae sunt, ideo incausatae; et hinc est, quod causae sunt contingentium infallibiliter. Quod enim contingens est illic infallibiliter repraesentatur; exprimit enim modum, qui accidit in re, infallibiliter, quia, secundum quod in se et apud se est, exprimit. Vera enim est contingentia a parte rei, et infallibilitas ex parte Dei.


13. In the same way, [this art represents] changeable things in a changeless manner, material things in an immaterial manner, for these reasons are not material; [it represents] possible things actually and divided things undividedly, =|10|=  for the principle of a mountain is no greater than that of a grain of millet. [It represents] accidents substantially, for these reasons are substance, which is God. [It represents] bodily things spiritually, temporal things eternally, distant things without relation to distance, as is also evident in the soul, since the species are not localized in the soul. [It represents] discordant things harmoniously, as the principle of white and that of black. [It represents] defective things in an indefective manner, for whatever is there is quickened with life.
13. Item, mutabilium immutabiliter, materialium immaterialiter, quia illae rationes non sunt materiales; possibilium actualiter, partibilem impartite, quia non est maior ratio montis quam milii, nec etiam in anima nostra; accidentium substantialiter, quia illae rationes sunt substantia, quae est Deus; corporalium spiritualiter; temporalium sempiterne; distantium indistanter, ut etiam patet in anima, quia stationes specierum non sunt in anima; dissonantium indissonanter, ut ratio albi et nigri; deficientium indeficienter, quia quidquid est ibi, vita vivit.


14. Both reason and faith lead to these splendors of exemplarity. But beyond, there is a threefold help for rising to the exemplary principles, that is, the sensible creatures, the rational creatures, and the sacramental scriptures: and this help contains a mystery. As regards the first, the whole world is a shadow, a way, and a trace; a book with writing front and hack. =|11|=  Indeed, in every creature there is a refulgence of the divine exemplar, but mixed with darkness: hence it resembles some kind of opacity combined with light. Also, it is a way leading to the exemplar. As you notice that a ray of light coming in through a window is colored according to the shades of the different panes, so the divine ray shines differently in each creature and in the various properties. Hence, in Wisdom: She ... appears to them in the ways. Again, it is a trace of God's wisdom. Wherefore the creature exists only as a kind of imitation of God's wisdom, as a certain plastic representation of it. And for all these reasons, it is a kind of book written. . . without.
14. Ad hos splendores exemplares ratio ducit et fides. Sed ulterius triplex est adiutorium ad surgendum ad exemplares rationes, creaturae scilicet sensibilis, creaturae spiritualis, Scripturae sacramentalis, quae continet mysteria. -- Quantum ad primum totus mundus est umbra, via, vestigium et est liber scriptus forinsecus =|10|= . In qualibet enim creatura est refulgentia divini exemplaris, sed cum tenebra permixta; unde est sicut quaedam opacitas admixta lumini. -- Item, est via ducens in exemplar. Sicut tu vides, quod radius intrans per fenestram diversimode coloratur secundum colores diversos diversarum partium; sic radius divinus in singulis creaturis diversimode et in diversis proprietatibus refulget; in Sapientia: In viis suis ostendit se =|n|= . -- Item, est vestigium sapientiae Dei. Unde creatura non est nisi sicut quoddam simulacrum sapientiae Dei et quoddam sculptile. -- Et ex his omnibus est quidam liber scriptus foris.


15. And so, when the soul sees these things, it seems to it that it should go through them from shadow to light, from the way to the end, from the trace to truth, from the book to veritable knowledge which is in God. To read this book is the privilege of the highest contemplatives, not of natural philosophers; for the former alone know the essence of things, and do not consider them only as traces.
15. Quando ergo anima videt haec, videtur sibi, quod deberet transire ab umbra ad lucem, a via ad terminum, a vestigio ad veritatem, a libro ad scientiam veram, quae est in Deo. Hunc librum legere est altissimorum contemplativorum, non naturalium philosophorum, quia solum sciunt naturam rerum, non ut vestigium.


16. Another help is that provided by the spiritual creature, which resembles light, a mirror, an image, a scroll written within. Every spiritual substance is light. Hence, the Psalm: The light of Thy countenance, O Lord, is signed upon us. =|12 |= At the same time, it is a mirror, for it receives and represents all things; and it has the nature of light, so that it may even pass judgment on things. For the whole world is described in the soul. It (the spiritual creature) is also an image. Since it is both light and mirror containing images of things, it is image too. And hence it is a scroll written within. And for this reason nothing can penetrate the intimate center of the soul, unless it is simple—meaning that nothing can penetrate its powers. For according to Augustine, =|13|=  the most intimate part of the soul is its summit, and the more a power is interior, the higher it is. The sorcerers of Pharaoh had these two helps.
16. Aliud adiutorium est spiritualis creaturae, quae est ut lumen, ut speculum, ut imago, ut liber scriptus intus. -- Omnis substantia spiritualis lumen est; unde in Psalmo: Signatum est super nos lumen vultus tui, Domine =|12|= . -- Simul etiam cum hoc est speculum, quia omnia recipit et repraesentat; et habet naturam luminis, ut et iudicet de rebus. Totus enim mundus describitur in anima. -- Et est etiam imago. Quia ergo est lumen et speculum habens rerum imagines, ideo est imago. -- Ex hoc est etiam liber scriptus intus. Unde ad intimum$animae nullus potest intrare, nisi sit simplex; hoc autem est intrare ad potentias; quia, secundum Augustinum, intimum animae est eius summum; quanto potentia intimior, tanto sublimior. -- Haec duo habent magi Pharaonis =|13|= .


17. But the third help is that of sacramental Scripture. For the whole of Scripture is the heart of God, the mouth of God, the tongue of God, the pen of God, a scroll written within and without. Hence, in the Psalm: My heart overflows with a goodly theme; as I sing my ode to the King, my tongue is nimble as the pen of a skillful scribe. The heart is of God, the mouth of the Father, the tongue of the Son, the pen of the Holy Spirit. For the Father speaks through the Son or Tongue, but that which fulfills and commits to memory is the Pen of the Scribe. Hence Isaiah: Woe to you... who walk to go down into Egypt, that is, to secular sciences, and have not asked at My mouth, that is, Sacred Scripture. We need not go down to other sciences in order to gain certainty before having had the witness on the mountain, that is, of Christ, Elias and Moses, meaning of the New Testament, of the Prophets and of the Law. Again, Sacred Scripture is a tongue, hence: Sweetmeats and milk are under your tongue — How sweet to my palate are your promises, sweeter than honey to my mouth! This tongue enjoys the taste of food, wherefore these same Scriptures are compared to loaves of bread that nourish and are pleasant to the taste. Also, it is God's Pen, that is, the Holy Spirit, for as the writer may write in the present events past, present and future: so in Scriptures are contained the past, the present and the future. Wherefore it is a scroll written... without, because it contains beautiful stories and teaches the properties of things, and also written within, because it contains mysteries and different possible interpretations.
17. Sed tertium adiutorium est Scripturae sacramentalis. Est autem omnis Scriptura cor Dei, os Dei, lingua Dei, calamus Dei, liber scriptus foris et intus. -- In Psalmo: Eructavit cor meum verbum bonum, dico ego opera mea regi. Lingua mea calamus scribae velociter scribentis =|14|= : cor Dei, os Patris, lingua Filii, calamus Spiritus sancti. Pater enim loquitur per Verbum seu linguam; sed qui complet et memoriae commendat est calamus scribae. -- Scriptura ergo est os Dei. Unde Isaias: Vae! qui descenditis in Aegyptum =|15|= , scilicet ad saeculares scientias, et os Domini non interrogastis =|16|= , scilicet sacram Scripturam. Non enim debet ad scientias alias descendere, ut sciat certitudinem, nisi habeat testimonium in monte, scilicet Christi, Eliae, Moysi, hoc est novi testamenti, Prophetarum et Legis. -- Item, est lingua, unde mel et lac sub lingua eius =|11|= . Quam dulcia faucibus meis eloquia tua, super mel ori meo! =|1|= *. Haec lingua cibos saporat; unde haec Scriptura comparatur panibus qui habent saporem et reficiunt. -- Item, est calamus Dei, et hoc est Spiritus sanctus; quia, sicut scribens potest praesentialiter scribere praeterita, praesentia et futura; sic continentur in Scriptura praeterita, praesentia et futura. -- Unde est liber scriptus foris, quia habet pulcras historias et docet rerum proprietates; scriptus est etiam intus, quia habet mysteria et intelligentias diversas.


XIV. Thirteenth Collation



A. On the Third Vision, Through Understanding Instructed by Scriptures. First Treatise, Concerning the Spiritual Meanings of Scriptures



1300 THIRTEENTH COLLATION On the Third Vision, Through Understanding Instructed by Scriptures. First Treatise, Concerning the Spiritual Meanings of Scriptures


1. LET the waters below the heavens be gathered into one place and let the dry land appear." And so it was. God called the dry land Earth and the assembled waters Seas. And God saw that it was good. Then God said, "Let the earth bring forth vegetation: seed-bearing plants and all kinds of fruit trees that bear fruit containing their seed," etc. Such is the third vision, of understanding instructed by Scriptures, which is figured in the work of the third day. And as in the work of the days, there is added a second to the first and a third to both of them, so also out of the first and second visions there comes forth a third, and this vision is more noble and greater than the preceding two. And although such adaptation and comparison to the work of the third day may not seem properly fitting since the earth is the lowest of the elements, while the Scriptures are most high, yet the relationship is excellently pointed out: for whatever the heavens contain in any measure of excellence, the earth holds or receives or possesses in some measure of liveliness. Wherefore it receives the influences of heaven and brings forth the most beautiful swarms of beings. =|1|=
1. Congregentur aquae, quae sub caelo sunt, in locum unumy et appareat arida. Et factum est ita. Et vocavit Deus aridam terram congregationesque aquarum appellavit maria. Et vidit Deus, quod esset bonum. Et ait: germinet terra herbam virentem et facientem semen, et lignum pomiferum, faciens fructum iuxta genus suum, cuius semen in semetipso sit super terram =|1|=  etc. Haec est tertia visio, intelligentiae per Scripturam eruditae, quae intelligitur in opere tertiae diei. Et sicut in operibus dierum est additio secundae ad primam et tertiae ad utramque; sic ex prima et secunda visione oritur tertia; et ista visio est nobilior et maior praecedentibus. Et licet videatur inconveniens adaptatio et correspondentia cum opere tertiae diei, pro eo quod terra est infimum elementorum, Scriptura autem est sublimissima; optime tamen assignatur, quia quidquid caelum continet in quadam excellentia, terra tenet vel suscipit vel habet in quadam vivacitate. Unde suscipit caeli influentias et facit pulcherrimas pullulationes.


B. Spiritual Meanings



2. Now this vision is concerned with three things, the spiritual meanings of the senses, that is the "sense," the sacramental symbols, and the manifold interpretations that are drawn from them. All of Scriptures may be reduced to these three. The first are offered to our understanding by means of the gathering of the waters, that is, the spiritual meanings. The second, that is, the sacramental symbols, are represented by the swarming of beings on earth, in this passage: "Let the earth bring forth vegetation." The third, that is, the manifold interpretations, are signified by the seed, in this passage: "... containing their seed," etc. Who can know the infinity of seeds, when in a single one are contained forests of forests and thence seeds in infinite number? =|2|=  Likewise, out of Scriptures may be drawn an infinite number of interpretations which none but God can comprehend. For as new seeds come forth from plants, so also from Scriptures come forth new interpretations and new meanings, and thereby are Sacred Scriptures distinct [from everything else]. Hence, in relation to the interpretations yet to be drawn, we may compare to a single drop from the sea all those that have been drawn so far.
2. Consistit autem haec visio circa tria, scilicet circa spirituales intelligentias sensuum sive sensus, circa sacramentales figuras, circa multiformes theorias inde elicitas. Ad haec tria omnis Scriptura reducitur. -- Primae dantur intelligi per congregationes aquarum, scilicet spirituales intelligentiae; secundae, scilicet sacramentales figurae, per pullulationes terrae, ibi: Germinet terra herbam virentem; tertiae, scilicet multiformes theoriae, intelliguntur per semina, ibi: Cuius semen sit in semetipso etc. -- Quis potest scire infinitatem seminum, cum tamen in uno sint silvae silvarum et postea infinita semina? Sic ex Scripturis elici possunt infinitae theoriae, quas nullus potest comprehendere nisi solus Deus. Sicut enim ex plantis nova semina; sic ex Scripturis novae theoriae et novi sensus; et ideo Scriptura sacra distinguitur. Unde sicut si una gutta de mari extrahatur; sic sunt omnes theoriae, quae eliciuntur, respectu illarum quae possunt elici.


3. First, then, we must speak of the spiritual meanings, then of the symbols, and finally of the interpretations: for signs are worthless unless the things themselves are understood. And so also God began by gathering the waters, then He produced trees, and finally seeds. Concerning the gathering of waters, the Psalm says: He gathers the waters of the sea as in a flask. He gathers the waters of the sea in a flask when He brings together in the skin of Scriptures the totality of the spiritual meanings. Now there are three reasons why these meanings are compared to waters gathered in a wine-bag—to wit, because of the primitive origination of these spiritual meanings, because of their most profound depth, and because of their abundantly flowing multiformity.
3. Primo enim dicendum est de intelligentiis spiritualibus et postea de signis et postea de theonis; quia signa nihil valent, nisi res intelligantur. Sic etiam primo congregavit aquas, deinde produxit arceri I, 9-11.$bores, deinde semina. -- De congregatione maris Psalmus: Congregans sicut in utre aquas maris =|2|= . In utre congregavit aquas maris, quando in corio Scripturae congregavit universitatem intelligentiarum spiritualium. -- Assimilantur autem intelligentiae aquis congregatis in utre propter tres rationes: scilicet propter ipsam spiritualium intelligentiarum primitivam originationem, propter intelligentiarum spiritualium profundissimam altitudinem, propter intelligentiarum spiritualium profluentissimam multiformitatem.


4. In relation to the first, it is written in Ecclesiastes: All rivers go to the sea, yet never does the sea become full. To the place where they go, the rivers keep on going: and it is the same with all the spiritual meanings that flow from divine Scripture. The spiritual meanings are called rivers — and also those men who understand in a spiritual manner— because they have their origin from the Scriptures and are confirmed by the Scriptures, and because, from these [spiritual meanings,] other meanings are derived. Hence in the Psalm: The floods lift up, O Lord, the floods lift up their voice; the floods lift up their tumult. More powerful than the roar of many waters. Why? Because powerful on high is the Lord, God's voice had to be loud.
4. De primo in Ecclesiaste: Omnia flumina intrant in mare, et mare non redundat; ad locum, unde exeunt, flumina revertuntur, ut iterum fluant =|3|= ; sic omnes intelligentiae spirituales a Scriptura divina. Intelligentiae spirituales dicuntur flumina -- et etiam viri intelligentes spiritualiter -- quia originem habent a Scriptura et per Scripturam confirmantur, et per illas aliae intelligentiae habentur; unde in Psalmo: Elevaverunt flumina, Domine, elevaverunt flumina vocem suam. Elevaverunt flumina fluctus suos a vocibus aquarum multarum. Quare? quia mirabiles elationes maris =|4|= . Quare? Quia mirabilis in altis Dominus =|5|= , vox Dei debuit esse magna.


5. In relation to the second —the most profound depth [of spiritual meanings] — the Psalm reads: They who sailed the sea in ships, trading on the deep waters. The man goes down to the sea in ships who approaches the Scriptures in a spirit of extreme reverence in order to explain them. He goes down with ships who takes as support the wood of the cross: for anyone who seeks to enter the sea of Scriptures without this wood is submerged, for he sinks into the greatest errors. Unless he is Peter himself, he founders.:]: Hence, it is very deep: who can find it out? Wisdom is glorified, which penetrated the profound abyss and saw God's marvels in the deep. I dwelt in the highest places, and My throne is in a pillar of a cloud. I alone have compassed the circuit of heaven, and have penetrated into the bottom of the deep, and have walked in the waves of the sea. This is what incarnate Wisdom says: I dwelt in the highest heavens, in the creation; My throne is in a pillar of cloud, in the incarnation; 1 have walked in the waves of the sea, in the passion; 1 have penetrated into the bottom of the deep, in the penetration of Scriptures, for after He arose, He opened their minds, that they might understand the Scriptures. By faith in the cross, Peter walked on the sea.
5. Secunda ratio propter profundissimam altitudinem; in Psalmo: Qui descendunt mare in navibus, facientes operationem in aquis multis =|6|= . Ille descendit cum navibus in mare, qui cum spiritu summae reverentiae accedit ad exponendum Scripturas. Cum navibus descendit qui habet manuductionem lignum crucis; quia qui sine isto ligno vult intrare mare Scripturae submergitur, in maximos errores cadens; nisi enim sit Petrus =|7|= , demergitur. Unde, alta profunditas; quis inveniet eam? =|8|= . Sapientia gloriatur, quae profundum abyssi penetravit et vidit mirabilia Dei in profundo; Ecclesiastici vigesimo quarto: Ego in altissimis habitavi, et thronus meus in columna nubis. Gyrum caeli circuivi sola et profundum abyssi penetravi, in fluctibus maris ambulavi =|9|= . Haec dicit Sapientia incarnata: Ego in altissimis habitavi, in creatione; thronus meus in columna nubis, in incarnatione; in fluctibus maris ambulavi, in passione; profundum abyssi penetravi, in penetratione Scripturarum, quia aperuit illis sensum post resurrectionem, ut intelligerent Scripturas =|10|= . Propter fidem crucis Petrus super mare ambulavit =|11|= .


6. In relation to the third — the abundantly flowing multiformity [of the spiritual meanings] —there are many outpourings, of the waters from clouds, rivers, fountains, and all come from the sea. If you ask: How? It is through various detours and motions: this is how the cloud, the river, the fountain answer. Hence, in Isaiah: The earth shall be filled with knowledge of the Lord, as water covers the sea. And before this: There shall be no harm or ruin on all my holy mountain.
6. Tertia ratio est propter profluentissimam multiformitatem. Multiplex enim profluentia est ab aquis nubium, a fluminibus, a fontibus, et omnia sunt a mari. -- Si quaeris: quomodo? Per varios meatus et per varios motus; sic respondet nubes, sic fluvius, sic fons; Isaias: Repleta est terra scientia Domini, sicut aquae maris operientes =|12|= . Et praecedit illud: Non nocebunt et non occident in universo monte sancto meo =|13|= .


7. Now this refers much more directly to the time of the New Testament, when Scripture was made evident, and mostly toward the end, when those Scriptures were understood which had not been understood before. For then there shall be a mountain, that is, the contemplative Church; then, there shall be no harm when the monsters of heresy shall flee on account of the proper use of wisdom. But today Mount Sion is desolate because of jackals, that is, because of cunning and fetid interpreters.
7. Et hoc potissime refertur ad tempus novi testamenti, quando Scriptura manifestata est, et maxime in fine, quando Scripturae intelligentur, quae modo non intelliguntur. Tunc erit mons, scilicet Ecclesia contemplativa; et tunc non nocebunt, quando fugient monstra haeresum sapientiae usura. Sed hodie mons Sion propter vulpes disperiit =|14|= , id est propter expositores versipelles et foetidos.


8. In regard to the third point, there is a reading in the Book of Esther: The little fountain =|3|= ... grew into a river, and was turned into a light, and into the sun, and abounded into many waters. Scripture was a little fountain at the time of the giving of the Law, for the book containing the commandments of the Law is small; but later it grew into an immense river in the books of Josue, Judges, Kings, Esdras, Judith, Tobias, Esther and the Macchabees. Then, it was turned into light, that is, the light of the Prophets, for prophecy is light; then again, into the sun, that is, in the Gospels. And many interpretations were drawn from it, and in that sense, it may be said that it abounded into many waters.
8. De isto tertio Esther: Fons parvus crevit in fluvium maximum et in lucem solemque conversus est et in aquas plurimas redundavit =|13|= . Scriptura fuit fons parvus in Legis datione, quia parvus est liber praeceptorum Legis; sed post crevit in fluvium maximum in libro Iosue, Iudicum, Regum, Esdrae, Iudith, Tobiae, Esther, Machabaeorum. Et post conversus est in lucem, scilicet Prophetarum; nam prophetia lux est; et post in solem, scilicet in Evangelio; et multae intelligentiae elicitae sunt, et sic in aquas plurimas redundavit.


9. Ezechiel saw this multiformity more clearly, for he beheld within... figures resembling four living creatures; and the first had the face of a man, the second that of a lion, the third that of an ox, and the fourth that of an eagle. And each one had four faces. And later there appeared a wheel within another. Then [the Prophet] says that the appearance of the wheels and the work of them was like the appearance of the sea, and that it was as it were a wheel in the midst of a wheel. And he continues by saying that he heard the sound of their wings, like the roaring of mighty waters, like the voice of the Almighty. All agree that the four living creatures represent the writers of Sacred Scriptures, mostly the Prophets and the Evangelists. According to Gregory, =|4|=  the two wheels having four faces point to Scripture which has the Old and the New Testaments, the four faces being the four principal interpretations, the literal, the figurative, the moral and the anagogical. Their appearance is like a vision of the sea because of the depth of the spiritual mysteries. The sound of their wings is heard when the minds are prompted; and the voice of the Almighty rings out because all things are from God. Hence, in the Apocalypse: I heard a voice from heaven like a voice of many waters, because of the great number of possible interpretations; a voice of harpers because of the accord of these interpretations, for they agree in such a marvelous way that the resulting harmony is wonderful.
9. Istam multiformitatem clarius vidit Ezechiel, qui vidit in medio similitudinem quatuor animalium =|16|= ; et primum animal habebat faciem hominis; secundum, faciem leonis; tertium, faciem bovis; et quartum, faciem aquilae; et unumquodque quatuor facies habebat. Et post apparuit rota in medio rotae; et postea dicit, quod aspectus rotarum et opus quasi visio maris, et quod rota erat in rota =|17|= . Et postea dicit, se audivisse sonum alarum quasi sonum aquarum multarum et quasi sonum sublimis Dei =|1|= *. Per quatuor animalia secundum omnes intelliguntur scriptores Scripturae sacrae, maxime Prophetae et Evangelistae. Secundum Gregorium per rotas duas habentes quatuor facies intelligitur Scriptura habens vetus et novum testamentum; et quatuor facies sunt quatuor intelligentiae principales, scilicet litteralis, allegorica, moralis, anagogica. Aspectus autem quasi visio maris, propter profunditatem mysteriorum spiritualium; et volatus audiuntur, quando mentes excitantur; et fit sonus sublimis Dei, quia omnia sunt a Deo; unde in Apocalypsi: Et vox, quam audivi, sicut vox aquarum multarum =|19|= , propter multitudinem inelligentiarum; vox citharoedorum, propter concordantiam illarum intelligentiarum, quia miro modo concordant, et mira est harmonia.


10. Scriptures, then, have a number of meanings because the voice of God must be expressed in a manner that is sublime. The other sciences are contained within a single sense, but in this one the sense is manifold, and both the language and the topics have significance. In the other sciences, only the language =|5|=  has meaning, for each area of teaching is determined by the signs proper to it; hence the written words and the language are the signs of the meaning—and the written words are the most important of the two; and since the meanings are proportioned and terminated, so also is the language, so that once a noun has been established [with a given sense], it must not be used later in a different sense. But God is the cause of the soul and of language which is formed by the soul, and also of the things with which language is concerned.
10. Habet autem Scriptura multos intellectus, quia talis debet esse vox Dei, ut sit sublimis. Ceterae scientiae sunt contentae sub uno sensu, sed in hac est multiformis, et in hac significant voces et res; in aliis autem solae voces, quia unaquaeque doctrina determinatur per signa sibi convenientia; unde litterae et voces, quarum principia litterae, sunt signa intellectuum; et quia intellectus proportionati et ter-$minati sunt, ideo et voces, ut nomine semel posito non sit utendum aequivoce. -- Deus autem causa est et animarum et vocum formatarum ab anima et rerum, quarum sunt voces.


11. Therefore, the first meaning is the literal. After that, because things themselves have a sense, there are three other meanings. For God manifests Himself in every creature in a threefold manner: according to substance, power, and operation. And every creature represents God, who is Trinity, and shows the way to Him. =|6|=  And because the way to God is through faith, hope, and love, every creature is a suggestion of what we should believe, expect, and do. And parallel to this, there is a threefold spiritual meaning: the allegorical concerning what we should believe, the anagogical concerning what we should expect, and the moral concerning what we should do, for love leads to action. The literal meaning resembles a natural face, that of a man, while the others are symbolical. The lion, being magnificent, points to allegory, or what we should believe; the face of an ox, that pulls the plow and furrows the soil for the harvest, points to tropology, or moral obligation; the eagle that flies on high points to anagogy. The first face, the literal, is open; the second is lifted up on high by magnificence; the third, the tropological, is fruitful; the fourth looks upon the sun almost without flinching. These four are like the appearance of the sea because of the primitive origination, the most profound depth, and the abundantly flowing multiformity of the spiritual meanings. And so, as there are three Persons within the single Essence, there are three meanings beneath the single surface of the letter.
11. Ideo primus sensus litteralis; deinde, quia res significant, sunt tres sensus. Deus enim manifestat se in qualibet creatura tripliciter; secundum substantiam, virtutem et operationem. Et omnis creatura repraesentat Deum, qui est Trinitas, et qualiter pervenitur ad eum. Et quia per fidem, spem et caritatem pervenitur ad Deum; ideo omnis creatura insinuat, quid credendum, quid exspectandum, quid operandum. Et secundum hoc est triplex intelligentia spiritualis: allegoria, quid credendum; anagogia, quid exspectandum; tropologia, quid operandum, quia caritas facit operari. -- Intelligentia litteralis est quasi facies naturalis, scilicet hominis; aliae sunt facies mysticae: per leonem, qui habet magnificentiam, allegoria, sive quid credendum; per faciem bovis, qui trahit aratrum et sulcat terram ad fructificandum, tropologia sive moralis; per aquilam, quae in altum volat, anagogia. -- Prima facies, scilicet litteralis, aperta est; secunda, magnificentia alte elevata; tertia, tropologia est fructuosa; quarta, quasi irreverberatis oculis solem intuetur. -- Hae quatuor sunt quasi visio maris propter spiritualium intelligentiarum primitivam originationem, profundissimam altitudinem et profluentissimam multiformitatem. Unde sicut sunt tres personae in una essentia, sic tres intelligentiae in una superficie litterae.


12. It should be noted, however, that while the world serves man in his body, it serves him more particularly in his soul; and that if it serves to forward life, it serves more particularly to forward wisdom. It is certain that as long as man stood up, he had the knowledge of created things and through their significance, was carried up to God, to praise, worship, and love Him. This is what creatures are for, and this is how they are led back to God. But when man had fallen, since he had lost knowledge, there was no longer any one to lead creatures back to God. Hence this book, the world, became as dead and deleted. And it was necessary that there be another book through which this one would be lighted up, so that it could receive the symbols of things. Such a book is Scripture which establishes the likenesses, the properties, and the symbolism of things written down in the book of the world. And so, Scripture has the power to restore the whole world toward the knowledge, praise, and love of God. Hence, if you ask what is the meaning of the serpent to you, or what is its use— it is more useful to you than the whole world because it teaches you how to be prudent, as the ant teaches you how to be wise. Solomon says: Go to the ant, O sluggard, study her ways and learn wisdom. And Matthew: Be therefore wise as serpents.
12. Notandum autem quod mundus, etsi servit homini quantum ad corpus, potissime tamen quantum ad animam; et si servit quantum ad vitam, potissime quantum ad sapientiam. Certum est, quod homo stans habebat cognitionem rerum creatarum et per illarum repraesentationem ferebatur in Deum ad ipsum laudandum, venerandum, amandum; et ad hoc sunt creaturae et sic reducuntur in Deum. Cadente autem homine, cum amisisset cognitionem, non erat qui reduceret eas in Deum. Unde iste liber, scilicet mundus, quasi emortuus et deletus erat; necessarius autem fuit alius liber, per quem iste illuminaretur, ut acciperet metaphoras rerum. Hic autem liber est Scripturae, qui ponit similitudines, proprietates et metaphoras rerum in libro mundi scriptarum. Liber ergo Scripturae reparativus est totius mundi ad Deum cognoscendum, laudandum, amandum. Unde si quaeras, quid tibi valet serpens, vel de quo tibi servit? Plus valet tibi quam totus mundus, quia docet te prudentiam, sicut formica sapientiam; Salomon: Vade ad formicam, o piger, et disce sapientiam =|20|= ; item, in Matthaeo: Estote prudentes sicut serpentes =|21|= .


13. These four meanings are the four rivers of the sea in Scripture: they derive or originate from the sea, and they return to it. Hence Sacred Scripture sheds light on all things and retraces them all back to God, thus restoring the original state of creatures.
13. Hae quatuor intelligentiae sunt quatuor flumina maris Scripturae =|22|= , a quo derivantur vel oriuntur et revertuntur. Unde sacra Scriptura est illuminativa omnium et.reductiva in Deum, sicut primo fuit creatura.


14. But how can each one of the meanings have four faces, since it is said that each one of the living creatures had four faces? Let us ask the friend of the bridegroom, that is, John. —And he said here: this pertains especially to the order  of this one—and he (John) says in the Apocalypse that the four living creatures stood around God's throne, and that the first had the face of a lion, the second that of an ox, the third that of a man, and the fourth that of an eagle: but he does not say that each one had four faces. While Ezechiel says that the living creatures moved, this one says that they stood. Ezechiel says that the first living creature had the face of a man; this one, that it had the face of a lion. He also says that they cried out "Holy!" Ezechiel says none of this, but only that they gave voice.$ Wherefore John seems to comprise the visions both of Isaiah and of Ezechiel.
 =|14|=  Cf. Lam 5, 18.  =|15|=  Est 10, 6.  =|16|=  Ez I, 5.  =|17|=  Cf. Ez I, 6-16.  =|18|=  Ez I, 24.  =|19|=  Ap 14, 2.14. Sed quomodo habet quatuor facies quaelibet intelligentia dicta, quia dicitur, quod unumquodque animal quatuor facies =|23|=  habebat? Interrogemus amicum sponsi, scilicet Ioannem -- et dixit hic: iste est istius ordinis specialiter --, et dicit in Apocalypsi =|24|= , quod quatuor animalia erant circa thronum Dei, et quod animal primum habebat faciem leonis; secundum, faciem bovis; tertium, faciem hominis; quartum, faciem aquilae; et non dicit, quod unumquodque haberet quatuor facies; Ezechiel autem dicit, quod animalia ibant, et iste, quod stabant; Ezechiel dicit, quod animal primum habebat faciem hominis; iste, quod faciem leonis; item, iste dicit, quod clamabant sanctus; ille nihil horum exprimit, nisi quod dabant voces. Unde Ioannes videtur comprehendere visionem Isaiae =|25|=  et Ezechielis =|26|= .


C. Divisions of the Canon



15. In this regard, it should be noted that Ezechiel intends to describe these meanings in the order of their importance: therefore he begins with the natural face of a man, which signifies the literal interpretation. But John intends to describe the four meanings, not in the order of importance, but according to the four faces which represent four meanings, that is, the literal or the allegorical or the tropological or the anagogical within any one of the four.
15. Ad hoc notandum, quod Ezechiel intendit describere intelligentias istas per ordinem principalem; ideo incipit a naturali facie hominis, quae significat intellectum litteralem. Ioannes autem intendit describere quatuor intelligentias non principales secundum quatuor facies, quae sunt quatuor intelligentiae, scilicet litteralis, vel allegorica, vel tropologica, vel anagogica, cuiuslibet quatuor.


16. Every teaching of the Old Testament is either legal, as that of Moses, or historical as that of the historical books, or sapiential as that of the sapiential books, or prophetical as in the Psalms and the twelve minor and the four major prophets. Likewise the Scriptures in the New Testament are either legal as in the Gospels where commands are established, or historical as in the Acts of the Apostles, or sapiential as in the Epistles of Paul to which should be added the Canonical Letters, or prophetical as in the Apocalypse. Although the Epistles are placed after the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles follow the Gospels immediately. In the former book, O Theophilus, I spoke of all that Jesus did and taught. =|7|=  The legal books correspond to the lion, because of its magnificence and authority; the historical to the ox who pulls the plow, because of its simplicity, and because it furrows the earth; the sapiential to man; and the prophetical to the face of an eagle.
16. Omnis doctrina veteris testamenti aut est legalis, ut in Moyse; aut historialis, ut in libris historialibus; aut sapientia^, ut in libris sapientialibus; aut prophetalis, ut in Psalmis et in duodecim Prophetis minoribus et quatuor maioribus. -- Novi testamenti Scriptura similiter aut est legalis, ut in Evangelio, ubi ponuntur praecepta; aut historialis, ut in Actibus Apostolorum; aut sapientialis, ut in Epistolis Pauli, coadiunctis canonicis; aut prophetalis, ut in Apocalypsi; quamquam Epistolae ponantur post Evangelia, tamen Actus Apostolorum immediate sequuntur Evangelium: Primum quidem sermonem feci de omnibus, o. Theophile, quae coepit Iesus facere et docere =|21|= . -- Legalis respondet leoni propter magnificentiam et auctoritatem; historialis bovi, qui trahit aratrum, propter simplicitatem, et quia terram sulcat; sapientialis respondet homini; prophetalis respondet faciei aquilae.


17. For Scripture tends to lead back to the first beginning by means of reformation, or it describes eternal things, as in the Laws and Gospels. Hence in the Psalm: He gave them a duty which shall not pass away. And in Ecclesiasticus: As everlasting foundations upon a solid rock, so the commandments of God in the heart of a holy woman. This woman is the Church. For it is not to be understood that the Law or the Commandments will pass away, but rather that they will be better served in the fatherland. For they are not served in the same manner under the Old Testament and under the New Testament: they are served better under the New Testament, and yet better still in the fatherland. God indeed lives by these very Laws which He Himself has given. But when Scripture deals with temporal matters, it is either of the past, and in this it is historical; or of the present, and in this it is sapiential; or of the future, and in this it is prophetical. Hence, there are commandments, examples, documents, and revelations. And so, this first meaning has four faces: if we ordain them according to the order of Ezechiel, then we obtain an order which is right in itself; but according to [our] nature, we must turn our eyes to most important eternal matters.
17. Intendit enim Scriptura reducere ad originale principium per reformationem; aut ergo describit aeterna, quae sunt leges et Evangelia; in Psalmo: Praeceptum posuit Dominus, quod non praeteribit =|28|= ; et in Ecclesiastico: fundamenta aeterna supra petram solidam, et mandata Dei in corde mulieris sanctae*; haec mulier est Ecclesia. Non enim intelligendum est, quod lex transeat sive praecepta, immo melius servabuntur in patria. Non enim eodem modo servantur in lege veteri et$nova, sed melius in nova, completius autem in patria. Deus enim vivit secundum leges, quas dedit. -- Si autem Scriptura agat de temporalibus, aut ergo de praeteritis, et sic historialia; aut de praesentibus, et sic sapientialia; aut de futuris, et sic prophetalia. Sunt ergo mandata, exempla, documenta, revelationes. -- Haec igitur prima intelligentia quatuor habet facies; si ordinemus secundum ordinem Ezechielis, tunc habetur ordo rectus in se; sed nos debemus secundum naturam ferre oculum ad aeterna, quae principalia sunt.


18. Anagogy is concerned with things from above allegory, with that which has been done; tropology, with things yet to be done. According to Hugh of Saint-Victor, anagogy is part of allegory, for it is concerned with matters of faith.
18. Anagogia autem est de. supernis; allegoria est de his quae facta sunt; tropologia de his quae fienda sunt. Anagogia etiam est pars allegoriae secundum Hugonem, quae est de credendis.


19. Wherefore in the anagogical sense there are four faces, that is, the eternal Trinity of God, the wisdom of the Exemplar, the loftiness of the angels, and the Church Triumphant. And so, when Scripture speaks of these things, it is a matter of anagogy.
19. In sensu ergo anagogico quatuor sunt facies, scilicet aeterna Dei trinitas, exemplaris sapientia, angelica sublimitas, Ecclesia triumphans. Quando ergo Scriptura loquitur de istis, hoc pertinet ad anagogiam.


20. Likewise, in the allegorical sense, there are four faces, that is, [Christ's] humanity assumed in the nativity and the passion, which are the principal allegories. Second, Mary the Mother of God, for marvelous things are said of her in Scripture, since in all cases she is mentioned in relation to her Son. And as regards what some people ask— "Why is so little said about the Blessed Virgin?" —it is of no import, for [in fact] many things are said, for everywhere there is reference to her, and it is more [important] that she be referred to everywhere than that a specific treatise be composed [about her]. =|8|=  Third, there is the Church Militant or Mother Church, who receives marvelous praises in Scripture. Fourth, there is Sacred Scripture [itself] which says many things in itself, as is evident as regards the wheels, the table, the Cherubim that looked upon each other, and the lamp stand. =|9|=
20. In allegorico sensu similiter sunt quatuor facies, scilicet humanitas assumpta quantum ad nativitatem et passionem, quae sunt principales allegoriae. -- Secunda est Mater Dei Maria, quia mira dicuntur de ipsa in Scripturis, quia in omnibus Scripturis refertur in relatione ad Filium. Et quod dicunt aliqui: quare ita pauca dicuntur de beata Virgine? nihil est; quia multa dicuntur, quia ubique de ipsa, et plus est dici de ipsa ubique, quam si unus tractatus fieret. -- Tertia est Ecclesia militans vel mater Ecclesia, quae miras laudes habet in Scriptura. -- Quarta est sacra Scriptura, quae de se multa dicit, ut patet de rotis, patet de mensa =|30|= , patet de Cherubim, qui respiciebant se mutuo, patet de candelabro =|31|= .


21. Again, in the tropological sense, there are four faces. The first is spiritual grace and power and all such effects. The second, spiritual life as active and contemplative, and every manner of living. Third, the spiritual throne, such as that of the teacher, the prelate, and the high priest. Fourth, the spiritual fight, or how battle is to be waged against the devil, the world and the flesh.
21. In sensu tropologico similiter quatuor facies habet. Prima est spiritualis gratia et virtus et omnis talis influentia. -- Secunda, spiritualis vita, ut activa et contemplativa et omnis modus vivendi. -- Tertia, spiritualis cathedra, ut magistralis, praelationis, pontificalis. -- Quarta, spiritualis pugna, quomodo pugnandum contra daemones, mundum et carnem.


22. These are the four faces quadruplicated in each of the meanings. Let us take an example of all these in a single trace, that is, in the sun, which signifies in turn the Trinity, the wisdom of the Exemplar, the angelical order, and the Church Triumphant. The reference to the Trinity is found in Ecclesiasticus: As the rising sun is clear to all, so the glory of the Lord shines upon all His works. The sun has substance, brilliance, and heat: likewise God has the originating principle, the Father; the brilliance, the Son; and the heat, the Holy Spirit. Yet it is the same sun in the sky as regards substance, in the eye as regards light, and in the body as regards heat. This is how a certain blind man was convinced who at one time had seen the sun and stood in the sun, and yet could not understand the Trinity of God.
22. Istae sunt quatuor facies quadruplicatae in quolibet sensu. -- Ponamus exemplum in uno vestigio de omnibus his, in sole scilicet, per quem aliquando Trinitas, aliquando sapientia exemplaris, aliquando angelica dispositio, aliquando Ecclesia triumphans significatur. -- De Trinitate, in Ecclesiastico: Sol illuminans per omnia respexit, et gloria Domini plenum est opus eius =|32|= . Sol habet substantiam, splendorem, ca-$lorem; sic Deus habet principium originans, Patrem; splendorem, Filium; calorem, Spiritum sanctum; et tamen est idem sol in caelo quantum ad substantiam, idem in oculo quantum ad lumen, idem in corpore quantum ad calorem. -- Sic persuadebatur cuidam caeco, qui aliquando viderat solem et stabat ad solem, et non poterat intelligere de Deo trinitatem.


23. Concerning the second anagogy, that is, the wisdom of the Exemplar, there is in the seventh chapter of Wisdom: For she is fairer than the sun and surpasses every constellation of the stars. It is indeed a beautiful wisdom, because it is light, but it is more beautiful than the sun, since the sun is unable to give birth to its radiance within itself, while the Eternal Sun begets the most beautiful Radiance within Himself. A simpleton said that the sun was a radiation from the sun; and certain astronomers =|10|=  claim that all the stars and the moon receive their light from the sun. But no one knows the truth of the matter. However, both the stars and the moon have some light; and the stars are not darkened like the moon, since the moon suffers this because of its proximity to us and its own motion. Likewise, eternal wisdom exerts its influence over all things. Hence in Ecclesiastes: Light is sweet! and it is pleasant for the eyes to see the sun.
23. De secunda anagogia, id est de exemplari sapientia, Sapientiae septimo: Est enim speciosior sole et super omnem dispositionem stellarum luci comparata invenitur prior =|00|= . Est enim speciosa sapientia, quia lux, sed speciosior sole, quia sol intra se radium suum generare non potest; sol autem aeternus intra se radium generat pulcherrimum. Quidam autem fatuus dixit, quod sol erat radius solis. Dicunt autem quidam astrologi, quod omnes stellae, ut luna, recipiunt lumen suum a sole. Sed veritatem istius quaestionis nullus scit; verumtamen tam stellae quam luna aliquod lumen habent; et stellae quidem non sic obumbrantur, ut luna, quia hoc habet luna per vicinitatem ad nos et motum suum. Sic in omnia influit aeterna sapientia. Ecclesiastis undecimo: Dulce lumen et delectabile est oculis videre solem =|34|= .


24. The third anagogy is that the sun represents the loftiness of angels. Hence in Ecclesiasticus: The sun, three times as much, burneth the mountains, breathing out fiery vapors: and shining with his beams, he blindeth the eyes. For the selfsame and unique divine radiance, received in a threefold manner, brings forth three hierarchies.
24. Tertia anagogia, quia per solem intelligitur angelica sublimitas. In Ecclesiastico: Tripliciter sol exurens montes, radios igneos exsufflans et refulgens radiis suis obcaecat oculos =|35|=  ; quia radius divinus unus et idem, triformiter susceptus, tres hierarchias facit.


25. The fourth anagogy is [a reference] to the Church Triumphant which is also signified by the sun, in a passage from Habacuc: The sun and the moon stood still in their habitation, that is, when the soul and the body are glorified. They go about in the brilliance of many arrows,:]; because of the swiftness of what they do by the lightning- fast power of God.
25. Quarta anagogia est de Ecclesia triumphante, quae etiam intelligitur per solem; Habacuc: Sol et luna steterunt in habitaculo suo =|}$|= , quando anima et corpus glorificantur; et tunc vadunt in luce sagittarum multarum =|01|=  y propter subitas operationes suas in virtute Dei fulgida et subita.


26. Likewise, in the allegorical sense, the sun signifies Christ. The sun rises and the sun goes down. It rises in the nativity, it goes down in death; it orbits through noon in the ascension; it is inclined to the north in the judgment. Malachias refers to the first: But for you who fear My name, there will arise the Sun of Justice with its healing rays. In relation to the second, it is said: The sun shall go down at midday. At midday, the sun falls for the Jews. When Christ was at the highest point of His power, that is, after the resurrection and the ascension, the Jews were blinded. Concerning the judgment, James says: For the sun rises with a burning heat and parches the grass, and its flower falls.
26. In allegoria similiter per solem intelligitur Christus: Oritur sol et occidit =|38|= ; oritur in nativitate, occidit in morte; gyrat per meridiem, in ascensione, flectitur ad aquilonem, in iudicio. -- De primo Malachias: Orietur vobis timentibus nomen meum sol iustitiae, et sanitas in pennis eius =|39|= . -- De secundo dicitur: Occidet eis sol in meridie =|40|= . In meridie sol occidit Iudaeis. Quando Christus fuit in maiori sua virtute, scilicet post resurrectionem et ascensionem; Iudaei fuerunt excaecati. -- De iudicio dicit Iacobus: Exortus est sol cum ardore, et cecidit flos, et foenum aruit =|41|= .


27. Concerning the second allegory, about the blessed Virgin Mary, it is said in the Psalm: He has pitched a tent there for the sun. Wherefore she is as beautiful as the moon, as resplendent as the sun, as awe-inspiring as bannered troops. Hence she is a vessel able to contain light: The sun .. .an admirable instrument, the work of the most High —shining gloriously in the firmament of heaven.
27. Secunda allegoria de beata Maria Virgine; dicitur in Psalmo: In sole posuit tabernaculum suum =|42|=  ; unde est pulcra ut luna, electa ut sol, terribilis ut castrorum acies ordinata =|43|= . Unde est vas luminis susceptivum, sicut sol vas admirabile, opus Excelsi, in firmamento caeli resplendens =|44|= .


28. The third allegory, pointing to the Church, is indicated in Ecclesiasticus: Like the sun rising in the Lord's heavens, the beauty of a virtuous wife is the radiance of her home. This wife or house is the Church: a wife, in that it is active; a house of God, in that it is contemplative. This woman is Martha who received Christ and was concerned with many things.
28. Tertia allegoria de Ecclesia; in Ecclesiastico: Sicut sol oriens in mundo in altissimis Dei, sic mulieris bonae species in ornamentum domus eius =|45|= . Haec mulier vel domus est Ecclesia: mulier, quia activa; domus Dei, quia contemplativa. Mulier enim ista est Martha =|46|= , quae Christum recipit et circa multa occupatur.


29. The fourth allegory, concerning Sacred Scripture, is shown in Genesis: God made the two great lights,.. . the smaller light to rule the night, that is, the Old Testament, and the greater one to rule the day, that is, the New Testament. As the moon receives its light from the sun, so does the Old Testament from the New. And so when the sun stands in the east, and the moon on the opposite side in the west—Stand still, O sun, at Gabaon, O moon, in the valley of Aialon! said Josue—then is the Old Testament lighted up: it cannot shine, except by means of the New.
29. Quarta allegoria est de sacra Scriptura, de qua in Genesi: Fecit Deus duo luminaria magna: luminare minus, ut praeesset nocti =|41|= , scilicet vetus testamentum, et luminare maius, ut praeesset diei =|48|= , scilicet novum testamentum. Sicut luna lumen habet a sole, sic vetus testamentum a novo. Quando ergo sol stat in oriente, et luna opposita sibi in occidente -- Iosue: Sol, inquit, contra Gabaon ne movearis, et luna contra vallem Aialon =|49|=  -- tunc vetus testamentum illuminatur; aliter lucere non potest nisi per novum.


30. In the tropological sense, likewise, the sun has four faces. The first is the grace of the Holy Spirit, as in Esther: The light and the sun rose up: and the humble were exalted, that is, when God lives in us through grace. Hence, as the sun sheds its light continuously, so must the soul continuously receive illuminations from the grace of the Holy Spirit.
30. In tropologico intellectu solis similiter quatuor facies. Primo, Spiritus sancti gratia; Esther: Lux et sol ortus est, et humiles exaltati sunt =|50|= , scilicet quando Deus per gratiam habitat in nobis. Unde sicut sol continue illuminat, sic anima continue debet recipere illuminationes a gratia Spiritus sancti.


31. Second, the sun represents spiritual life, as in Ecclesiasticus: A holy man continueth in wisdom as the sun; but a fool is changed as the moon. For the sun goes directly through the ecliptic, without ever turning back or stopping.
31. Secundo per solem intelligitur spiritualis vita. Unde in Ecclesiastico: Homo sanctus in sapientia manet sicut sol; nam stultus sicut luna mutatur =|51|=  ; sicut sol vadit directe per eclipticam nec retrogradus nec stationarius est.


32. Third, the spiritual throne is indicated: that of doctrine, of superiorship, or of judgment. Hence the Psalm: And his throne shall be like the sun before me; like the moon which remains forever. A superior is the sun as regards the documents of truth, the moon as regards the example of virtue; or he is the sun of wisdom and the moon of knowledge; or again, he is the sun in the act of judgment and the moon in that of mercy.
32. Tertio intelligitur spiritualis cathedra sive doctrinae, sive praelationis, sive iudicii. Unde in Psalmo: Thronus eius sicut sol in conspectu meo, et sicut luna perfecta in aeternum =|52|= . Praelatus est sol quantum ad documenta veritatis, luna quantum ad exemplar virtutis; vel sol sapientiae, luna scientiae; vel sol, in quantum iudicat, luna, in quantum miseretur.


33. Fourth, the sun signifies spiritual combat. In this regard, the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give her light. When the fight will be between Christ and Antichrist, between the teaching of truth and that of falsity, then the sun will become black as sackcloth of hair, and a certain teacher of truth or superior in truth shall be obscured by errors, while others will stand firm, although they may seem to be darkened in their reputation. These are the four faces of the living creatures and the twelve lights to which everything Scripture contains may be retraced.
33. Quarto per solem intelligitur spiritualis pugna. De quo: Sol obscurabitur, et luna non dabit lumen suum =|53|= . Quando pugna erit inter Christum et antichristum, inter doctrinam veritatis et falsitatis; tunc sol fiet sicut saccus cilicinus =|54|= , et aliquis doctor veritatis vel praelatus secundum veritatem obscurabitur per errores; alii autem stabunt fortissimi, etsi videantur obscurari quantum ad reputationem. -- Hae sunt quatuor facies animalium et duodecim lumina, ad quae reducuntur omnia, quae in Scriptura continentur.


XV. Fourteenth Collation



A. Second Treatise on the Third Vision, Which Begins to Deal with the Sacramental Figures of Scripture, and Then with the Twelve Principal Mysteries Pointing to Christ



1400 FOURTEENTH COLLATION Second Treatise on the Third Vision, Which Begins to Deal with the Sacramental Figures of Scripture, and Then with the Twelve Principal Mysteries Pointing to Christ


1. LET the earth bring forth vegetation: seed-bearing plants, etc. It has been explained how, by the gathering of waters, spiritual meanings should be understood. Now it remains to explain how the sacramental figures are symbolized by the vegetation of the earth. For it is not without reason that the vegetation of the earth is seen to point to Sacred Scriptures, in the sense that it has a great number of figures that grow and produce a multiplication [of thoughts] in the soul.
1. Germinet terra herbam virentem et facientem semen =|1|=  etc. Dictum est, qualiter per congregationes aquarum intelligantur spirituales intelligentiae Scripturae; modo dicendum, qualiter per germinationem terrae intelligantur figurae sacramentales. Non enim sine ratione per germinationem terrae intelligitur Scriptura sacra, secundum quod habet figuras multipliciter germinantes et producentes pullulationes in anima.


1. Vegetation on Earth is Alive, Generous, and Lovely



2. Vegetation on earth is alive, generous, and lovely. Alive, that is, having strength: wherefore it produces the green herb. And by this it is shown that the sacraments of Scripture, which externally seem arid, are yet alive within. And this is what the Saviour says to the Jews in John: "You search the Scriptures, because in them you think that you have life everlasting." No other Scripture besides this one is able to give life. Hence, in the Psalm: For the sake of Your promise, give me life. And in Peter:  "Lord, to whom shall we go? Thou hast words of everlasting life." Therefore the figures are not arid, since they produce lively growths in us. And in Ecclesiasticus: Charm and beauty delight the eye, but better than either, the flowers of the field.
2. Germinatio terrae est vivida, uberrima, venusta. Vivida, id est vigorem habens; et ideo germinavit terra herbam virentem. Et in hoc ostenditur, quod sacramenta Scripturae, quae exterius videntur arida, intus sunt viva. Et hoc dixit Salvator Iudaeis in Ioanne: Scrutamini Scripturas, quia vos putatis in ipsis vitam aeternam habere =|2|= . Nulla alia scriptura vitam dat nisi haec. Unde in Psalmo: Vivifica me secundum eloquium tuum =|3|= ; et Petrus: Domine, ad quem ibimus? Verba vitae aeternae habes =|4|= ; unde non sunt figurae aridae, quia in nobis sunt per eas germinationes vivae; in Ecclesiastico: Gratiam et speciem desiderabit oculus tuus, et super utraque virides sationes


3. Again, vegetation is generous. Hence in Genesis: Fruit trees. And in the Psalm: You have visited the land and watered it; greatly have you enriched it. God's watercourses are filled; you have prepared the grain, etc., and the valleys are blanketed with grain. This land is alive and awake, it abounds. Now Sacred Scripture is generous in that God conveys His influence to it, producing the most abundant multiplications. Hence, in Deuteronomy: "The land which you are to enter and occupy is not like the land of Egypt," etc., which is irrigated, but "a land... that drinks in rain from the heavens." For it is not like the other sciences, since God visits it, as shown in the Psalm: God's watercourses are filled; you have prepared the grain. And in Deuteronomy: Give ear, O heavens, while 1 speak; let the earth hearken to the words of my mouth! May my instruction soak in like the rain, and my discourse permeate like the dew, like a downpour upon the grass, like a shower upon the crops. This dew is the influence of the Holy Spirit's grace which visits the Scriptures and in which it is sweetly found. Hence, in Genesis: "The fragrance of my son is like the fragrance of a field which the Lord has blessed! God give you dew from heaven, and fruitfulness of the earth, abundance of grain and wine." Jacob, that spiritual man, is well learned in the Sacred Scriptures. Out of him comes forth an odor that abounds throughout the Scriptures in their threefold meaning: the grain referring to allegory, the wine to tropology, and the oil to anagogy.
3. Item, germinatio est uberrima; unde in Genesi subditur: Lignum pomiferum =|6|= ; in Psalmo: Visitasti terram et inebriasti eam, multiplicasti locupletare eam. Flumen Dei repletum est aquis; parasti cibum illorum =|1 |= etc. Et valles abundabunt frumento =|8|= . Haec terra vivit, viget, abundat. Uberrima est sacra Scriptura, per hoc quod Deus visitat eam sua influentia, producens pullulationes uberrimas; in Deuteronomio: Terra, quam intrabis possidendam, non est sicut terra Aegypti =|9|=  etc., quae irrigatur; sed de caelo expectans pluvias =|10|= . Non enim est sicut ceterae scientiae, sed eam Deus visitat; in Psalmo: Flumen Dei repletum est aquis; parasti cibum illorum =|u|= ; et in Deuteronomio: Audite caeli quae loquor, audiat terra verba oris mei; Concrescat ut pluvia doctrina mea; fluat ut ros eloquium meum, quasi imber super herbam et quasi stillae super gramina =|12|= . Iste ros est influentia gratiae Spiritus sancti, qui visitat Scripturam, et in qua invenitur suaviter; in Genesi: Ecce odor filii mei sicut odor agri pleni, cui benedixit Dominus. Det tibi Deus de rore caeli et de pinguedine terrae abundantiam frumenti et vini =|13|= . Iacob, ille vir$spiritualis, est doctus in Scriptura sacra; ex quo odor procedit, qui per Scripturam abundat tribus intelligentiis: frumenti quantum ad allegoriam, vini quantum ad tropologiam, olei =|14|=  quantum ad anagogiam.


4. Likewise, this vegetation is lovely. Wherefore Genesis continues: Each one according to its kind. Even exterior roughness that gives nature a reputation of malformation is yet what makes it most beautiful. Hence the bride says: I am as dark — hut lovely. That is, lovely because dark. And in Genesis: The Lord God planted a garden in Eden, to the East, and He put there the man He had formed. The Lord God made to grow out of the ground all kinds of trees pleasant to the sight and good for food, the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. The trees pleasant and good represent the sacraments of Scripture which have great beauty. Yet they are not seen as beautiful except through the conformity of the symbol with the thing represented. For these trees are beautiful because ordained.
A. Item, haec germinatio est venusta; et ideo subiungitur: Unumquodque secundum genus suum =|15|= . Ipsa scabrositas exterior facit eam reputari deformem, et tamen ex hoc est pulcherrima; et ideo dicit sponsa: Nigra sum, sed formosa =|16|= ; quia nigra, ideo formosa. Unde in Genesi: Plantaverat Deus paradisum voluptatis a principio, in quo posuit hominem quem formaverat. Produxitque Dominus Deus de humo omne lignum pulcherrimum visu et ad vescendum suave. Lignum etiam vitae in medio paradisi lignumque scientiae boni et mali =|11|= . Per ligna suavia et pulcra intelliguntur sacramenta Scripturarum, quae magnam habent pulcritudinem; tamen non apparent pulcra nisi ex conformitate repraesentantis ad repraesentatum. Nam ista ligna sunt pulcra, quia ordinata.


5. Some people believe that these sacraments and these Scriptures were so composed that the man who wrote them merely placed one sentence after another. It is not so, for Scripture is supremely orderly, and its order is similar to that of nature in the development of vegetation on earth. First there was a fixing of roots; then the production of green foliage; third, a multiplication of fresh flowers; fourth, an abundance of restoring fruit. Likewise, in Scripture there is first a fixing of the roots of virtue, as in the Patriarchs who are in a sense the roots of all that is said in Scripture. Hence in their calling there is a first planting. But later, in the establishment of commands and sacrifices, there is a production of green foliage. Hence, in Osee, Israel is a luxuriant vine. Later still, in the manifestation of the prophetical visions, there is a multiplication of flowers. Finally, in the diffusion of spiritual charisms, there is an abundance of restoring fruit. Hence, there was first one Patriarch as a single root, that is, Abraham, then another, Isaac, and a third, Jacob. And he begot twelve patriarchs from whom came the Twelve Tribes. After this plantation there followed the Law as a production of green foliage, that gave shade. And because foliage is not to last forever, but is to be followed by flowers, there followed prophecy with both fragrance and beauty. And because it was fitting that the heavens distil dew, there followed in the fourth place a Fruit in Christ, because Christ is the fruit of the Law and its fulfillment.
5. Putant aliqui, quod ista sacramenta et haec Scriptura ita sit posita, ut homo ponit sententiam post sententiam, qui litteras facit. Non est ita, quia ordinatissima est, et ordo eius est consimilis ordini naturae in germinatione terrae. Ibi enim est primo fixio radicum; secundo, productio viridantium foliorum; tertio, pullulatio vernantium florum; quarto, plenitudo reficientium fructuum. Sic in Scriptura primo est fixio radicalium virtutum, ut in Patriarchis, qui sunt quasi radices omnium, quae dicuntur in Scriptura; unde in electione eorum est plantatio prima. Sed postea in institutione praeceptorum et sacrificiorum est productio viridantium foliorum; Osee: Vitis frondosa Israel =|18|= . Postea in manifestatione visionum prophetalium est pullulatio florum. Postmodum in diffusione charismatum spiritualium est plenitudo reficientium fructuum. -- Unde primo fuit unus Patriarcha sicut radix, scilicet Abraham; postea alter, ut Isaac; postea Iacob; et ille duodecim Patriarchas generavit =|19|= , et ab illis duodecim tribus. Post hanc plantationem secuta est Lex ut productio viridantium foliorum, quae umbram habebat. Et quia non semper debet durare folium, sed venire flos, ideo subsecuta est prophetia cum odore et pulcritudine. Et quia oportuit, quod caeli rorarent =|20|= , ideo quarto subsecutus est fructus in Christo, quia Christus fructus est Legis et consummatio =|21|= .


6. In reference to the first, the Father says to Incarnate Wisdom in Ecclesiasticus: Take root in My elect. —And I took root in an honorable people. This is the production of a tree that is good for food. Concerning the second, that is, the production of foliage, it is said in the Book of Numbers: How goodly are your tents, O Jacob; your encampments, O Israel! They are like gardens beside a stream. These are the mysteries of Scripture. Who can conceive the charm of the mysteries of Sacred Scriptures of which it is said: Every one under his vine and under his fig tree. Hence, the tree is beautiful, the pole of the serpent, the lifting up and the shadow of the serpent.  But the tree of the cross is fruitful. Third, there is the production of prophets similar to the multiplication of flowers. It is said of them in the Canticle: The flowers appear on the earth... and the song of the dove is heard. Flowers appeared when the prophet said: A shoot shall sprout from the stump of Jesse, and from his roots a bud shall blossom. But the song of the dovei =|1|=  was heard when it was said: How lonely she is now, the once crowded city! Widowed is she who was mistress over nations. For the turtle moans instead of singing. Fourth is the fullness of restoring fruits. Isaiah says: The branch of the Lord will be luster and glory, and the fruit of the earth will be honor and splendor. And when was this? When the woman said: "Blessed art thou among women and blessed is the Fruit of thy womb!" It is said in Mark: "Of itself the earth bears the crop, first the blade, then the ear, then the full grain in the ear." This is the time before the Law, the time under the Law, and the time after the Law. Scripture follows this same order.
6. De primo dicit Pater ad Sapientiam incarnatam in Ecclesiastico: In electis meis mitte radices. Et radicavi in populo honorificato =|22|= . Haec est productio ligni, quod est ad vescendum suave. -- De se-$eundo, scilicet productione foliorum, dicitur in libro Numerorum: Quam pulcra tabernacula tua, Iacob, et tentoria tua, Israel, ut valles nemorosae I =|20|=  quae sunt mysteria Scripturae, Quis potest cogitare amoenitatem mysteriorum sacrae Scripturae, de quibus dicitur: Sedebat unusquisque sub ficu sua et vite sua =|24|= ? Unde pulcra est arbor, palus serpentis =|25|= , serpentis erectio et umbra =|26|= ; sed arbor crucis fructuosa. -- Tertia est productio Prophetarum similis pullulationi florum; de quibus in Cantico: Flores apparuerunt in terra nostra, et vox turturis audita est =|21|= . Flores apparuerunt, quando ille dixit: Egredietur virga de radice Iesse, et flos de radice eius ascendet =|2|= *. Sed vox turturis audita est, quando dictum est: Quomodo sedet sola civitas plena populo? Facta est quasi vidua domina gentium =|29|= . Turtur gemitum habet pro cantu. -- Quarto, plenitudo reficiendum fructuum; Isaias: Erit germen Domini in magnificentia et gloria et fructus terrae sublimis =|30|= . Et quando fuit hoc? Quando illa dixit: Benedicta tu in mulieribus, et benedictus fructus ventris tui =|3l|= . -- In Marco dicitur: Ultro terra fructificat primum herbam, deinde spicam, deinde plenum frumentum in spica =|02|= . Hoc est tempus ante Legem, tempus sub Lege, tempus post Legem. Hunc ordinem sequitur Scriptura.


2. Scripture Was Handed Down for Four Reasons



7. Now, it should be known that Scripture was handed down for four reasons. First, for the commendation of grace; second, for the introduction of faith; third, for the disclosing of wisdom which is found in it alone. Hence: For since, in God's wisdom, the world did not come to know God by "wisdom," it pleased God, by the foolishness of our preaching, to save those who believe. Fourth, for the restoring of salvation, which is in it alone, since there is salvation in no other science. And for this reason the fourth is the foremost. But there is no salvation except through wisdom. For indeed, neither herb nor application cured them, but Your all-healing word, O Lord! But wisdom is neither disclosed nor obtained except through faith. Hence: Unless you believe, you shall not understand. For you should not be more wise than it behooveth to be wise,. .. according as God hath divided to every one the measure of faith.
7. Adhuc sciendum est, quod propter quatuor traditur Scriptura: primo, ad gratiam commendandam; secundo, ad introducendam fidem; tertio, ad reserandam sapientiam, quae sola est in ista; unde: Quia in Dei sapientia non cognovit mundus per sapientiam Deum, placuit Deo per stultitiam praedicationis salvos facere credentes =|33|=  ; quarto, ad restaurandam salutem, quae est in ista sola, et in nulla alia scientia est salus. -- Et propter illud quartum est principaliter. Salus enim non est nisi per sapientiam. Etenim neque herba neque malagma sanavit eos, sed tuus, Domine, sermo, qui sanat omnia =|34|= . -- Sapientia autem non reseratur nec habetur nisi per fidem. Unde: Nisi credideritis, non intelligetis =|35|=  ; quia non plus sapere, quam oportet sapere; et unicuique sicut divisit Deus mensuram fidei =|36|= . Fides autem non habetur nisi per gratiam Spiritus sancti.


8. And therefore Scripture is handed down first for the commendation of the grace of the Holy Spirit. Now, the grace of the Holy Spirit cannot exist except in a grateful man. But a man cannot be grateful unless he admits his need. And this need is threefold, for it may exist in terms of knowledge, of power, or of love, for we are blind, and weak, and evil-minded. =|2|=  There is need, then, that a man first acknowledge his blindness, weakness, and malice, before he can become healthy or grace can be given to him. And so, there was a time in which blindness prevailed, as in the period before the Law. Almost no one knew God: people went so far as to worship stones and the works of their own hands in place of God. Hence it was necessary that man be convicted of ignorance. At a later point, the illuminating Law was given, and yet their infirmities were multiplied, and there was an opportunity for a greater transgression of the Law, for sin, having thus found an occasion, worked in me by means of the commandment all manner of lust. And therefore I had to be convicted of weakness or impotency. Then came the time of the prophets who showed them clearly that they could not be saved through the Law. Hence, in Isaiah: Your new moons and festivals I detest. — I have had enough of whole-burnt rams and fat of fatlings; in the blood of calves, lambs and goats I find no pleasure. And they killed them, and their followers too, and they received false prophets, thus revealing their malice. And so the Scripture shut up all things under sin, =|3|=  the first through ignorance, the second through weakness, and the third through malice, so that when Christ came, He could have mercy on them all. And the Apostle wonders at this, and quotes the authority of the Psalm: All alike have gone astray; they have become perverse; there is not one that does good, not even one.
8. Et ideo primo traditur Scriptura ad commendandam gratiam Spiritus sancti. Gratia autem Spiritus sancti non est nisi in homine grato; gratus autem esse non potest, nisi agnoscat suam indigentiam. Indigentia autem triplex est: virtutis cognoscitivae, potestativae, amativae, quia caeci sumus, infirmi, maligni. Oportuit ergo, ut homo prius$agnosceret suam caecitatem, infirmitatem, malignitatem, antequam salvus fieret, vel gratia ei daretur. Ergo fuit tempus, in quo fuit caecitas, ut in tempore ante Legem; ubi vix aliquis cognoscebat Deum, immo lapides et opera manuum suarum pro Deo colebant: et ideo necesse fuit, ut homo convinceretur de ignorantia. -- Postea data fuit Lex illuminans, et tamen sunt multiplicatae infirmitates eorum* =|1|= , et occasio fuit Lex maioris transgressionis, quia, occasione accepta, peccatum per mandatum operatum est in me omnem concupiscentiam =|38|=  ; et ideo convinci debebant de infirmitate sive impotentia. -- Postea fuit tempus Prophetarum, qui eis manifeste ostendebant, non posse salvari per Legem. Unde Isaias: Solemnitates vestras odivit anima mea =|39|= . Holocausta arietum et adipem pinguium et sanguinem vitulorum et agnorum et hircorum nolui =|40|= . Et ipsi eos interficiebant, et non solum ipsos, sed ipsis adhaerentes et prophetas falsos recipiebant; et in hoc apparuit ipsorum malitia. -- Et sic conclusit Scriptura omnia sub peccato =|41|= , quia primi per ignorantiam, secundi per infirmitatem, tertii per malitiam, ut Christus veniens omnium misereretur. Et de hoc etiam admiratur Apostolus et allegat auctoritatem Psalmi: Omnes declinaverunt, simul inutiles facti sunt; non est qui faciat bonum, non est usque ad unum =|42|= .


9. Second, Scripture is handed down for the introduction of faith, which is belief in most hard and difficult matters. Wherefore it was fitting that He give in advance many promises, prophecies and signs. And as matter is first made apt, and then form is introduced, so He began by doing some easy things to the Patriarchs, such as promises, for instance, that a son would be bora to Abraham, and that if he obeyed Him and believed, his son would come back to life if he were to kill him, and that God could resurrect him. And so, here man was led to faith through promises. Later, it was done through mysteries and miracles in the desert and through major signs, as is evident in the crossing of the sea and the punishment of Egypt. Later still, it came about through the oracles of prophets who foretold the future for them, such as Christ's passion and resurrection, and they believed them. For because they saw that what the prophets had foretold came true, they believed in what they said about a Christ to come. And so man was disposed toward the reception of faith. For it would not have been good for Christ to come first and say: "Come and believe in Me: I am the Christ." For they would have answered: "We cannot believe." Hence they were to be led by the hand in the manner described above.
9. Secundo Scriptura traditur ad introducendam fidem, quae est credulitas rerum arduissimarum et difficillimarum: ideo oportuit, quod promissa, oracula et signa multiformia praemitteret. Et sicut materia primo adaptatur, deinde introducitur forma; sic primo aliqua facilia Patriarchis fecit, ut promissa, ut quod Abrahae filius nasceretur =|43|= , et quod, si sibi obediret et crederet =|44|= , filius, si interficeretur, posset resurgere, et quod Deus posset eum resuscitare. Unde ibi per promissa ductus est homo ad fidem; post per mysteria et miracula in deserto et per signa maxima, ut patet in transitu maris =|45|=  et flagellatione Aegypti =|46|= ; post per oracula Prophetarum, qui praedicebant eis futura, ut de Christi passione et resurrectione; et ipsi eis credebant: quia, ex quo videbant, quod eis eveniebant quae eis prophetabant, et de Christo venturo eis credebant. Sic homo dispositus est ad fidem recipiendam. Unde non primo Christus debuit venire et dicere: Venite et credite in me, ego sum Christus; quia respondissent: non possumus credere; ideo sic manuducendi erant.


10. Third, Scripture was handed down for the disclosing of wisdom which has two roots: fear and love. The first root is fear, for man is first animal, then spiritual; and when he is moved by fear, then he becomes spiritual. Hence there are two Testaments corresponding to these two roots, the one, the Old, giving birth into servitude; the other, the New, giving birth into love. The Old Testament, giving birth into servitude, promises temporal advantages, instilling fear through penalty. Now, it had to come about that in the Old Testament there be a promise, for if man were always to be struck with penalties, and nothing were promised to him, he would flee. And so there was added an assurance of the promised land. The New Testament promised spiritual advantages, that is, eternal life. Hence, fear could not be instilled, nor could anything temporal be promised, except to a people already multiplied. Hence, before the Law, there had to be a time of the Law of Nature. Likewise, the Law, by promising temporal advantages, resulted in weakness. And because it is not easy to pass from the temporal to the eternal, from the animal to the spiritual, there came about the intermediate time of the Prophets in order to adapt man to the spiritual Testament. For this purpose, then—in order that man possess true wisdom —it was necessary that the Old Testament come before the New, and that the time of the Patriarchs precede the Law. And it is the same in any man: first, he is sensual, entirely given to the senses, like a small child; then he becomes animate^ as he begins to speak and imagination begins to keep him busy; then he becomes rational, as he begins to understand and think; finally, he becomes intellectual as he acquires wisdom.
10. Tertio Scriptura data est ad reserandam sapientiam, quae habet duas radices, scilicet timorem et amorem. Prima radix timor, quia prius est homo animalis, deinde spiritualis =|47|= ; et quando per timorem est affectus, tunc fit spiritualis. Et ideo secundum has duas ra-$dices sunt duo testamenta: unum, vetus in servitutem generans, alterum, novum in amorem generans =|48|= . Testamentum vetus in servitutem generans promittit temporalia, timorem incutiens per poenam. -- Necesse autem fuit, ut in veteri testamento esset promissio, quia, si semper homo plectentur poena, et nihil sibi promitteretur, fugeret: ideo adiuncta est promissio terrae repromissionis =|49|= . Testamentum autem novum promittit spiritualia, scilicet vitam aeternam. Unde timor non potuit incuti, nec aliquod temporale promitti nisi genti multiplicatae: ideo ante Legem oportuit esse tempus legis naturae. -- Similiter, Lex infirmitatem generabat promittens temporalia. Et quia non est facilis transitus a temporali ad aeterna, ab animali ad spirituale =|50|= ; ideo medium fuit tempus Prophetarum ad aptandum homines ad spirituale testamentum. Ad hoc ergo, quod homo haberet veram sapientiam; necesse erat, ut testamentum vetus praecederet novum, et tempus Patriarcharum praecederet Legem. -- Et sic est in quolibet homine: primo est sensualis, totus deditus sensibus, ut puerulus; deinde fit animalis, cum incipit loqui, et phantasmata incipiunt eum occupare; deinde rationalis, cum incipit intelligere et considerare; deinde intellectualis, cum fit sapiens.


11. Fourth, [Scripture is handed down] for the restoration of salvation, which can be re-established only by Christ. For it is not restored unless it be desired, loved and watched. Therefore it was deferred in order that it be desired, loved and watched, for, according to Augustine, =|4 |= the bride comes late in order to be more dearly loved. Likewise, salvation was promised to the Patriarchs, figured in the Law, announced by the Prophets, and brought about by Christ. It was fitting, then, that there be first the rooting of the Patriarchs, then the growth of legality, third, the multiplication of the Prophets, finally, the fullness of the fruit of the Gospel, or of salvation through Christ.
11. Quarto est ad restaurandam salutem, quae non nisi per Christum restauratur. Non enim restauratur, nisi sit desiderata, amata, custodita. Ideo dilata est, ut desideraretur, amaretur et custodiretur, quia secundum Augustinum idcirco fit dilatio sponsae, ut carior habeatur. Similiter, salus promissa est Patriarchis, figurata in Lege, praenuntiata a Prophetis, persoluta a Christo. -- Unde oportuit, ut prius fieret Patriarcharum fixio, deinde legalium productio, tertio Prophetarum pullulatio, ultimo fructus Evangelii vel salutis per Christum plenitudo.


12. In this regard, it should be noted that in the adornment of the High Priest, there were four rows of stones. For on his full-length robe was the whole world, and the glories of the fathers were carved in four rows upon the stones. And in these are the fourfold orders of the mysteries: and it is in this order that the Scriptures are planted. And in the first order or time, there are three mysteries, concerning the creation of beings, the punishment of crimes, and the calling of the Fathers. The creation of beings corresponds to the power of the Father, the punishment of crimes, to the wisdom of the Son who judges, the calling of the Fathers, to the goodness of the Holy Spirit.
12. Secundum hoc ergo nota, quod in ornatu summi Pontificis quatuor erant ordines lapidum =|51|= . In Sapientia: In veste poderis totus erat orbis terrarum, et parentum magnalia in quatuor ordinibus lapidum erant sculpta =|52|= . Et in illis sunt quadriformes ordines mysteriorum; quo ordine plantatae sunt Scripturae. -- Et in primo ordine seu tempore tria sunt mysteria, scilicet conditionis rerum, purgationis scelerum =|55|= , vocationis Patrum. Conditio rerum respondet potentiae Patris; Purgatio scelerum, sapientiae Filii, qua iudicat; vocatio Patrum, bonitati Spiritus sancti.


13. Likewise, under the Law there are three mysteries, that is the mystery of the giving of the Law, in four of the books of Moses, the second, third, fourth, and fifth, in which there is a summary of the Law. But Genesis is given to the time of nature where and in which there are many mysteries, for this is the book that is the richest in mysteries. The second mystery is that of the crushing of enemies in the book of Josue, the third is the establishment of Judges as in the books of Judges and Ruth. The first mystery corresponds to the Father by reason of authority, the second to the Son because He is the cleansing and purifying Word, the third to the Holy Spirit by reason of grace. This time is called the time of the Law, for the Prophets had not yet been seen.
13. Similiter, sub Lege tria sunt mysteria, scilicet mysterium lationis legum, in quatuor libris Moysi, scilicet secundo, tertio, quarto et$in quinto, ubi est recapitulatio Legis. Genesis autem datur tempori naturae, ubi et in quo sunt magna mysteria, et liber uberrimus etiam in mysteriis. Mysterium secundum est prostrationis hostium in Iosue, tertium est promotio iudicum, ut in libro Iudicum et Ruth. Primum mysterium respondet Patri ratione auctoritatis; secundum Filio, quia est Verbum mundans et purgans =|54|= ; tertium Spiritui sancto ratione gratiae. Hoc tempus dicitur Legis, quia adhuc Prophetae non apparuerunt.


14. The time of the Prophets begins with Samuel, and it also contains three mysteries. The first is that of the anointing of kings, as in the books of Kings and Paralipomenon; the second, that of the revelation of Prophets, as in the Psalms and the Twelve Minor and Four Major Prophets; the fourth, that of the restoration of princes and priests, and this is in Esdras, Nehemiah and the Macchabees.
14. Tempus prophetiae a Samuele incepit, quod habet similiter tria mysteria: primum inunctionis regum, ut in libro Regum et Paralipomenon; secundum fuit revelationis Prophetarum, ut in Psalmis et duodecim Prophetis minoribus et quatuor maioribus; tertium restaurationis principum et sacerdotum; et illud est Esdrae, Nehemiae et Machabaeorum.


15. In the fourth time, there are three mysteries. The first is that of the redemption of mankind, in the Gospels; the second, that of the diffusion of charismatic gifts, in the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles of Paul and the Canonical Epistles, where the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit are shown; the third is that of the opening of Scriptures, in Apocalypse. And after this, there can be no more.
15. In quarto tempore sunt tria mysteria: primum redemptionis hominum, in Evangeliis; secundum diffusionis charismatum, in Actibus Apostolorum et Epistolis Pauli et canonicis, ubi ostenduntur septem dona Spiritus sancti; tertium reserationis Scripturarum, in Apocalypsi. Post quod non potest esse aliud.


16. In these twelve mysteries is the whole of Scripture. Job and Esther, Tobias and Judith are connected with the others: Job, to the books of the Law and the Prophets, and the other three, to the books of restoration. Hence he said that at one time the book of Job had so much authority with the Jews that they placed it in the Ark that contained the Rod and the Tablets. These are the twelve trees prospering in paradise. In each of these there are twelve lights of scriptural interpretation, that is, the allegorical, the anagogical, and the tropological. And twelve times twelve are one hundred and forty-four, and this corresponds to the number of those marked with the sign, and to that of the City. Hence in the Psalm: Open my eyes, that I may consider the wonders of your law.
16. In his duodecim mysteriis est tota Scriptura. Iob et Esther, Tobias, Iudith cohaerentes sunt aliis: quia Iob cohaeret Legi et Prophetis, alii tres cohaerent libris restaurationis. -- Unde dixit, quod aliquando liber Iob tantae auctoritatis fuit apud Iudaeos, ut poneretur in arca, ubi erant virga et tabulae. -- Haec sunt duodecim ligna pullulant in paradiso. In quolibet istorum sunt duodecim lumina intelligentiarum Scripturarum, scilicet allegoria, anagogia et tropologia; et duodecim duodecies sunt 144, et resultat numerus scilicet signatorum et numerus civitatis =|55|= . Unde in Psalmo: Revela oculos meos, et considerabo mirabilia de lege tua =|56|= .


17. Out of these twelve trees, I wish to build and raise a tabernacle in the heart. In Paradise, there were the Tree of Life and the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, and so in all the mysteries of Scripture, Christ unfolds with His body, and the antichrist, the devil, with his. And it is in this manner that Augustine composed his book on the City of God, =|5|=  where he begins with Cain and Abel. In the first ten books, he writes about God and the reprobation of idolatry; in the next four, about the beginning of the Church; in four more, about its progress; and in the last four, about its fulfillment. For all the saints prefigured Christ by their deeds and words; and Job, rather by deed than by word, as Gregory says in the third book of his Ethics.
17. De his duodecim lignis volo aedificare et erigere tabernaculum in corde. -- In paradiso fuit lignum vitae, et fuit lignum scientiae boni et mali =|51|=  y et sic in omnibus Scripturae mysteriis explicatur Christus cum corpore suo, et antichristus et diabolus cum corpore suo. Et hoc modo Augustinus fecit librum De civitate Dei, ubi incipit a Cain et Abel. In primis decem libris agit de Deo et reprobat idololatriam; in quatuor aliis de initio Ecclesiae; in aliis quatuor de progressu; in ultimis quatuor de Ecclesiae consummatione. Omnes enim Sancti praefiguraverunt Christum tam facto quam verbo, ut Iob etiam magis facto quam verbo, ut dicit Gregorius tertio Moralium.


18. So let us say of Christ that He is the Tree of Life in the midst of Paradise, who is symbolized in four instances found in the first mystery, beginning with the words: In the beginning God created, to the words: The earth was corrupt. He is symbolized by the greater light, the Tree of Life, Adam's marriage, and most of all, the murder of Abel; for Christ was killed by His brothers; and an inscription was placed among the Jews, that they be not killed, but become errant and fugitive on the earth.
18. Dicamus ergo de Christo, quod est lignum vitae in medio paradisi =|58|= ; qui signatur in quatuor, quae sunt in primo mysterio, ab illo loco: In principio creavit =|59|= , usque ibi: corrupta est =|60|= . Signatur igitur per luminare maius, per lignum vitae, per Adae connubium, maxime per Abel occisum: quia Christus interfectus est a fratribus suis; et signum positum est in Iudaeis, ut non interficiantur, sed sint vagi et profugi super terram.


19. In the second mystery, that is, the cleansing of crimes, Christ is symbolized by the descendence of Noah who had three sons, designating Christ who had three sons: the Greeks, the Jews and the Latins. He is symbolized by the making of the ark which corresponds principally to the body of Christ and secondarily, to that of the Church. He is symbolized by the how in the clouds, which is the sign of the covenant. He is symbolized by Noah who lay naked in his tent in a state of drunkenness: for Christ was drunk with love for His spouse and was naked on the cross — where the very wicked Cham derided Him.
19. In secundo mysterio, scilicet purgationis scelerum =|61|= , signatur per Noe genituram, quia habuit tres filios =|62|= , et signat Christum, qui habuit tres filios, scilicet Graecos, Iudaeos, Latinos; quia scriptus erat titulus litteris Graecis, Hebraicis et Latinis =|63|= . Signatur per arcam fabricatam, quae respondet corpori Christi principaliter, secundario Ecclesiae. Signatur per arcum in nubibus, qui est signum foederis. Signatur per Noe nudatum, iacentem in tabernaculo ebrium. Inebriatus fuit Christus amore sponsae suae et nudatus fuit in cruce, quem derisit ille pessimus Cham.


20. In the mystery of the calling, He is symbolized in three ways: by the sacrifice of Isaac, because Abraham is a proper representation of God the Father. Christ is represented by Isaac who carried his own wood on his neck, like the wood of the Cross. Christ is symbolized by Jacob making his wives fruitful; by the two sons of Judah, Zarah and Phares, for of him many things are said in happy remembrance, such as this: A lion's whelp is Judah; from the prey you have gone up, my son. He crouches and couches as a lion; as a lioness, and who will disturb him? Hence the lawgiver also placed here this figure of the two sons of Judah born of Thamar. He is symbolized also by Joseph most righteous, who was exalted by strangers after having been sold by his own. These are the twelve principal mysteries before the time of the Law.
20. In mysterio vocationis signatur per quatuor: per sacrificium Isaac, quia proprie per Abraham Deus Pater signatur; per Isaac, inquam, qui sibi ligna in collo portabat =|64|= , scilicet lignum crucis. Christus signatur per Iacob fecundantem uxores; per Iudam, qui habuit duos filios, Zaram et Phares, de quo multa dicuntur in benedictionibus, ut illud Genesis: Catulus leonis Iuda; ad praedam, fili mi, ascendisti; requiescens accubuisti ut leo et quasi leaena, quis suscitabit eum? =|65|= . Unde etiam legislator interseruit figuram illam de duobus filiis Iuda de Thamar =|66|= . Signatur etiam per Ioseph rectissime, qui venditus a suis =|67|=  exaltatus fuit inter alienos =|68|= . -- Haec sunt duodecim mysteria principalia ante tempus Legis.


21. Under the Law, in the mystery of the giving of the Law, Christ is symbolized by Moses' staff with which he chastised the Egyptians and dried up the sea, and which is the scepter of power which the Lord stretched forth from Sion. He is symbolized by the Ark of the Covenant, through the many things hidden within it. He is symbolized by the vestments of the High Priest, for instance, the miter, the ephod, etc. After his death, the homicide was allowed to return to his own district. He is symbolized also by the sacrificial rites, by the lamb, the ram, the calf, etc., for all of these refer to Christ.
21. Sub Lege in mysterio lationis Legis signatur per virgam Moysi, qua flagellavit Aegyptum, qua siccavit maria, quae est virga virtutis, quam emisit Dominus ex Sion =|69|= . Signatur per arcam testamenti, per multa in ea recondita. Signatur per ornatum Pontificis, ut per mitram, superhumerale etc.; in cuius morte profugi debebant redire ad propria =|70|= . Signatur etiam per ritum sacrificii, per agnum, arietem, vitulum etc.; quae omnia referuntur ad Christum.


22. In the mystery of the crushing of enemies, Christ is also symbolized by Josue's entering the Jordan River and dividing it — for there the form of baptism was given — and forcing the waters that were flowing into the Dead Sea to return to their source, and this refers to souls. Christ is symbolized by Josue's contention; He is symbolized by his triumph, when he destroyed Jericho, hung the kings, and after a procession,')' divided the land, and became the leader into the land of the promise. Likewise, Christ leads us into heaven through His entering it.
22. In mysterio prostrationis hostium similiter Christus signatur per Iosue ingressum, qui divisit Iordanem, ubi datur forma baptismi, et aquas, quae descendebant in mare mortuum, fecit redire in suam originem =|71|= , hoc est animas. Signatur per suum conflictum. Signatur per suum triumphum, qui destruxit Iericho, suspendit reges, et post funi-$culis terram divisit et est introducto^ in terram promissionis. Ita Christus introducit nos in caelum per suum introitum.


3. Christ is Symbolized Especially by Means of Sight, Sign, Word, and Occurrence



23. In the mystery of the establishment of judges, Christ is symbolized by Caleb, whose virtue perdured, and who was an explorer of the earth, the one from the tribe of Juda; by Othoniel who because of his victory received Axam as a wife; by Gedeon, of whom Isaiah speaks: As on the day of Madian; by Samson who is assimilated to Christ in almost all his deeds: in the killing of the lion, in the doors carried away, in that he put more people to death through his death than through his life. It is not Christ, however, who is symbolized by the loss of hair, but the Christian who loses the sevenfold grace of the Holy Spirit. Hence, when the symbolism of a mystery cannot be seen in the head, it must be transferred to the members.
23. In mysterio promotionis iudicum signatur per Caleb, cui virtus duravit, qui explorator terrae fuit de tribu Iuda =|72|= ; per Othoniel, qui propter victoriam habuit uxorem Axam =|73|= ; per Gedeon, de quo in Isaia: Sicut in die Madian =|74|= ; per Samsonem, qui quasi in omnibus refertur ad Christum: per interfectionem leonis, per portas asportatas, qui etiam plures interfecit in morte quam vivus =|75|= . Per amissionem capillorum =|76|=  signare non potest Christum, sed signat Christianum, qui amittit septiformem gratiam Spiritus sancti. Unde quando non potest aliquid mysteriari in capite, transferendum est in membra.


24. In the mystery of the anointing of the kings, Christ is symbolized by David, Solomon, Ezechiah and Josiah. The David symbol is found in many places. Solomon represents Christ, except in the women in whom there is no good that can have symbolical meaning. Hence, when it is said in the Canticle: There are sixty queens, eighty concubines, and maidens without number, =|6|=  this does not refer literally to wives: these women are placed here in a mysterious fashion, and they represent perfect and imperfect souls. Christ is symbolized by Ezechiah: Once I said, "In the noontime of life I must depart! To the gates of the nether world I shall be consigned." Josiah also represents Christ: he is (the king) whose death inspired the "Lamentations": How lonely she is now, the once crowded city! Widowed is she who was mistress over nations; the princes among the provinces has been made a toiling slave.
24. In mysterio inunctionis regum signatur per David, per Salomonem, per Ezechiam, per Iosiam. -- David figura est in multis. -- Salomon signat Christum praeterquam in mulieribus, in quibus nullum bonum significare potest. Unde in Cantico, ubi dicitur: Sexaginta sunt reginae et octoginta concubinae, et adolescentularum non est numerus =|77|=  ; non loquitur de uxoribus ad litteram, immo mysterialiter ponuntur ibi, in quibus signantur animae perfectae et imperfectae. -- Signatur per Ezechiam: Ego, inquit, dixi: In dimidio dierum meorum vadam ad portas inferi =|78|= . -- Iosias etiam signat Christum, de cuius morte factae sunt Lamentationes: Quomodo sedet sola civitas plena populo? Facta est quasi vidua domina gentium; princeps provinciarum facta est sub tributo =|79|= .


25. In the mystery of prophetical revelation, Christ is symbolized especially by means of sight, sign, word, and occurrence. First, by sight: (the prophet) saw a boiling cauldron and other things also. Likewise, he saw a branch of the watching-tree, in the same passage. Second, by sign, as with Eliseus and Giezi who laid the staff on the child, who did not rise, and then Eliseus himself lay upon him. According to Gregory, =|7|=  this points to the Law and to Christ. Third, by word, which people heard while they could see no one, as they said: This is the word that the Lord spoke to Moab. Fourth, by occurrence, as with Jonah who was in the belly of the fish three days, as the Lord was in the tomb three days. In this mystery of prophetical revelation, Christ is symbolized through harmonious singing with a ten-stringed lyre, as in the psalm where David learns how to prophetize; through the light of wisdom, as in the sapiential books; through canticles of praise addressed to the Bride of Christ, as in the Song of Songs; through prophetical visions, and this in different ways: for one saw Christ as a branch of the watching-tree, another saw Him seated on a high and lofty throne, while yet another saw Him dressed.
25. In mysterio autem revelationis Prophetarum signatur specialiter per visum, per signum, per verbum, per factum. Primo quidem per visum, sicut vidit ollam succensam =|80|= , et sic de aliis; et similiter virgam vigilantem =|81|= , ibidem. Secundo, per signum, sicut de Elisaeo et Giezi =|82|= , qui portavit baculum super puerum, et non revixit; et postea ipse incubuit super ipsum; quod secundum Gregorium significat Legem et Christum. Tertio, per verbum, quod audiebant, sed non videbant, sicut dicebant: Verbum, quod locutus est Dominus super eum =|83|= . Quarto per factum, ut in facto Ionae, qui fuit tribus diebus in ventre ceti =|84|= , sicut Dominus fuit per triduum in sepulcro =|85|= . -- In mysterio revelationis Prophetarum signatur per cantum harmoniae; in Psalmo: In psalterio decachordo =|86|= , ubi David addiscit prophetare; per lumen sapientiae in libris sapientialibus; per canticum epithalamium, quod est sponsae Christi, in Cantico; per visum prophetiae, quod est diversiva. Num 13, 7.  =|73|=  Cf. Iudic I, 12-13.  =|74|=  Is 9, 4; ef. Iudic 7, 22.  =|75|=  Cf.$mode: unus sicut virgam vigilantem =|87|=  vidit Christum, alius super solium excelsum =|88|= , alius vestitum =|89|= .


4. These are the Forty-eight Boards of the Dwelling



26. In the mystery of the restoration, He is signified first by Esdras who restored Scriptures =|8|=  and literature; by Nehemiah who restored the city, by Zorobabel who restored the temple; by Josue the son of Josedec who restored the form of divine worship.
26. In mysterio restaurationis primum signatur per Esdram =|90|= , qui Scripturam et litteras reparavit; per Nehemiam =|91|= , qui civitatem reparavit; per Zorobabel =|92|= , qui templum reparavit; per Iesum =|93|= , filium Iosedec, qui ritum colendi Deum reparavit.


27. In the mystery of the redemption of man, Christ is pointed to as a meek man in Matthew; as a triumphant lion in Mark, wherefore in the same: Looking round upon them with anger; as a sacrificed calf in Luke, wherefore: In the days of Herod,... there was a certain priest, and he is looking to the passion; as a flying eagle indicating His divinity, in John: In the beginning was the word, etc.
27. In mysterio redemptionis hominum significatur Christus ut homo mansuetus in Matthaeo, ut leo triumphans in Marco; unde in eodem: Circumspiciens eos cum ira =|94|= ; ut vitulus occisus in Luca; unde: Fuit in diebus Herodis sacerdos =|95|= , et oculum habet ad passionem; ut aquila volans quantum ad Divinitatem in Ioanne: In principio erat Verbum =|96|=  etc.


28. In the mystery of the diffusion of grace, He is indicated as the generous distributor in the Acts, when He gives the Holy Spirit; as the pious distributor in Paul, in whom the Acts of the Apostles are consummated, wherefore Luke says little of the other apostles, but passes on directly to Paul —who gave the Holy Spirit, as is evident in the Twelve who had been baptized in the baptism of John—and there is no wonder, since he himself was a Benjamin and a predatory wolf, =|9|=  the last of the apostles, through whom the future was signified. For He [Christ] is pointed to as the Prudent Diffuser in the canons, and as the Wise Diffuser in the Epistles of Paul.
28. In mysterio diffusionis gratiae significatur ut diffusor largus in Actibus, cum dedit Spiritum sanctum; ut diffusor pius, ut in Paulo, in quo consummantur Actus Apostolorum; unde Lucas pauca dicit de aliis Apostolis et statim transit ad Paulum -- qui dedit Spiritum sanctum; sicut patet de illis duodecim, qui baptizati erant in baptismo Ioannis =|97|=  -- nec mirum, quia ipse fuit Beniamin et lupus rapax =|98|= , ultimus Apostolorum, per quem significatur ordo futurus. Significatur ut diffusor prudens in Canonicis, ut diffusor sapiens in Epistolis Pauli.


29. In the mystery of the disclosing of Scriptures, He is pointed to through [the symbol of] the One presiding, as is clearly shown through the son of man... in the midst of the seven lamp stands that have seven stars, which are the Seven Churches; through that of the Contender, as the lamb against the beast and the dragon, or in the instance of the bowls and the trumpets; through that of the One who triumphs, because he had a sharp sword and a sharp sickle; through that of the One who brings about eternal beatitude, for he [John] saw a new heaven and a new earth.
29. In mysterio reserationis Scripturae significatur per modum praesidentis, ut patet per filium hominis in medio candelabrorum", qui habebat septem stellas =|100|= , id est septem Ecclesias =|101|= ; per modum praeliaris, ut agnus cum bestia =|102|= , cum dracone =|103|= , in phialis et tubis =|104|= ; per modum triumphantis, quia habebat gladium acutum =|105|=  et falcem acutam =|106|= ; per modum beatificantis, quia vidit caelum novum et terram novam.


30. These, then, are the mysteries concerned with the Tree of Life, that is, Holy Scripture, because it begins with eternity and ends in the direction of eternity. Hence, in the beginning God created the heavens and the earth; and at the end, I saw a new heaven and a new earth. These are the forty-eight boards of the dwelling—twenty on one side, and twenty on the other, and eight in the back —-within which is placed the Ark, that is, Christ, containing in Himself all the treasures of wisdom and of knowledge, upon whom the Cherubim gaze. And these are the twelve trees around the Tree of Life.
30. Haec sunt ergo mysteria circa lignum vitae, scilicet Scripturae, quae incipit ab aeternitate et terminata est ad aeternitatem. Unde: In principio creavit Deus caelum et terram =|107|= ; et in fine: Vidi caelum novum et terram novam =|108|= . Hae sunt quadraginta octo tabulae tabernaculi: viginti in uno latere, et viginti in alio, in posteriori octo; in quo ponitur arca =|109|= , scilicet Christus, continens in se omnes thesauros sapientiae et scientiae =|uo|= , in quem Cherubim respiciunt =|111|= . Et haec sunt duodecim ligna circa lignum vitae.


XVI. Fifteenth Collation



A. Third Treatise on the Third Vision, Which, Continuing the Preceding One, First Demonstrates How the Antichrist Also is Shown in the Twelve Principal Mysteries



1500 FIFTEENTH COLLATION Third Treatise on the Third Vision, Which, Continuing the Preceding One, First Demonstrates How the Antichrist Also Is Shown in the Twelve Principal Mysteries; and Then Begins to Deal with the Infinite Heavenly Theories Growing from the Seeds and Fruits of Scripture.


1. How the Antichrist Also is Shown in the Twelve Principal Mysteries



a. Creation of Beings



1. THE earth brought forth vegetation, every kind of seed-bearing plant. It has been explained how Christ is shown in the twelve principal mysteries. Contrariwise, the Antichrist may be seen [in them], and this is manifested as follows. The first mystery is that of the creation of beings, and there [the Antichrist] is represented by Lamech who was the first to introduce bigamy and was a transgressor of the natural law and given to extreme lust. Then the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were fair, and they took wives for themselves, as many as they wished. Because of this came the Flood. And hence it is possible to surmise what the Antichrist will be like: he is the filthiest one. And his symbolic meaning is shown in this, that he would kill the one to whom a token had been given, that is, the Jews represented by Cain. Wherefore Lamech shall be avenged . . . seventy times sevenfold, for his sin will be greater than the sin of the Jews.
1. Protulit terra herbam virentem et facientem semen iuxta genus suum =|1|= . Dictum est, quod in duodecim mysteriis principalibus ostenditur Christus; et per oppositum ostenditur antichristus, quod sic manifestatur. -- Primum est mysterium conditionis rerum; et ibi ostenditur per Lamech =|2|= , qui primus introduxit bigamiam et fuit transgressor legis naturae et fuit luxuriosissimus; et tunc videntes filii Dei filias hominum, quod essent pulcrae, acceperunt sibi uxores ex omnibus, quas elegerant =|3|= . Propter quod inductum fuit diluvium. Et inde colligitur, qualis erit antichristus, quia immundissimus; et inde ostenditur eius significatio, quia interficiet illum, in quo positum est signum, scilicet Iudaeos, qui per Cain =|4|=  significantur. Et ideo de Lamec ultio dabitur septuagies septiesquia maius erit peccatum eius quam peccatum Iudaeorum.


b. Punishment of Crimes



2. In the second mystery, that of the punishment of crimes, [the Antichrist] is represented by Nemrod =|1|=  who was the first to make himself emperor, and under whose command a tower was built that was to reach up to heaven. By this it may be seen that the Antichrist would be filled with the greatest pride, to the point of being exalted above all that is called God.
2. In secundo mysterio, scilicet punitionis scelerum, signatur per Nemrod =|6|= , qui primus se fecit imperatorem, cuius etiam auctoritate aedificata est turris, quae tangeret caelum; in quo intelligitur, quod antichristus erit superbissimus, ita ut extollatur super omne, quod dicitur Deus =|1|= .


c. Calling of the Fathers



3. In the third mystery, that of the calling [of the fathers] he is represented by Dan. And some commentators choose to say that he will literally belong to the tribe of Dan. I would not dare to assert that it will be so. And yet in the Apocalypse =|2|=  the tribe of Dan is not designated. It is said in Genesis of this same Dan: Dan shall be a serpent by the road, a viper by the path, that hides itself in the sand in order to catch the birds flying around; and in this it is shown that he was extremely deceitful. Biting at the hoofs of the horse, so that the rider tumbles backward: certainly, the horse is a symbol for the preacher of truth, and the hoof points to evangelical perfection, which the Antichrist will fight. For a horse is worthless unless it has a steady hoof. Joseph, therefore, accompanied the sons of the servant-girls who sold their brother; but Dan was the first-born of the sons of the servant-girls.
3. In tertio mysterio, scilicet vocationis vel electionis Patrum, signatur per Dan; et aliqui volunt dicere, quod ad litteram erit de tribu Dan. Utrum autem ita sit, non auderem affirmare; attamen in Apocalypsi =|8|=  tribus Dan non signatur. De isto Dan dicitur in Genesi: Fiat Dan coluber in via, cerastes in semita =|9|= , qui abscondit se in sabulo, ut capiat aves circa se volantes; et in hoc ostenditur quod erit fraudulentissimus. Mordet autem ungulas equorum, ut cadat ascensor eius retrorsum =|10|= . Certum est, quod per equum significatur praedicator veritatis, per ungulam significatur perfectio evangelica, quam antichristus impugnabit. Equus enim, si non habet fixionem ungulae, nihil valet. Ioseph igitur erat cum filiis ancillarum, qui vendiderunt fratrem suum; Dan autem primogenitus fuit ancillarum.


d. Giving of the Law



4. In the fourth mystery, that is, the giving of the law, [the Antichrist] is symbolized by Balaam, who offered the worst advice, was an idolater, and although he said many good things, yet raised pagan altars and consulted auguries. And in this it is shown that he was the worst idolator and worshiper of evil spirits. Instead, he shall give glory to the god of strongholds.
4. In quarto mysterio, scilicet lationis Legis, signatur per Balaam =|11|= , qui dedit pessimum consilium, qui fuit idololatra, et licet multa bona diceret, tamen aras aedificabat et auguria quaerebat. Et in hoc significatur, quod erit pessimus idololatra et invocator daemonum; in Daniele: Deum autem Maozim in loco suo venerabitur =|12|= .


e. Crushing of Enemies



f. Establishment or Promotion of Judges



5. In the fifth mystery, that is, the crushing of enemies, [the Antichrist] is symbolized by Achan who was infuriated by the anathema and died excommunicated; and in this it is shown that he [the Antichrist] will be most miserly and rapacious. In the sixth mystery, that is, the establishment or promotion of judges, he is symbolized by Abimelech =|3 |= who killed seventy brothers who were better than himself; and in this it is shown that he will be most cruel.
5. In quinto mysterio, scilicet prostrationis hostium, signatur per Achan =|13|= , qui furatus fuit de anathemate et mortuus est excommunicatus; et in hoc significatur, quod erit avarissimus et rapacissimus. -- In sexto mysterio, scilicet constitutionis vel promotionis iudicum, signatur per Abimelech =|14|= , qui septuaginta fratres meliores se interfecit; et in hoc significatur, quod erit crudelissimus.


g. Anointing of Kings



h. Revelation of Prophets



6. In the seventh mystery, the anointing of kings, he is symbolized by the armed Goliath. For he will be exteriorly magnificent, and he will also speak blasphemies against the people of God. In the eighth mystery, the revelation of prophets, he is symbolized by the impudent king, because he will know arguments and reasons beyond man's capacity, and will be skilled in intrigue and most shrewd.
6. In septimo mysterio, scilicet functionis regum, signatur per Goliam =|15|=  armatum, qui exprobrabat agminibus filiorum Israel. Erit enim magnificus in exterioribus, loquetur etiam blasphemiam contra populum Dei =|16|= . -- In octavo mysterio, scilicet revelationis prophetarum, signatur per regem impudentem =|17|= , quia sciet argumenta et rationes ultra humanum modum, quia erit intelligens propositiones et astutissimus.


i. Restoration of Princes



j. Redemption of Mankind



7. In the ninth mystery, the restoration of princes, he is symbolized by Antiochus =|4|=  —which is said to mean "silence of poverty" —who completely destroyed all laws, wanting to have one only, and who killed the seven brothers. He also did what none had dared to do: he destroyed the Law of the Jews (yet he attempted to disperse the Jews, but failed). Hence he [the Antichrist] will be a destroyer of the Evangelical Law and a killer of Christians. In the tenth mystery, the redemption of mankind, he is symbolized by Judas the Traitor. For he will be most malicious.
7. In nono mysterio, scilicet restaurationis principum, signatur per Antiochum =|18|= , qui interpretatur silentium paupertatis, qui destruxit omnes leges universaliter, volens unam facere; qui illos septem fratres interfecit =|19|= . Fecit etiam quod nullus ausus fuit, scilicet destruere legem Iudaeorum -- verum est, quod Aman =|20|=  attentavit Iudaeos disperdere, sed non praevaluit -- in quo significatur, quod erit destructor legis evangelicae et occisor Christianorum. -- In decimo mysterio, scilicet redemptionis hominum, signatur per Iudam proditorem =|21|= . Erit enim malignissimus.


k. Diffusion of Charismatic Gifts



l. Opening of Scriptures



8. In the eleventh mystery, the diffusion of charismatic gifts, he is symbolized by Simon the Magician, =|5 |= who wanted to buy the Holy Spirit, who rose up to great heights and then fell, who called upon evil spirits. For he [the Antichrist] will be the worst liar: he will come with deceitful signs and prodigies. In the twelfth mystery, the opening of scriptures, he is symbolized by the beast from the depth, the one that comes up out of the abyss, who will crush all things. For he [the Antichrist] will be consummate in every form of malice; he will have seven heads, that is, every kind of temptation and every method, working at times through riches, at other times through false miracles, at others again through fear, etc. Hence in Job: He carries his tail like a cedar, for in him every form of malice will be inflated. And as Christ enjoyed every charismatic gift in order that He be able to receive the assumed [human] nature, so also this one possessed every form of malice.
8. In mysterio undecimo, scilicet diffusionis charismatum, signatur per Simonem magum =|22|= , qui voluit emere Spiritum sanctum et in altum ascendit et postea cecidit, qui daemones invocavit. Erit enim mendacissimus, ut veniat in signis et prodigiis mendacibus. -- In mysterio duodecimo, scilicet reserationis Scripturarum, signatur per bestiam abyssalem sive ascendentem de abysso =|23|= , quae omnia conculcat. Erit enim consummatus in omni malitia. Habebit enim septem capita, id est omnia genera tentandi et omnes modos, nunc per divitias, nunc per falsa miracula, nunc per metum etc. Unde in Iob: Stringit caudam quasi cedrum =|24|= y quia in eo conflabunt^ omnes malitiae; et sicut Christus habuit omnia charismata, ut natura assumpta potuit accipere; sic ille omnes malitias habebit.


2. Trinity Must Shine Forth



9. And so, progressing little by little, Scripture explains how the Antichrist will be, first, most filthy, etc. Hence, next to the tree of life was the tree of the knowledge of good and evil: for the latter promised good and rendered evil, wherefore it will turn into a serpent, a dragon and a beast. In all these mysteries, there is some relationship with the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, for the Trinity must shine forth mostly through their works.
9. Sic igitur Scriptura explicat paulatim procedendo, quomodo antichristus erit primo immundissimi etc. Unde iuxta lignum vitae erat lignum scientiae boni et mali =|25|=  ; quia iste promittet bona et dabit mala. Unde efficietur serpens, draco et bestia. -- In omnibus istis mysteriis correspondentia est Patri et Filio et Spiritui sancto, quia Trinitas maxime debet refulgere in omnibus operibus horum mysteriorum.


10. There follows a reference to seeds and fruits. The earth brought forth vegetation, every kind of seed-bearing plant. As in the gathering of the waters, there was a symbol of the many forms of intelligent beings, and in the germination of the earth, a symbol of the multiplicity of sacramental images, so also in the seeds is shown a kind of infinity in the heavenly theories that are pointed to by these same seeds. For the principal intelligences and figures exist in certain determined numbers, while the theories are almost infinite. For as the reflection of light-rays and images from a mirror comes about in almost infinite ways, so it is from the mirror of Scriptures. Who can know how many are the intermediate angles between the right and the obtuse, between the obtuse and the acute? Hence, as in the seeds there is multiplication to infinity, so also are the theories multiplied. Wherefore in Daniel: Many shall pass over, and knowledge shall be manifold for one man and another look differently into the mirror.
10. Sequitur de seminibus et fructibus: Protulit, inquit, terra herbam virentem et facientem semen iuxta genus suum =|26|= . Sicut enim in congregatione aquarum significatur multiformitas intelligentiarum, et in germinatione terrae multiplicitas sacramentalium figurarum; sic in seminibus ostendit, se habere infinitatem quandam caelestium theoriarum, quae significantur per semina. Intelligentiae enim principales et figurae in quodam numero certo sunt, sed theoriae quasi infinitae: quia, sicut refulsio radii et imaginis a speculo fit modis quasi infinitis, sic a speculo Scripturae. Quis potest scire, quot sunt media inter angulum rectum et obtusum, inter angulum obtusum et acutum? Sicut enim in seminibus est multiplicatio in infinitum, sic multiplicantur theoriae. Unde in Daniele: Pertransibunt plurimi, et multiplex erit scientia =|21|= , quia varie inspicit hic et ille in speculo.


11. This consideration of the theories exists between the two mirrors of the two Cherubim, that is, of the two Testaments, that shed light on each other, so that man be transformed . . . from glory to glory.  But this germination of the seeds procures the understanding of the different theories through adaptation to the different times; and the man who overlooks the times cannot know the theories. For one who ignores the past cannot know the future. If, indeed, I do not know from which tree a seed comes, I cannot know what tree is to grow from it. Hence the knowledge of future events depends on the knowledge of those of the past. Moses, indeed, in his prophecies concerning the future, was telling about the past through revelation.
11. Haec consideratio theoriarum est inter duo specula duorum Cherubim, duorum scilicet testamentorum, quae refulgent in invicem, ut transformetur homo a claritate in claritatem =|28|= . Haec autem germinatio seminum dat intelligere secundum diversas temporum coaptationes diversas theorias; et qui tempora ignorat istas scire non potest. Nam scire non potest futura qui praeterita ignorat. Si enim non cognosco, cuius arboris semen est; non possum cognoscere, quae arbor debet inde esse. Unde cognitio futurorum dependet ex cognitione praeteritorum. Moyses enim, prophetans de futuris, narravit praeterita per revelationem.


B. Mystical Body of Christ Has Six Ages



12. But it should be noted that as God created the world in six days and rested on the seventh, so also the mystical body of Christ has six ages, and a seventh that runs concurrently with the sixth, and an eighth.  These are the seminal reasons that lead to the understanding of Scriptures. The first age, resembling infancy, runs from Adam to Noah. God, indeed, in the beginning placed so to speak in a seed what later swarmed in the form of mystical facts or works. The first day symbolizes the first time, when light and knowledge were given to man; and this is infancy, which is erased by oblivion. So it is with everything that was done until the time when the Flood wiped out every animal except those that were with Noah.
12. Notandum autem, quod sicut Deus sex diebus mundum fecit et in septimo requievit; ita corpus Christi mysticum sex habet aetates et septimam, quae currit cum sexta et octava. Hae sunt rationes seminales ad cognoscendum Scripturas. -- Prima aetas quasi infantia ab Adam usque ad Noe. Deus enim in principio quasi in semine posuit quod postea pullulavit in facto mystico vel opere. Prima dies significat primum tempus, quo datur homini lux et cognitio; et haec est infantia, quae oblivione deletur; sic quidquid actum est usque ad illud tempus, quo diluvio deletum est omne animal praeter illa quae fuerunt cum Noe =|29|= .


13. The second time corresponds to the second day and to the age of childhood: for then there was made a firmament in the midst of the waters. At this time, a covenant was made by means of the rainbow, lest man be wiped out by the waters from below; and by means of the ark, lest he perish later in the flood. And as in childhood infants speak and learn to speak, so in the second time tongues were divided. And this extends from Noah to Abraham.
13. Secundum tempus respondet secundae diei et aetati pueritiae: quia tunc factum est firmamentum in medio aquarum =|30|= ; in quo tempore factum est foedus per arcam =|31|= , ne homines delerentur per aquas inferiores, et per arcum =|32|= , ne ulterius per diluvium perirent. Et sicut in pueritia pueri loquuntur et discunt loqui, sic in tempore secundo divisae sunt linguae =|33|= . Et haec aetas durat a Noe usque ad Abraham.


14. On the third day, the earth brought forth vegetation, and in the third age, that is, adolescence, man is apt to generate. And in the course of the third age, which extends from Abraham to David, the Synagogue began to flourish with Abraham, through the circumcision performed in his flesh.
14. In tertia die terra germinavit, et in tertia aetate, scilicet adolescentia, homo potens est generare. Et in tertia aetate, quae durat ab Abraham usque ad David, tunc coepit Synagoga in Abraham et per circumcisionem factam in carne eius florere =|34|= .


15. On the fourth day, the lights were made in the heavens, and the heavens were adorned; and this corresponds to the age of youth, for this age is disposed toward wisdom. And in the fourth age, or time, which extends from David to the Babylonian captivity, the reign of kings and the priesthood became strong and flourished like the two [major] lights, and the prophets were the stars.
15. In quarta die facta sunt luminaria caeli, et adornatum est caelum; et respondet aetati iuventutis, quia illa aetas apta est sapientiae. Et in quarta aetate sive tempore, quae durat a David usque ad transmigrationem Babylonis, viguit et floruit regnum et sacerdotium quasi duo luminaria, et stellae fuerunt Prophetae.


16. On the fifth day, the fishes were made, and it corresponds to decline, when the heat already begins to decrease. So also in the fifth age, that is, from the Babylonian exile to Christ, the Synagogue began to fail and to become old and lost its authority.
16. Quinta die facti sunt pisces; et respondet senectuti, ubi iam incipit calor diminui; sic in quinta aetate, scilicet a transmigratione Babylonis usque ad Christum, Synagoga incepit deficere et senuit et perdidit auctoritatem.


17. On the sixth day, God created man as a master over the beasts; and this corresponds to old age, which is mature and capable of wisdom; and it corresponds to the sixth age, from Christ to the end of the world. And in the sixth age, Christ was born, and He was crucified on the sixth day, and He was conceived in the sixth month after the conception of John [the Baptist]. And so Wisdom became incarnate in the sixth age.
17. Sexta die factus est homo princeps bestiarum; et respondet senio, quae aetas est matura et apta sapientiae; et respondet sextae aetati, quae est a Christo usque ad finem mundi; et in sexta aetate Christus natus est, sexta die crucifixus, sexto mense conceptus post conceptionem Ioannis =|35|= . Sapientia ergo sexta aetate incarnata est.


18. The seventh age runs concurrently with the sixth, that is, the repose of the souls after Christ's passion. After that comes the eighth age, the resurrection, of which the Psalmist says: At dawn I bring my plea expectantly before You. For You, O God, delight not in wickedness. And it is a return to the first, for after the seventh day, there is a return to the first. These, then, are the seeds scattered throughout for the understanding of Scripture, and they are produced from these trees in so far as they accord with common interpretation, and in this way time is divided into seven ages.
18. Septima aetas currit cum sexta, scilicet requies animarum post Christi passionem. -- Ad has sequitur octava aetas, scilicet resurrectio, de qua Psalmista ait: Mane astabo tibi et videbo, quoniam non Deus volens iniquitatem tu es =|36|= . Et est reditus ad primum, quia post septimam diem regressus fit ad primam. -- Haec sunt semina iactata ad intelligentiam Scripturarum, quae producuntur de illis arboribus secundum a expositionem communem; et sic tempus dividitur in septem aetates.


19. According to others, time is divided into five: and this is established by Christ =|6|=  who referred to five summonses: "The kingdom of heaven is like a householder who went out early in the morning to hire laborers for his vineyard." [The five summonses were] in the morning, and at the third, sixth, ninth and eleventh hours. The morning saw the beginning of the creature, for God placed man in Paradise and commanded him to till it and to keep it. =|7|=  But man had as yet neither mattock nor hoe: but he was able to make them out of the trees that were obedient to him. The second summons was under the scourge, until Noah who preached that man be more careful; the third, under Abraham who was a worshiper of God and a builder of altars, and it lasted until Moses; the fourth, under Moses through the Law and the prodigies, and it lasted until Christ; the fifth, under Christ and through Christ by means of penance—and He called all men to it and also to the wedding feast.
19. Secundum alios reducitur tempus ad quinque; et hoc ponit Christus, qui ponit quinque vocationes: Simile est regnum caelorum homini patrifamilias, qui exiit primo mane conducere operarios in vineam suam =|37|= , scilicet mane, tertia, sexta, nona, undecima. Mane fuit initium creaturae, quia posuit Deus hominem in paradiso =|38|=  et praecepit, ut operaretur et custodiret illum =|39|= . Adhuc tamen ligonem non habebat nec sarculum; de lignis tamen facere poterat, quae sibi obediebant. -- Secunda$vocatio fuit per flagellum usque sub Noe, qui praedicabat, ut caverent amplius. -- Tertia, sub Abraham, qui fuit cultor Dei et erector altarium, et haec usque ad Moysen. -- Quarta, sub Moyse per Legem et miracula, et haec usque ad Christum. -- Quinta, sub Christo et per Christum per poenitentiam, ad quam omnes vocavit et ad nuptias =|40|= .


20. According to some ancient and modern saints, three times are distinguished, those of the Law of Nature, the Law of Scripture, and the Law of Grace. =|8|=  A sevenfold series is attributed to the Holy Spirit, because of the seven charismatic graces. A fivefold series, to the Son, because of the five spiritual senses—and as a sign of this, one wing of the cherub was five cubits — a threefold series =|9|=  is attributed to the Father, because trine - ness is the principal of perfect things. For instance, every proof begins necessarily from a threefold series, and is first; again, the Father implies three concepts, that is, generation, unbegottenness, and spiration. The Law is threefold: written within, as is the case with the Law of Nature; proposed externally, as is the case with the Law of Scripture; or infused from above, as is the case with the Law of Grace. Now, these differences are of the nature of a seed, so that a man who ignores them — meaning these three times —cannot approach the mystery of the Scriptures.
20. Secundum Sanctos modernos et antiquos distinguuntur tria tempora, scilicet legis naturae, legis scriptae et legis gratiae. -- Septenarius appropriatur Spiritui sancto propter septem charismata gratiarum; quinarius Filio, propter quinque sensus spirituales -- in huius signum Cherubim ala habebant quinque cubitos =|41|=  -- ternarius Patri, quia ternarius principium est perfectorum; item, omnis probatio necessario a ternario incipit et est prima; item, Pater tres habet notiones; est enim generans, innascibilis, spirans. -- Triplex est lex: intra scripta, ut naturae; extra proposita, ut legis scriptae; desuper infusa, ut gratiae. Haec sunt seminaria, quae qui ignorat, scilicet haec tempora, non potest venire ad mysterium Scripturarum.


C. Numerology of Ot and Nt



21. Join seven ages, five callings, and three times, and you have fifteen, a number that contains a mystery, as Jerome =|10|=  demonstrates: through the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the hundred and twenty who believed. In relation to them, the sun goes up fifteen degrees in an hour in our hemisphere; for if the natural day has twenty-four hours and every sign [of the Zodiac] has thirty degrees, and twelve signs move around each day, it is necessary that each hour the sun rise by fifteen degrees in our hemisphere. And this is the dawn of the resurrection, when we shall be at the end of time, as it is written At dawn I bring my plea expectantly before You. These seminal matters are considered in an absolute way.
21. Iunge septem aetates, quinque vocationes, tria tempora, et habes quindecim, qui numerus mysterium habet, ut ostendit Hieronymus. Per descensum Spiritus sancti super centum viginti credentes: per istos quindecim gradus habet sol ascendere super nostrum hemisphaerium in una hora; quia, si dies naturalis viginti quatuor horas habet, et quodlibet signum triginta gradus, et quolibet die volvuntur duodecim signa; necesse est, ut in una hora elevetur sol super hemisphaerium nostrum quindecim gradibus; et illud est mane resurrectionis, quando erimus in fine saeculi; Mane, inquit, astabo tibi et videbo =|42|= . -- Haec seminaria absolute considerata sunt.


22. Again, whatever comes forth is compared to that from which it arises, as the tree to the seed from which it is born, and [the seed] to the tree from which the seed is born. In the same manner, the New Testament is compared to the Old, as a tree to a tree, as the letter to the letter. And as the tree is from a tree and the seed from a seed, and the letter from a letter, so is the one Testament from the other. In this regard, there is made a comparison between the Testaments in six manners, in relation to unity, duality, trinity, quaternity, quintility and sextility, with the constant addition of one unit.
22. Item, comparatur quod oritur ad illud, de quo oritur, ut arbor ad semen, de quo oritur, et ad arborem, de qua semen oritur. Sic comparatur novum testamentum ad vetus, ut arbor ad arborem, ut littera ad litteram, ut semen ad semen. Et sicut arbor est de arbore, et semen de semine, et littera de littera; sic testamentum de testamento. Secundum hoc assignatur comparatio ' duorum testamentorum sex modis, secundum differentiam unitatis, dualitatis, ternarii, quaternarii, quinarii et senarii, semper addita unitate.


23. In relation to unity, there are two testaments, the one giving birth into slavery and, the other, into freedom; the one of fear and the other of love, the one literal and the other spiritual, the one figurative and the other actual: and so these two times are distinguished as are the night and the day. Hence, in the Psalm: Day pours out the word to day, and night to night imparts knowledge. During that night, the Law was like the moon, and according to Gregory =|11|=  the Fathers were like the stars. But when the Sun came, the day was light.
23. Secundum rationem unitatis duo sunt testamenta: unum in servitutem generans, alterum in libertatem =|43|= ; unum secundum timorem, alterum secundum amorem; unum secundum litteram, alterum secundum spiritum; unum secundum figuram, alterum secundum veritatem; et sic distinguuntur ista duo tempora ut nox et dies. Unde in Psalmo: Dies diei eructat verbum, et nox nocti indicat scientiam =|44|= . In nocte illa Lex fuit ut luna; Patres, ut stellae, secundum Gregorium. Sed cum venit sol, tunc fuit clara dies.


24. Another distinction is in relation to duality. The Old Testament comprises two times: before the Law, and under the Law. In the New Testament, likewise, there are two corresponding times: the time of the calling of the Gentiles that corresponds to the first, and the time of the calling of the Jews that corresponds to the second. This time is not yet, for then will be fulfilled these words of Isaiah: One nation shall not raise the sword against another, nor shall they train for war again. For this is not yet fulfilled since both swords are still active: there are still disputes and heresies. Hence the Jews, who are waiting for this [the coming of the time of peace] believe that Christ has not yet come.
24. Alia distinctio est secundum rationem dualitatis. Vetus testamentum habet duo tempora, scilicet tempus ante Legem et tempus sub Lege. -- Sic in novo testamento respondet duplex tempus: tempus vocationis gentium, quod respondet primo; et tempus vocationis Iudaeorum, quod respondet secundo. Hoc tempus nondum est, quia tunc impletum erit illud Isaiae: Non levabit gens contra gentem gladium, nec exercebuntur ultra ad proelium =|45|= ; quia hoc nondum adimpletum est, cum adhuc vigeat uterque gladius; adhuc sunt disceptationes et haereses. Unde Iudaei, quia hoc sperant, credunt, nondum venisse Christum.


25. The fact that the Jews will be converted is certain because of Isaiah and the Apostle who teaches authoritatively: Though the number of the children of Israel are as the sands of the sea, the remnant shall he saved,  And again: A partial blindness only has befallen Israel, until the full number of the Gentiles should enter. And Isaiah shows this: The Lord has sent word against Jacob, it falls upon Israel. =|12|=  He has sent word against Jacob. Jacob is a name of nature, for He [Christ] was of his seed; but it falls upon Israel: Israel is a spiritual name. We are the sons of Israel and the sons of Abraham according to the promise, for we are the imitators of Abraham's faith. Hence again in Isaiah: An ox knows its owner, and an ass, its master's manger; but Israel does not know, My people has not understood. The ox represents the order of the apostles, wherefore Paul calls himself a Hebrew of Hebrews: for they were oxen furrowing the earth. The ass was the gentile people. Isaiah continues: "Come, let us climb the Lord's mountain, to the house of the God of Jacob." And later: One nation shall not raise the sword against another, nor shall they train for war again. The Jews oppose to this the fact that none of it has come about as yet. But the prophet is not speaking of the first advent nor of the first calling, but of the last, when the Lord ... will have His day against all that is ... arrogant. Nor should it be understood that in so doing, the Lord is dismissing these branches.
25. Quod autem Iudaei convertantur, certum est per Isaiam et Apostolum, qui allegat auctoritatem: Si fuerit numerus filiorum Israel tanquam arena maris, reliquiae salvae fient =|46|= . Et adhuc: Caecitas ex parte contingit in Israel, donec plenitudo gentium subintraret =|41|= . Et hoc ostendit Isaias: Verbum misit Dominus in Iacob et cecidit in Israel =|48|= . Verbum missum in Iacob; Iacob est nomen naturae, quia fuit de eius semine, sed cecidit in Israel; Israel, nomen spirituale: nos sumus filii Israel et filii Abrahae secundum repromissionem, quia sumus imitatores fidei Abrahae. Unde Isaias: Cognovit bos possessorem suum, et asinus praesepe domini sui; Israel autem me non cognovit, et populus meus non intellexit =|49|= . Bos, ordo apostolicus, unde Paulus dicit se Hebraeum ex Hebraeis =|30|= ; ipsi fuerunt boves prosequentes terram; asinus fuit populus Gentilis; Isaias: Venite, ascendamus ad montem Domini et ad domum Dei Iacob =|51|= . Et sequitur: Non levabit gens contra gentem gladium, nec exercebuntur ultra ad proelium =|52|= . -- Contradicunt Iudaei, quoniam nondum hoc impletum est; sed Propheta non loquitur pro primo adventu, vel pro prima vocatione, sed pro ultima, quando dies Domini erit super omnem arrogantem =|53|= , nec est intelligendum, quod illos ramos sic dimittat Deus =|54|= .


26. The third comparison between the Old and the New Testaments is related to a threefold division, for there is a time when the Synagogue was initiated, another when it was promoted, and yet another when it failed. Likewise, in the New Testament, there is a time when it was started, another when it was expanded, and yet another when it was consummated. Hence, in the Canticle the Church is praised three times, for it is one, nor is there nor can there be any other. The Church is praised when it was started: What is this coming up from the desert, like a column of smoke? When it was expanded: Who is this that comes forth like the dawn, as beautiful as the moon, as resplendent as the sun? When it was consummated: Who is this coming up from the desert (flowing with delights), leaning upon her lover? For it is necessary that Rachel give birth to her sons in the final Church 4 Hence, in the Apocalypse, Manasses is placed before his father, for he is in the sixth place, and Joseph in the twelfth, while Benjamin is in the last, and this is not without cause.
26. Tertia comparatio veteris et novi testamenti est secundum rationem ternarii: quia est tempus Synagogae initiatae, promotae, deficientis. -- Sic in novo testamento est Ecclesiae initiatae, dilatatae, con-$summatae. Unde in Cantico ter laudatur Ecclesia, quae unica tantum est, nec sunt nec possunt esse plures. Laus Ecclesiae initiatae: Quae est ista, quae ascendit per desertum sicut virgula fumi? =|35|= . Secundo, Ecclesiae dilatatae: Quae est ista, quae progreditur quasi aurora consurgens, pulcra ut luna, electa ut sol? =|36|= . Tertio, Ecclesiae consummatae: Quae est ista, quae ascendit de deserto, deliciis affluens, innixa super dilectum suum? =|31|= . Necesse est enim, quod Rachel pariat filios suos in finali Ecclesia. Unde in Apocalypsi =|58|=  Manasses ponitur ante patrem, quia sexto loco, et Ioseph undecimo, ultimo Beniamin, et non sine causa.


27. The fourth comparison between the Old and the New =| |= Testaments is according to the correlation of times. For the four times of the Old Testament are correlated to the four orders of the twelve tribes around the tabernacle, to the four sides of the city in the Apocalypse, and to the four living beings around the throne. The first time is that of the calling of patriarchs; the second, that of the institution of judges; the third, that of the anointing of kings; the fourth, that of the revelation of prophets. To these four, the times of the apostles, of the martyrs, of the pontiffs and of the virgins correspond in the New Testament.
27. Quarta comparatio veteris et novi testamenti secundum coaptationes temporum est, quia quatuor tempora in veteri testamento respondent quatuor ordinibus circa tabernaculum duodecim tribuum =|59|= , respondent quatuor lateribus civitatis Apocalypsis et quatuor animalibus circa sedem =|60|= . Primum tempus est vocationis Patriarcharum; secundum, institutionis iudicum; tertium, functionis regum; quartum, illustrationis Prophetarum. -- His quatuor in novo testamento respondet tempus Apostolorum, martyrum, pontificum, virginum.


28. The fifth comparison is related to the number five, as the right hand is related to the left, both having five fingers. The first time is that of the establishment of natures; the second, that of the inspiration of patriarchs; the third, that of the institution of laws; the fourth, that of the revelation of prophets; the fifth, that of the restoration of ruins. In the New Testament, there is correspondingly the morning, and the third, sixth, ninth, and eleventh hours. The morning corresponds to the establishment of nature, when God took the man and placed him in the garden of Eden to till it and to keep it. The first time in the New Testament is that of the diffusion of charismatic gifts, which corresponds to the essence of the creature. The second time is that of the calling of the Gentiles, which corresponds to the second time [of the Old Testament]. The third time is that of the institution of Churches by law, which corresponds to the third time [of the Old Testament]. The fourth is the time of the multiplication of religious orders, which corresponds to the fourth time [of the Old Testament], particularly to the Rechabites who lived along the Jordan River, and who were poor. =|13|=  The fifth time, at the end, is that of the restoration of ruins, for "Elias indeed is to come and to restore all things," and with him Henoch will come too. For the beast... will conquer them. And so, it is necessary that they fail, so that there be first a ruin and then a restoration; and there will be so great a tribulation ... as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect,  
28. Quinta comparatio est secundum rationem quinarii, ut sit manus dextra et sinistra habens quinque digitos. Primum tempus est conditionis naturarum; secundum, inspirationis Patriarcharum; tertium, institutionis legalium; quartum, illustrationis Prophetarum; quintum, restaurationis ruinarum. -- In novo testamento respondet mane, tertia, sexta, nona, undecima =|61|= . Mane respondet conditioni naturae, quando posuit Deus Adam in paradiso, ut operaretur et custodiret illum =|62|= . Primum tempus in novo testamento est diffusionis charismatum, quod respondet esse creaturae; secundum, vocationis gentium, quod respondet secundo; tertium, institutionis Ecclesiarum secundum leges, quod respondet tertio; quartum, religionum multiplicationis, quod respondet quarto, maxime Rechabitis, qui morabantur circa Iordanem,. qui pauperes erant =|63|= ; quintum, in fine restaurationis collapsorum, quia oportet, quod veniat Elias, qui restituet omnia =|64|= ; cum eo et veniet Henoch =|65|= . Bestia autem vincet illos duos testes =|66|= . Unde necesse est, ut prius ruant, et fiat ruina et postea restauratio; tanta erit tribulatio, ut in errorem inducantur, si fieri potest, etiam electi =|61|= .


XVII. Sixteenth Collation



A. Fourth Treatise on the Third Vision, Which Continues to Deal with the Theories Growing out of Scriptures, and a Certain Relationship of the Fruits in Corresponding Times



1600 SIXTEENTH COLLATION Fourth Treatise on the Third Vision, Which Continues to Deal with the Theories Growing out of Scriptures, and a Certain Relationship of the Fruits in Corresponding Times, in so far as These Times Correspond to Each Other; and Specifically, There Is Explained a Comparison of the Sevenfold Series According to the Correspondence of the Three Times.


1. THE earth brought forth vegetation, every kind of seed-bearing plant and all kinds of trees that bear fruit containing their seed, etc. Concerning this vision of the intelligence taught by Scripture, we have said of the spiritual interpretation that it was understood by means of the gathering of waters. Likewise, of the sacramental figure, that it was understood through the germination of the earth. We have spoken also of the theories that were understood both through the seed and through the fruit. For these theories reproduce in a manner related to seed, and they sustain in a manner related to food: wherefore they are understood partly under the aspect of seed and partly under the aspect of the germination of fruits. In terms of seed, they consist in correlations of times, by which times follow one another; in terms of the fruit of a tree [they consist also in correlations of times], by which times correspond to one another. In the order of comparison of a tree or a seed to the seed, the times follow one another; in the order of comparison of the germ to the germinating, they correspond to each other, as it will be evident by now.
1. Protulit terra herbam virentem et facientem semen iuxta genus suum lignumque pomiferum et habens fructum unumquodque secundum speciem suam =|1|=  etc. Dictum est circa istam visionem intelligentiae per Scripturam eruditae de intelligentia spirituali, quae intelligebatur per congregationem aquarum; item, de sacramentali figura, quae intelligebatur per germinationem terrae. Dictum est etiam de theonis, quae intelliguntur et per semen et per fructum. Habent enim theoriae sementivam multiplicationem et refectivam sustentationem; ideo intelliguntur partim per semen et partim per germinationem fructuum. Quantum ad semen consistunt in coaptationibus temporum, secundum quod tempora sibi invicem succedunt; quantum ad arboris fructum, secundum quod tempora sibi mutuo correspondent. Secundum comparationem arboris vel seminis ad semen tempora sibi mutuo succedunt; secundum comparationem germinis ad germinans mutuo sibi correspondent, ut iam patebit.


2. Now, the times are divided in relation to the number three, for instance, according to three Laws: one written within, one imposed from without, and one infused from above. In relation to the number five, [the times] are divided into morning and the third, sixth, ninth and eleventh hours, which are the five summonses until the end of the world. Now, in this same order of thought, six ages are distinguished, and a seventh which, as commonly agreed, runs concurrently with the sixth. After the New Testament, there will be no other, nor can any sacrament of the new Law be eliminated, for this is an Eternal Testament. These times follow one another, and there are many correspondences between them, and they are like the germination of a seed out of a seed, of a tree out of a seed, and of a seed out of a tree.
2. Distinguuntur autem tempora secundum rationem ternarii, videlicet secundum tres leges: intra scriptam, exterius dispositam, superius infusam; secundum rationem quinam: mane, tertia, sexta, nona, undecima =|2|= , quae sunt quinque vocationes usque ad finem mundi. -- Et secundum hoc distinguuntur sex aetates; septima autem currit secundum omnes cum sexta. -- Post novum testamentum non erit aliud, nec aliquod sacramentum novae legis subtrahi potest, quia illud testamentum aeternum =|3|=  est. Ista tempora sibi mutuo succedunt, et multa est in eis correspondentia, et sunt sicut germinatio seminis ex semine, ut de semine arbor, et de arbore semen.


3. Now, the times are so placed that they correspond to one another, first in the order of unity, as in the comparison of one time of the New Testament with one time of the Old, in so far as they are parallel in the letter and the spirit, in the promise and its fulfillment, in the figure and the reality, in earthly and heavenly assurances, in fear and love.
3. Assignantur autem tempora, ut sibi mutuo correspondent, primo secundum rationem unitatis, ut comparatur unum tempus novi testamenti ad unum tempus veteris testamenti secundum correspondentiam litterae et spiritus =|4|= , promissionis et solutionis, figurae et veritatis, promissionis terrenae et caelestis, timoris et amoris.


4. Again, they are compared two by two: in the Old Testament, there are the times before the Law and under the Law; in the New, the times of the calling of the Gentiles and of the calling of the Israelites that shall be at the end. And these times are symbolized by the two sons of Juda, Zara and Phares. Now, Zara put out a hand. The midwife took a scarlet thread, and tied it on his hand.. . . But. . .he drew back his hand, and Phares was born, who opened the breach. The Jews believed at first, but they immediately drew back their hand at the time of the early Church; but after all of the Gentiles have come in, then Zara will be born and the Jewish people will be converted.
4. Item, duorum temporum ad duo: in veteri testamento tempus$ante Legem et tempus sub Lege; in novo autem tempus vocationis gentium et tempus vocationis Iudaeorum, quae erit in fine. Et ista signata est in duobus filiis Iudae, scilicet Zaram et Phares. Zaram enim primo extraxit manum et obstetrix ligavit in ea coccinum =|5|= , et postea retraxit manum, et exivit Phares, qui divisit maceriam =|6|= . Iudaei primo crediderunt, sed statim manum retraxerunt in primitiva Ecclesia; sed postquam plenitudo gentium subintravit, tunc Zaram exibit, et populus Iudaeorum convertetur.


5. Again, there is a comparison of times three by three, as of the origin, promotion and fall of the Synagogue; and in the Church, the times of its beginning, expansion, and consummation. Hence, in the Canticle, there are three expressions of wonder: "Who is this," etc. in praise of the Church, and, by contrast, three expressions of sorrow in the Lamentations. =|1|=  Hence, it is not without reason that the alphabet is repeated so often.
5. Item, trium temporum ad tria, ut Synagogae initiatae, promotae et ultimatae; et in Ecclesia tempus Ecclesiae initiatae, dilatatae et consummatae. Unde in Cantico tres fiunt admirationes: Quae est ista =|1 |= etc., in laudem Ecclesiae; et econtra tres deplorationes =|8|=  in Lamentationibus; unde non sine causa toties repetitur alphabetum.


6. Once more, [times are compared] four by four, as it appears above in the preceding collation. =|2|=  Then, as fingers, five by five: [the times] of the establishment of natures, the inspiration of patriarchs, the institution of laws, the revelation of prophets, and the restoration of ruins; and, in the New Testament, [the times] of the diffusion of charismatic gifts, the calling of the Gentiles, the institution of Churches, the multiplication of religious orders, and the restoration of ruins, of which it is said that Elias, when he comes, shall restore all things.
6. Item, quatuor ad quatuor, ut patuit supra in praecedenti collatione. -- Item, quinque digitorum ad quinque: conditionis naturarum, inspirationis Patriarcharum, institutionis legalium, illustrationis prophetalium et restaurationis ruinarum; in novo testamento: donationis charismatum, vocationis gentium, institutionis Ecclesiarum, multiplicationis religionum, restitutionis omnium collapsorum. De quo dicitur, quod Elias, cum venerit, restituet omnia =|9|= .


7. Next, through the addition of one unit, there is a comparison in relation to the number six. In this sense is understood the measure of the one who carried a rod of six cubits and one palm for the measuring of the temple. Seven, for Gregory, =|3|=  is the number of universality, as found in the major and minor worlds, and in God4 This present world accessible to the senses consists in four elements that are receptive to celestial influences, and three spheres that provide influence and power. The minor world is made of the four elements, the four humors, the four temperaments, the four qualities, and the three perfecting vital powers, the vegetative, the sensitive, and the rational. Hence those things that exist in the sensible world, come together with a certain purity in the minor world. Wherefore some people say, and not without reason, that the sphere of the stars has a favorable effect on the reception of the vegetative soul, the crystalline, on the reception of the sensitive soul, and the empyrean, on the reception of the rational soul. And according to Hugh [of Saint-Victor] , =|4 |= the four-fold series corresponds to the body, the three-fold series, to the spirit.
7. Sequitur de comparatione senarii, addita unitate. Et sic accipitur mensura illius qui habebat calamum habentem sex cubitos et palmum ad mensurandum templum =|10|= . -- Septenarius secundum Gregorium est numerus universalitatis; est in maiori mundo et in minori et in Deo. -- Iste enim mundus sensibilis constat ex quatuor elementis susceptivis influentiarum caelestium et in tribus orbibus influxivis et motivis. -- Minor mundus consistit in quatuor elementis, quatuor humoribus, quatuor complexionibus, quatuor qualitatibus et tribus viribus vitalibus perfectivis, scilicet vegetabili, sensibili et rationali; unde illa quae sunt in mundo sensibili, in minori mundo colliguntur in quadam puritate. -- Unde secundum aliquos, et non irrationabiliter, dictum est, quod orbis sidereus disponit ad susceptionem animae vegetabilis, orbis crystallini ad susceptionem sensibilis, orbis empyreus ad susceptionem rationalis. Et secundum Hugonem quaternarius respondet corpori, ternarius respondet spiritui.


8. But the seven-fold series contains a major mystery. For every proportion and proportionality are dependent upon three-fold and four-fold series: because, by necessity, wherever there is proportionality, it must exist in relation to four terms, either in the order of fact or in the order of reason. Hence, Augustine in the first part of his book "On Music" =|5 |= shows that proportion goes up to the number four, which is produced out of the parts of the four-fold series.
8. Septenarius autem magnum mysterium habet. Omnis autem proportio et proportionalitas est secundum rationem ternarii et quaternarii: quia necesse est, ubi est proportionalitas, ut sit in quatuor terminis vel secundum rem, vel secundum rationem. Unde Augustinus primo Musicae ostendit, proportionem ascendere usque ad quatuor, quae ex partibus quaternarii generatur.


9. Now, this seven-fold series, either in the sensible world or in the minor world, arises out of the archetypal world, where causal principles exist in a seven-fold series. For God exists by reason of a triple-formed cause, original, exemplary, and final, and He cannot exist in any other mode. Hence the Apostle says: For from Him and through Him and unto Him are all things. But the principle of causality is dependent upon four things: height of power, depth of wisdom, breadth of benevolence, and length of eternity, so that, as the Apostle says, you may he able to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth. Power creates, wisdom governs, benevolence achieves, and eternity preserves.
9. Iste autem septenarius sive in mundo sensibili, sive in mundo minori ortum habet a mundo archetypo, ubi sunt rationes causales secundum rationem septenarii. Deus enim habet rationem triformis causae: originantis, exemplaris, Amentis, nec potest esse pluribus modis; unde Apostolus: Ex ipso et per ipsum et in ipso sunt omnia =|n|= . -- Ratio autem causandi est secundum quatuor, scilicet sublimitatem potentiae, profunditatem sapientiae, latitudinem benevolentiae, longitudinem aeternitatis; ut possitis, inquit Apostolus, comprehendere cum omnibus Sanctis, quae sit longitudo et latitudo et sublimitas et profundum =|12|= . Potentia creat, sapientia gubernat, benevolentia perficit, aeternitas conservat.


10. This universal number, in the world, in man, and in God is mysterious. It is according to it that God organizes the course of this world, and Scripture which describes its progress: and it is according to this same number that it must be handed down and explained. Hence, Scripture describes [the course of the world] in relation to the times of origin, of symbolism, and of grace or salvation.
10. Iste numerus universalitatis in mundo, in homine, in Deo est mysterialis. Secundum hunc numerum facit Deus currere mundum istum et Scripturam, quae explicat decursum mundi; et secundum hunc numerum tradi debuit et explicari. Describit ergo Scriptura secundum tempora originalia, figuralia, gratiosa seu salutifera.


11. The times of origin consist in the first seven days; the times of symbolism, in the span between the beginning of the world and Christ, when a new time begins, although Solomon said: Nothing is new under the sun — which is true in the order of nature, but this is above nature. The times of grace then come later. Moses began from the times of origin, and he was bound to do so, for Scripture, like a germinating soil, had to bring forth the seeds at first, then the symbolic trees, and finally the fruit. Hence, seven days are set as being the times of origin. The first day saw the forming of light, the second the division of the waters, the third the fecundation of the earth, the fourth the lighting of the heavenly bodies, the fifth the motion of life, the sixth the formation of man, and the seventh the first repose.
11. Tempora originalia consistunt in primis septem diebus, figuralia ab initio mundi usque ad Christum; ubi novum tempus incipit, licet Salomon dicat: Nihil sub sole novum =|13|=  -- verum est secundum naturam, sed hoc est super naturam -- et post sunt tempora gratiosa. -- A temporibus originalibus incepit Moyses =|14|= , et ita debuit facere, quia Scriptura primo debuit proferre semina tanquam terra germinans, et post, arbores figurarum, et postea, fructum. Ponuntur ergo septem dies ut tempora originalia. Prima dies, lucis formatae; secunda dies, aquae divisae; tertia dies, terrae fecundae; quarta, lucis sidereae; quinta, motivae vitae; sexta, humanae formae; septima, quietis primae.


12. The times of symbols were seven in number: the times of the founding of nature, the cleansing of sin, the choosing of a people, the establishment of the Law, the glory of the kings, the voice of the prophets, and the intermediate repose,  
12. Septem autem sunt tempora figuralia; tempus naturae conditae, purgandae culpae, gentis electae, Legis statutae, regalis gloriae, vocis propheticae, quietis mediae.


13. Likewise, in the New Testament, there are seven times: those of the conferring of grace, of the baptism in blood, of the universal rule of judicial Law, of the lofty throne, of the clear doctrine, and of the final peace.
13. In novo testamento similiter sunt septem tempora: tempus collatae gratiae, baptismi in sanguine, normae catholicae, legis iustitiae, sublimis cathedrae, clarae doctrinae, pacis postremae.


14. Understand the correspondence. The formation of light is the seedbed of the formation of nature, and the formation of nature, the seedbed of the conferring of grace. The times of the division of the waters, of the cleansing of sin, and of the baptism in blood: for as waters were separated from one another, so the cleansing occurred in the ark, and, according to Peter, it is a symbol of the form of baptism, that of blood and those of water and fire. The day of the fecundation of the earth, the time of the chosen people, and the time of the universal rule: for the earth gave forth vegetation, Abraham begot Isaac and Isaac, Jacob, and so forth, and the Church established the rule of faith to which the faithful comply in successive generations.
14. Accipe correspondentia!!!. Formatio lucis est seminarium formationis naturae, et formatio naturae, collationis gratiae. -- Tempus aquae divisae, tempus purgationis culpae, tempus baptismi in sanguine; quia, sicut dividitur aqua ab aquis, sic Purgatio in arca facta est et formam baptismi gerit, secundum beatum Petrum =|15|= , tam baptismi sanguinis quam fluminis quam flaminis. -- Dies terrae fecundae, tempus gentis electae, tempus normae catholicae. Terra germinavit, Abraham Isaac genuit, et Isaac Iacob =|16|=  etc.; et Ecclesia normam fidei statuit, secundum quam succedunt fideles fidelibus.


15. The day of the heavenly illumination, the time of the establishment of the Law, and the time of the Law of justice: for the light was made distinct in the sun, the moon and the stars; the Law was divided according to the manner of observance, the power of judgment, and the manner of living, that is, into moral, judicial and ceremonial [precepts]. Likewise, in the Church there were first canons, then laws codified by Justinian in a single corpus. The things that had been pagan were christianized. There was also the rule of monastic life, as that of St. Benedict. The canons correspond to the ceremonial [precepts], the political [laws] to the judicial, and the monastic to the moral. The day of motive life, the time of the glory of kings, and the time of the lofty throne, that is actually the throne of Rome: for as one part of motive life refers to reptiles and the other to birds, so also in the Church one part is made of kings and pontiffs while the other is made of underlings.
15. Dies lucis sidereae, tempus Legis statutae, tempus normae iustitiae. Lux enim distincta fuit per solem, lunam et stellas; Lex secundum ritum colendi, censuram iudicandi, formam vivendi, sive secundum moralia, iudicialia, caeremonialia; sic in Ecclesia canones, deinde leges per Iustinianum in unum corpus redactae; quae primo erant Paganorum factae sunt Christianorum, et regulae monasticae, ut beati Benedicti. Canones respondent caeremonialibus, politica iudicialibus, monastica moralibus. -- Dies vitae motivae, tempus regalis gloriae, tempus sublimis cathedrae, scilicet proprie Romanae cathedrae. Sicut enim una pars vitae motivae fuit repentium, alia volatilium; sic in Ecclesia una pars est regum et Pontificum, alia subditorum.


16. The day of the formation of man, the time of the prophetical voice, and the time of the clear doctrine, in which the prophesized life would come: for it was necessary that in this time there come a single order, that is, a prophetical disposition similar to the order of Jesus Christ, and of which the head would be an angel ascending from the rising of the sun, having the seal of the living God, and conforming to Christ. And he said that he had already come. The day of the repose of sabbath, the time of the intermediate repose, and the time of final repose: The time of the intermediate repose occurred when the prophets ceased to write. For when peaceful stillness compassed everything and the night in its swift course was half spent, Your all-powerful word from heaven's royal throne bounded, etc.... Then there was the silence of the prophets, intermediate between the first and the last. There was also repose, for at that time the whole world was in complete peace: for then, and twelve years hence, the Temple of Peace in Rome was closed until the coming of Christ. That temple was always open in times of war and closed in times of peace. The doors even became rusted. Then also the Emperor commanded that a census be taken of the whole world, and God placed this very thought in the heart of a pagan, in order that the Virgin would travel to Bethlehem, and once there, that she would give birth in the inn 4 And very often he insisted that such things and others of the same kind were not placed in Scriptures as a result of chance or fortune, but for a very high reason and as a very high mystery, and that anyone who failed to consider them understood nothing. There was also night in its swift course, for that was the high point of idolatry.
16. Dies humanae formae, tempus vocis propheticae, tempus clarae doctrinae, in quo esset vita prophetica. Et necesse fuit, ut in hoc tempore veniret unus ordo, scilicet habitus propheticus, similis ordini Iesu Christi, cuius caput esset Angelus, ascendens ab ortu solis habens signum Dei vivi =|11|= , et conformis Christo. -- Et dixit, quod iam venerat. -- Dies quietis sabbati, tempus quietis mediae, tempus quietis postremae. Tempus quietis mediae fuit, quando Prophetae nihil scripserunt. In Sapientia: Cum quietum silentium continerent omnia, et nox in suo cursu medium iter haberet; omnipotens sermo tuus de caelo a regalibus sedibus =|18|=  etc. Et tunc fuit silentium Prophetarum, medium inter primam quietem et ultimam. Fuit etiam quietum, quia tunc in maxima pace fuit mundus totus, unde et per duodecim annos templum pacis$Romae clausum fuit ante adventum Christi, quia tempore guerrae semper apertum erat et tempore pacis clausum, unde etiam portae rubiginosae factae sunt. Tunc etiam imperator describi fecit mundum; et Deus hoc ponebat in corde pagani, ut Virgo iret in Bethlehem et ibi pareret in diversorio =|19|= . -- Et frequentissime inculcabat, quod non sunt a casu et a fortuna ista et consimilia in Scriptura, sed maxima ratione et maximo mysterio; sed qui non considerat nihil intelligit. -- Fuit etiam nox in suo cursu =|20|= , quia tunc erat summa idololatria.


17. In this sense, therefore, the time of the founding of nature extended from Adam until Noah; the time of the cleansing of sin, from Noah until Abraham; the time of the chosen people, from Abraham until Moses. For God preferred Abraham and not Lot, Isaac and not Ismael, Jacob and not Esau, and Juda from whom Christ was born. The time of the establishment of the Law extended from Moses until Samuel who anointed one reprobate king and another who had been chosen. The time of the glory of the kings extended from David to Ezechiah, and it is then that the wandering of the ten tribes took place. The time of the voice of the prophets extended, strictly speaking, from Ezechiah, but generally speaking, from Oziah who was a leper, until Zorobabel. Under Ezechiah there came about the major miracle by which the day had thirty-two hours, through the backward motion of the sun. The time of peace and rest extended from Zorobabel to Christ.
17. Secundum hoc ergo tempus naturae conditae fuit ab Adam usque ad Noe; tempus culpae purgandae, a Noe usque ad Abraham; tempus gentis electae ab Abraham usque ad Moysen. Elegit enim Deus Abraham, non Lot; Isaac, non Ismael; Iacob, non Esau; et Iudam, de quo natus est Christus =|21|= . Tempus Legis statutae, a Moyse usque ad Samuelem, qui unum reprobum regem inunxit et alium electum =|22|= . Tempus regalis gloriae, a David usque ad Ezechiam, in quo transmigratio decem tribuum facta est =|23|= . Tempus vocis propheticae, ab Ezechia stricte loquendo, large ab Ozia, qui fuit leprosus, usque ad Zorobabel =|24|= . Sub Ezechia factum est illud magnum miraculum, quod dies habuit triginta duas horas per reversionem solis =|25|= . Tempus pacis et quietis, a Zorobabel usque ad Christum.


18. In the New Testament, the time of the conferring of grace extended from Christ and the apostles, including the death of John, until Pope Clement. The time of the baptism in blood, from Clement until Sylvester, for the Great Persecution began under Clement, when the Jews were sold in slavery and expelled from Jerusalem, and Clement was sent in exile with the people to Chersona in Greece. And during that intermediate time between Clement and Sylvester, there were ten major persecutions. The time of the universal rule extended from Sylvester until Pope Leo the First, under whom the Apostles' Creed was given. The time of the Law of justice, from Leo until Gregory, the Doctor of the Church. Then were established the laws of Justinian, and the canonical and monastic definitions and rules. And then also was the time when blessed Benedict prophesized concerning Gregory and blessed his mother when she was pregnant.
18. In novo testamento tempus collatae gratiae, a Christo et Apostolis, comprehendendo mortem Ioannis, usque ad Clementem Papam. -- Tempus baptismi in sanguine, a Clemente usque ad Silvestrum, quia sub Clemente incepit magna persecutio, quando Iudaei venditi fuerunt, expulsi de Ierusalem, et Clemens cum populo missus est Chersonam in exsilium in Graeciam. Et in illo tempore medio a Clemente usque ad Silvestrum fuerunt decem maximae persecutiones. -- Tempus normae catholicae, a Silvestro usque ad Leonem Papam primum, sub quo datum est Symbolum. -- Tempus legis iustitiae, a Leone usque ad Gregorium Doctorem, in quo statutae sunt leges Iustinianae et canones et regulae canonicae et monasticae; in quo beatus Benedictus, qui etiam prophetavit de beato Gregorio et benedixit matrem praegnantem.


19. The time of the lofty throne extended from Gregory to Hadrian, under whom the Empire was taken over by the Alemans, and a part of it became the Empire of Constantinople. Charles the Great was Emperor in the Western Church. Pippin was the first of the Franks to become King of Italy, for unable to bear the insult of foreign powers, they made him King of Italy; and he fought the King of the Longobards and overcame him. =|6|=  The time of the clear doctrine extended from Hadrian. But how long it lasted, who is able to say, and who has said? It is certain that we are living in it; it is certain also that it will last until the downfall of the beast that comes up from the sea, when Babylon will be confounded and destroyed, and peace will be given. But first, tribulation must come to pass. And here no boundary can be set, for no one knows how long this time of major peace is to last, for when they shall say, "Peace and security," even then sudden destruction will come upon them. But the seventh time, that of rest, starts with the angels swearing by Him who lives forever. .. that there shall be delay no longer; but that in the days of the voice of the seventh angel,.. .the mystery of God will be accomplished.
19. Tempus sublimis cathedrae, a Gregorio usque ad Hadrianum, sub quo mutatum est imperium ad Alemannos, et divisum imperium Constantinopolitanum. Carolus magnus imperator in Ecclesia occidentali fuit, Pipinus primus rex Italiae de Francis, quia, cum insultum alienarum gentium sustinere non possent, fecerunt eum regem Italiae;$et pugnavit contra regem Longobardorum et praevaluit. -- Tempus clarae doctrinae, ab Hadriano. Sed quantum durabit, quis potest dicere vel dixit? Certum est, quod in illo sumus; certum etiam, quod durabit usque ad deiectionem bestiae ascendentis de abysso =|26|= , quando confundetur Babylon et deridetur =|27|= , et post dabitur pax; primum tamen necesse est, ut veniat tribulatio =|28|= ; et ibi non est ponendus terminus, quia nullus scit, quantum tempus illud magnae pacis duret, quia, cum dixerint: Pax et securitas, tunc repentinus eis superveniet interitus =|29|= . -- Tempus autem septimum sive quietis incipit a clamore Angeli, qui iuravit per viventem in saecula saeculorum, quod tempus amplius non erit; sed in diebus vocis septimi Angeli consummabitur mysterium Dei =|30|= .


20. But the Apostle John comprehends the seven times of the Apocalypse in seven visions, and each one of these is sevenfold, and they attain the number of the jubilee. Perhaps these times are closed in the Psaltery that contains three series of fifty.
20. Sed septem tempora Ioannes Apostolus in Apocalypsi comprehendit septem visionibus et quaelibet istarum est septiformis et consurgit ad numerum iubilaei =|31|= . -- Haec septem tempora forte clauduntur in Psalterio, ubi sunt tres quinquagenae.


21. Understand also the concordance between the times of symbols and the times of salvation. In both the creation and the salvation of nature, there were three elements: the formation of man out of clay; second, the temptation, the fall, and the stripping; third, the expulsion [from paradise], and the murder of one son by the other, wherefore all the children born of Cain were wicked, and all of them perished. =|7|=  In the New Testament, after the universal scripture and the course of time, Christ was formed, as was man on the sixth day, that He may have dominion over the fish of the sea, and the birds of the air. As the Psalm says, what is man that You should be mindful of him, or the son of man that You should care for him? You have made him little less than the angels, and crowned him with glory and honor. You have given him rule over the works of your hands, putting all things under his feet: all sheep and oxen, yes, and the beasts of the field, the birds of the air, the fishes of the sea, etc. And in order that it be understood of Christ, the Apostle says: You have made him little less than the angels, and crowned him with glory and honor. And there follows: But we do see Him who was made "a little lower than the angels," namely, Jesus, crowned with glory and honor because of His having suffered death. Man was created out of a virgin soil that had never received blood, which signifies Christ born of the Virgin; and as Eve was formed out of Adam's side, so also the Church, out of the side of Christ. But since Christ never sinned, how can Adam's transgression correspond to Him? There must be transference from the head to the body.
21. Accipe adhuc correspondentiam temporis figuralis et salutaris. -- In tempore naturae conditae et salutaris tria fuerunt: formatio hominis de terra; secundum tentatio, transgressio et nudatio; tertium eiectio, et unus filius interfecit alium, et ideo omnes filii, qui nati sunt de Cain, mali fuerunt et omnes perierunt =|32|= . -- In novo testamento post scripturam universalem et temporum cursus formatus est Christus, sicut homo sexta die, qui praesit volatilibus caeli et piscibus maris =|33|= ; sicut dicit Psalmus: Quid est homo, quod memor es eius; aut filius hominis, quoniam visitas eum? Minuisti eum paulo minus ab Angelis, gloria et honore coronasti eum. Omnia subiecisti sub pedibus eius, oves et boves universas, insuper et pecora campi. Volucres caeli et pisces maris =|34|=  etc. Et quod intelligatur de Christo, Apostolus dicit: Minuisti eum paulo minus ab Angelis, gloria et honore coronasti eum =|35|=  etc.; sequitur: Eum autem, qui modico quam Angeli minoratus est, videmus Iesum propter passionem mortis gloria et honore coronatum =|36|= . Homo conditus de terra virginea, quae nondum sanguinem susceperat, significat Christum de Virgine natum; sicut etiam Eva de latere Adae formata =|37|= , sic Ecclesia de Christi latere. -- Sed cum Christus nunquam$praevaricatus fuerit, quomodo sibi correspondet transgressio Adae? Hoc transferri debet a capite ad membra.


22. It should be noted that the Church was placed in paradise, like the first man, to till it, in such a way that no one would say that anything he possessed was his own. For it began in a state of great perfection that is observed today in the religious life, for the love of Christ was still recent, and in those days a large number also of the priests accepted the faith. This Church, meaning the one that began with the Jews, because they were converted at one time by the three thousand, and at another, by the five thousand, possessed the tree of life, that is, faith, because My just one lives by faith. It also had the tree of knowledge, that is, the Law, which remained with them for seeing and reading, and not for eating. Much more: for "the day you eat of it, you must die." And so you may see the tree of knowledge, but not eat of it, or else you would destroy what Christ had done; and death would necessarily come in, for the letter kills. Hence Paul says: I, Paul, tell you that if you be circumcised, Christ will be of no advantage to you.
22. Notandum, quod Ecclesia posita fuit in paradiso, sicut primus homo, ut operaretur =|38|= , cum nullus aliquid suum esse dicebat =|39|= . Incepit enim in magna perfectione quod modo in religiosis observatur, quia amor Christi adhuc recens erat; tunc multa turba sacerdotum obediebat fidei =|40|= . Haec Ecclesia, scilicet quae incepit in Iudaeis, quia convertebantur modo tria millia =|41|= , modo quinque millia =|42|= , habuit lignum vitae =|43|= , scilicet fidem, quia iustus meus ex fide vivit =|44|= ; habuit etiam lignum scientiae =|45|= , scilicet Legem, quae remansit sibi ad videndum et legendum, non ad vescendum; immo in quocumque die comederis ex eo, morte morieris =|46|= . Unde lignum scientiae potes videre, non manducare, quia destrueres quidquid Christus fecit; et necesse esset, subintrare mortem, quia littera occidit =|47|= . Unde Paulus dixit: Ego Paulus dico vobis, quod si circumcidamini" Christus vobis nil proderit =|48|= .


23. Now Adam, in the act of making fruitful, represents those doctors who, falling upon the law as lovers upon their spouse, consumed the tree of the knowledge in order to observe the Law, and consented to the Serpent who persuaded them to do so, whence arose the heresy of the Ebionites, =|8 |= [who taught] that the Law was to be observed together with the Gospels. j And so great was the zeal for the Law that Peter fell into that fallacy, but the grace of God delivered him. And thereupon follows the expulsion [from Paradise], God withdrawing Himself from them. And they were dispersed, and cursed in their work, and devoured as by two bears, Titus and Vespasian. Thus did Cain, the murderer of his brother, that is, the Jewish people, receive a sign.
23. Doctores autem illi significantur per Adam fecundantem, qui incumbentes super Legem, quasi amantes uxorem, comederunt de ligno scientiae, ut Legem observarent, et consenserunt serpenti, qui suadebat Legem observandam; et inde orta est haeresis Ebionitarum, quod Lex observanda esset cum Evangelio; et fuit tantus zelus Legis, ut Petrus iret in illam simulationem; sed gratia Dei ipsum liberavit. -- Et inde sequitur eiectio, quod Deus ab eis recessit; et dispersi sunt et maledicti sunt in opere suo =|49|=  et quasi a duobus ursis =|50|= , Tito et Vespasiano, devorati sunt. Et sic Cain, scilicet populus Iudaeorum, occisor fratris sui, signum habuit =|51|= .


24. Likewise in the time after the cleansing of sin, there were three [divisions]: the building of the Ark, the showing of the rainbow, and the separation of tongues. For a hundred years, Noah worked on the Ark in which he was saved together with seven souls. And, as Peter says, baptism is the type of this— [baptism] of water, of desire and of blood. In the New Testament, Clement was saved in this Ark, for a marble temple was prepared for him in the sea by angel hands, while the others were submerged. And out of this there came about a great miracle, that for so many years the sea remained open, until pirates and robbers removed his body.j =|9|=
24. In tempore culpae purgatae similiter fuerunt tria: fabricatio arcae, ostensio arcus, divisio linguarum =|52|= . Noè per centum annos fabricavit arcam, in qua Noe cum septem animabus salvatus est. Cuius typum gerit baptismus, secundum quod dicit beatus Petrus =|53|= , et fluminis et flaminis et sanguinis. -- In novo testamento Clemens in hac arca contutatus est, quia praeparatum est sibi templum marmoreum in mari Angelicis manibus, et alii submersi sunt. Unde fuit magnum miraculum, quod per tot annos aperiebatur mare, donec piratae et latrones asportaverunt corpus eiuf.


25. Another event was the showing of the rainbow; and at that time God led Noah out, and made with him a covenant. In the New Testament, there were ten tribulations, so that Christians could say, "Lord, save us! we are perishing!" =|10 |= And then Constantine was led out, and the sign of the cross was shown to him in the sky, (the sign) by which he was to win; and then he made a covenant, that the Roman Empire would never persecute Christians. Then was the kingdom of Nimrod scattered, and the Tower of Babylon, meaning the Romans, towards which all eyes were drawn. For in Scriptures Rome is called Babylon. And there came about a separation of tongues, and the Hebrew language remained with the house of Heber, and the witnessing of Christ, with the Christian people.
25. Aliud fuit ostensio arcus; et tunc eduxit Deus Noè et pepigit cum eo foedus. -- In novo testamento decem tribulationes fuerunt, ita ut Christiani possent dicere: Domine, salva nos, perimus =|54|= . Et tunc$eductus est Constantinus, et ostensum est sibi signum crucis in caelo, in quo vincere deberet; et tunc pepigit foedus, quod nunquam Romanum imperium persequeretur Christianos. -- Tunc imperium Nemrod dissipatum est =|55|= , et turris Babylonis =|56|= , scilicet Romani, ad quam tunc omnes aspiciebant. Roma autem in Scripturis Babylon dicta est. Facta est etiam divisio linguarum, et lingua Hebraea remansit in domo Heber =|57|= , et remansit confessio Christi in populo christiano.


26. In the time of the chosen people, three things came about: the birth of the Patriarchs, the going down of their offspring into Egypt, and the affliction and liberation of the people. Likewise, to the Roman Pontificate was given a descendence of most illustrious doctors, both of Greek and of Latin expression, paralleling the Twelve Patriarchs: the Greeks, Epiphanius, Basil, Gregory of Nazianza, Gregory of Nyssa, Athanasius and Chrysostom; the Latins, Jerome, Augustine, Hilarion, Ambrose, Orosius and Gregory. After that the Emperor went down to Constantinople, and others after him, and there they obtained all kinds of goods. At the death of Constantine, Constantius arose, who knew nothing of Joseph and was a detestable Arian, and then Valentian, and Julian, the worst of apostates, and they afflicted the people of God through heresies until the time of Theodosius =|11|=  who was born in the West, became a great Christian, destroyed and uprooted Arianism, and exalted the Church.
26. In tempore gentis electae tria facta sunt: generatio Patriarcharum, descensus patriarchalis seminis in Aegyptum, afflictio populi et liberatio eius. -- In novo testamento similiter Pontifici Romano datum est semen Doctorum altissimorum in Graeca et Latina lingua quasi Patriarchae duodecim. Graeci: Epiphanius, Basilius, Gregorius Nazianzenus, Gregorius Nyssenus, Athanasius, Chrysostomus; Latini: Hieronymus, Augustinus, Hilarius, Ambrosius, Orosius, Gregorius. -- Post imperator descendit Constantinopolim, et alii post eum, et ibi obtinuerunt bona quaeque. -- Mortuo Constantino, surrexit Constantes, qui ignorabat Ioseph*, pessimus Arianus; et post Valentinianus et Iulianus, apostata pessimus, et afflixerunt populum Dei per haereses usque ad tempus Theodosii, qui natus est in occidente, qui fuit christianissimus, qui deiecit et extirpavit Arianos et exaltavit Ecclesiam.


27. In the fourth time, that of the establishment of the law, there was the giving of the Law, the defeat of enemies and the distribution and claiming of inheritances. In the New Testament, that is, from Leo until Gregory, the canonical, political and monastic laws were given. Leo, indeed, set the canons in order, partly through four Councils and partly through his own action. Likewise, the defeat of the enemies came about through Justinian, by the fact that he overcame the Vandals, the Goths and the Longobards who had invaded those parts of Italy. Again, there was a distribution of inheritances, for Gaul, Britain and Germany were fully converted to the Faith, and the Church was enlarged in the West, although temples to the idols still stood in France. But the enlargement came about in the land of the promise, not in Egypt nor around Greece or the Latin nations.
27. In tempore quarto, scilicet Legis statutae, fuit latio Legis, prostrati hostium, distributio et vindicatio hereditatum. -- In novo testamento, scilicet a Leone usque ad Gregorium, lata est lex canonica, politica, monastica. Leo enim partim ex quatuor Conciliis, partim ipse canones ordinavit. -- Item, prostratio hostium similiter per Iustinianum, qui Vandalos, Gothos, Longobardos, qui illas partes Italiae invaserant, superavit. -- Item, distributio hereditatum, quia Gallia, Britannia, Germania conversa est ad fidem in plenitudine, et dilatata est Ecclesia in occidente, licet adhuc essent idolorum templa in Francia; sed dilatatio fuit in terra promissionis, non in Aegypto, non circa Graecos, sed circa Latinos.


28. In the fifth time, that of the glory of kings, three events occurred: the fall of the prideful king, the development of divine worship, and the separation of the Ten Tribes from the Two. In the New Testament, in the days of the Supreme See, from Gregory until Hadrian, the Patriarch of Constantinople contended with the Patriarch of Rome, and called himself the Catholic Patriarch, meaning Universal, but he was excommunicated and humiliated, and the throne of David was lifted up, as the Lord had promised Peter. Likewise, Gregory, still a young man and not yet a Pope, opposed Eutychius who denied the Resurrection, and overcame him in the sight of the people as David had overcome Goliath. =|12|=  And also, as David enlarged worship, so did he put order in the Office; and as David led the Ark with seven choirs, so did he lead a procession with seven choirs; and as David saw an angel striking Jerusalem and obtained that he . cease, so did he see it over Rome and obtain that he cease. And so it came about that the Greeks, seeing the Church of Rome exalted, were cut away and fell into the heresy of Eutychius, and this at the time of Heraclius who was good at first and then fell into heresy. After him, no longer was there any Emperor in the East. Again, as the Assyrians devastated the Jews, so did the Saracens occupy the Churches of Antioch, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Constantinople, and all the way to Sicily. As the Ten Tribes fell and broke away from the house of David, so did these Churches fall and break away from Peter to whom it had been said: "I will give thee the keys of the kingdom," and they succumbed to the wolves.
28. In quinto tempore, scilicet regalis gloriae, fuerunt tria: Deiectio superbi regis, ampliatio cultus divini, divisio decem tribuum a duabus. -- In novo testamento temporis sublimis cathedrae a Gregorio usque ad Hadrianum patriarcha Constantinopolitanus contendebat cum Romano et dicebat se patriarcham catholicum, hoc est universalem, et fuit excommunicatus et humiliatus, et thronus David exaltatus, sicut Petro promiserat Dominus =|59|= . Similiter, Gregorius, adhuc iuvenis et$nondum Pontifex pugnavit cum Eutychio, qui negabat resurrectionem, et devicit eum in conspectu populi, ut David Goliam. -- Sicut etiam David ampliavit cultum, sic iste ordinavit officium; et sicut David ducebat arcam cum septem choris, sic iste fecit processionem cum septem choris; et sicut David vidit Angelum percutientem super Ierusalem et promeruit, ut cessaret, sic iste super Romam et promeruit, ut cessaret. -- Sicque factum est quod Graeci, videntes, Ecclesiam Romanam exaltari, divisi sunt et ceciderunt in haeresim Eutychianam, et hoc tempore Heraclii, qui primo fuit bonus et postea cecidit in haeresim. Post illum nunquam fuit imperator in oriente. Sicut etiam Assyrii vastaverunt Iudaeos, sic Saraceni occupaverunt Ecclesiam Antiochenam, Hierosolymitanam, Alexandrinam, Constantinopolitanam, usque Siciliam. Sicut illae decem tribus ceciderunt et recesserunt a domo David; sic illae Ecclesiae, quia ceciderunt et recesserunt a Petro, cui dictum erat: Tibi dabo claves regni caelorum*, inciderunt in lupos.


29. In the sixth time, three events came about: the height of victory, of teaching, and of prophecy. The height of victory occurred with Sennacherib who rose against Jerusalem, and an angel of the Lord ... slew ... a hundred and eighty-five thousand. Yet Ezechias was healed in a manner that opposed [the laws of] nature, and the sun went backwards. Likewise, in the time from Hadrian through that of Charlemagne who miraculously brought about triumphal victories as if he were an angel sent by the Lord, and the sun, to wit, the tide of tribulations, receded, and there came about the peace of the Church which was later to set up archbishops, bishops and the religious way of life. Clarity of teaching belonged to that time, for Charlemagne appealed to the clerics and had books written, for instance in [the monastery of] St. Denis, and Bibles in many places, and people began to read and to study philosophy, and he [the Emperor] also increased the number of members of religious communities. At that time, it was fitting that there come about a way of life that would be orderly, that would have prophetical action. Now, this time is twofold. Hence, as in the passion of the Lord, first there was light, then darkness, then light again: so also it must come to pass that there be first the light of teaching, and then that Josias be the successor of Ezechias, and that after this, there be the tribulation of the Jews in captivity. For it was a necessity that there arise at first a prince who would support the Church, one who is to come, or one who has already existed—and he added: Would that he had not already existed — after which would come the darkness of tribulations. In a corresponding time, Charlemagne exalted the Church and his successors opposed it: in the days of Henry IV there were two popes, and two also in the days of Frederic the Great. And it is certain that one of them wanted to exterminate the Church4 But an angel ascending from the rising of the sun . . . cried ... to the four angels ... "Do not harm the earth or the sea ... till we have sealed the servants of our God on their foreheads." Wherefore the Church's tribulations are lasting until now. And it was said to the Angel of Philadelphia, who was the sixth, "Thus says the holy one, the true one, he who has the key of David, he who opens and no one shuts, and who shuts and no one opens: I know thy works. Behold, I have caused a door to be opened before thee.— And he said that now for the first time the understanding of Scripture would be given, either as revelation or as the key of David, to a single person or to a great number of people; and I believe rather [that it would be given] to a great number.
29. In sexto tempore facta sunt tria: praeclaritas victoriae, praeclaritas doctrinae, praeclaritas vitae propheticae. -- Praeclaritas victoriae in Sennacherib, qui venit contra Ierusalem, et Angelus Domini interfecit centum octoginta quinque millia =|61|= . Et Ezechias contra naturam sanatus est, et sol abiit retro =|62|= . -- Similiter in tempore Hadriani per Carolum, qui miraculose fecit triumphos quasi missus Angelus a Domino, et sol, id est aestus tribulationis, abiit retro, et facta est pax Ecclesiae, ut postea statueret archiepiscopos, episcopos et coenobia. -- Hoc tempore fuit claritas doctrinae, quia Carolus vocavit clericos et scripsit libros, ut in sancto Dionysio Biblia et in multis locis, et inceperunt legere et philosophari, et religiosos etiam dilatavit. -- Hoc tempore oportuit venire vitam per ordinem, qui haberet vitam propheticam. Hoc autem tempus est geminum, unde, sicut in passione Domini fuit primo lux, deinde tenebra, postea lux, sic necesse est, ut primo sit lux doctrinae, et succedat Iosias Ezechiae =|63|= , post quam facta est tribulatio Iudaeorum per captivitatem. Necesse est enim, ut surgat unus princeps zelator Ecclesiae, qui vel erit, vel iam fuit -- et addidit: Utinam iam non fuerit -- post quem fit obscuritas tribulationum. Hoc tempore similiter Carolus exaltavit Ecclesiam, et eius successores oppugnaverunt eam: tempore Henrici quarti fuerunt duo Papae, similiter tempore Frederici magni, duo. Et certum est, quod aliquis inter eos voluit exterminare Ecclesiam; sed Angelus ascendens ab ortu solis cla-$mavit quatuor Angelis: Nolite nocere terrae et mari, quousque signemus servos Dei nostri in frontibus eorum =|64|= . Unde adhuc restat Ecclesiae tribulatio. Et dictum est Angelo Philadelphiae, qui sextus est: Haec dicit Sanctus et Verus, qui habet clavem David; qui aperit, et nemo claudit; claudit, et nemo aperit. Scio opera tua, quia ecce, dedi coram te ostium apertum =|65|= . -- Et dixit, quod adhuc intelligentia Scripturae daretur vel revelatio vel clavis David personae vel multitudini; et magis credo, quod multitudini.


30. In the seventh time, we know the following events occurred: the rebuilding of the temple, the restoration of the city and the establishment of peace. Likewise, in the seventh time to come, there will be a rebuilding of divine worship and a restoration of the city. Then will be fulfilled the prophecy of Ezechiel, when the city will come down from heaven, not indeed that city which is above, but the one below, that is, the [Church] Militant: when it will be conformed to the [Church] Triumphant, as far as it is possible on the pilgrim way. Then there will be a building of the city, and a restoration [of it] as it was in the beginning. And then there shall be peace. But how long this peace will last, God knows.
30. In septimo tempore scimus quod haec facta sunt; reaedificatio templi, restauratio civitatis et pax data. Similiter in tempore septimo futuro erit reparatio divini cultus et reaedificatio civitatis. Tunc implebitur prophetia Ezechielis =|66|= , quando civitas descendet de caelo, non quidem illa quae sursum est =|67|= , sed illa quae deorsum est, scilicet militans; quando erit conformis triumphanti, secundum quod possibile est in via. Tunc erit aedificatio civitatis et restitutio, sicut a principio; et tunc pax erit. Quantum autem durabit illa pax, Deus novit.


31. And so, since there are seven times both in the Old Testament and in the New, and each one of them is threefold or contains three events, the sevenfold series multiplied twice by three amount to the number forty-two, corresponding to the forty-two stages through which the promised land was reached. Thus it is clear how Scripture describes the succession of times; and they are not haphazard nor left to chance, but they contain a marvelous light and many spiritual meanings.
31. Igitur cum sint septem tempora et in veteri testamento et in novo, et quodlibet triforme, vel in quolibet tria sint; septenarius multiplicatus per ternarium bis, quadraginta duo facit; et iste sunt quadraginta duae mansiones, quibus pervenitur ad terram promissionis =|68|= . -- Et sic patet, quomodo Scriptura describit successiones temporum; et non sunt a casu et fortuna, sed mira lux est in eis et multae intelligentiae spirituales.


XVIII. Seventeenth Collation



A. Fifth Treatise on the Third Vision, Which is Concerned with the Theories of Scripture Signified by the Fruits



1700 SEVENTEENTH COLLATION Fifth Treatise on the Third Vision, Which Is Concerned with the Theories of Scripture Signified by the Fruits, That Is, with Considerations Sustaining the Intellect and the Affective Dispositions, and First with Those Sustaining the Intellect.


1. THE earth brought forth vegetation, etc. It has been said that the vision of intelligence taught by Scripture is concerned with three objects: spiritual meanings, signified by the gathering of waters; sacramental figures, signified by the growth of plants and trees; manifold theories, signified by the multiplication of seeds and the sustainment obtained from trees. Some of the theories consist in the consideration of the times which follow upon each other, in a sense bearing seed, and in the correspondence between them. Other theories consist in the consideration of [those forms of] sustainment that result in salvation. Not by bread alone does man live. Man must consider with what he is being fed, that is, the words of Scripture: hence it is a tree that bears fruit. For the intellect is in need of sustainment, and so are the affective dispositions.
1. Protulit terra herbam virentem =|1|=  etc. Dictum est, quod visio intelligentiae per Scripturam eruditae versatur circa tria: circa intelligentias spirituales, quae intelliguntur per congregationes aquarum; circa figuras sacramentales, per germinationem herbarum et arborum; circa theorias multiformes, per multiplicationem seminum et refectionem arborum. Istae theoriae consistunt in considerationibus temporum sibi succedentium, quae sunt seminaria quaedam et in correspondentia eorundem; aliae theoriae consistunt in considerationibus salutarium refectionum; quia non in solo pane vivit homo =|2|= . Considerare debet homo, ex quo pascatur, scilicet eloquio Scripturae; unde est lignum faciens fructum =|3|= . Indiget enim intellectus refectione, indiget et affectus.


B. Sustainment of the Intellect



2. We must speak first of the sustainment of the intellect. But, as the Apostle says, the farmer who toils must be the first to partake of the fruit. For the preacher himself must first be filled and sweetened before offering [anything] to others. Yet, there are many who want to be considered prophets and to be heard as prophets, and their bread or food is tasteless and improperly cooked and cold, and they hold the people, but to little avail.
2. Primo dicendum de refectione intellectus. Sed, sicut dicit Apostolus, laborantem agricolam oportet prius edere de fructibus =|4|= ; quia praedicator oportet quod prius sit imbutus et dulcoratus in se, et post aliis proponat. Multi tamen volunt videri prophetae et audiri tanquam prophetae; et panis eorum vel cibus insipidus est et male coctus et frigidus, et detinent populum et parum proficiunt.


3. It should be noted that as a fruit delights both sight and taste, it delights the sense of sight mostly by its excellence and beauty, but the sense of taste, by its sweetness and flavor. Likewise, these theories sustain the intellect by their beauty, and the affective dispositions by their sweetness. This is what Scripture suggests when it says: The Lord God planted a garden in Eden, to the east, and He put there the man He had formed, etc. This is said as a recapitulation on the seventh day, since the planting was done on the third day.
3. Notandum, quod sicut fructus oblectat visum et gustum, tamen principalius visum oblectat sua pulcritudine et decore, gustum vero dulcore et suavitate; sic et istae theoriae reficiunt intellectum suo decore et affectum sua suavitate. -- Hoc innuit Scriptura dicens: Plantaverat autem Dominus Deus paradisum voluptatis a principio, in quo posuit hominem =|5|=  etc. Hoc dictum est per recapitulationem post septimam diem, quia ista plantatio facta fuit tertia die.


4. There follows: The Lord God made to grow out of the ground all kinds of trees pleasant to the sight and good for food, the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, so that it would sustain the intellect by its beauty and the affective dispositions by its sweetness. But consummation was to come about in the tree of life, provided caution was exercised in regard to the tree of knowledge. Hie soil, therefore, is Scripture which brings forth all kinds of trees pleasant to the sight, as regards the intellect, and good for food as regards the affective dispositions, that is, the manifold theories both delighting and sustaining. In the heavenly paradise, there is no planting, except of eternal reasons, and although there is sustainment in the fact of the predestination of all the saints, I will rejoice rather over my own.  And this is what the Lord suggests: "Rejoice rather in this, that your names are written in heaven." Paul could speak of the heavenly paradise, because he was caught up to the third heaven. We do not know, but we speak of the earthly paradise.
4. Sequitur: Produxitque omne lignum pulcrum visu et ad vescendum suave: lignum vitae in medio paradisi lignum scientiae boni et mali =|6|= , ut intellectum suo decore reficeret et affectum suavitate. Consummatio autem erat in ligno vitae, si lignum scientiae caveretur. Terra ergo est Scriptura, quae produxit omne lignum pulcrum visu quantum ad intellectum, et ad vescendum suave quantum ad affectum, scilicet multiformes theorias oblectantes et reficientes. In paradiso caelesti non est plantatio nisi rationum aeternarum; et licet ibi sit refectio de prae$destinationibus omnium Sanctorum, potissime tamen gaudebo de mea praedestinatione; et hoc innuit Salvator: Gaudete, quia nomina vestra scripta sunt in caelis =|1|= . -- Paulus potuit loqui de paradiso caelesti, qui raptus fuit usque ad tertium caelum =|8|= ; nos nescimus, sed loquimur de terrestri.


1. For the Soul is a Paradise in Which Scripture is Planted



5. For the soul is a paradise in which Scripture is planted, and it has marvelous aspects of sweetness and beauty. Hence in the Canticle: My sister, my spouse is a garden enclosed, a garden enclosed, a fountain sealed up. Thy plants are a paradise of pomegranates. The soul is a garden in which there are sacramental mysteries and spiritual meanings, where a fountain of spiritual outpourings gushes forth, but it is enclosed, and the fountain is sealed up, for they are not visible to the impure, but to those whom God knows to be His. Eternal wisdom loves this garden and dwells around it. Hence in Ecclesiasticus: I, like the river Doryx, flowed out of paradise.  This garden is watered by the One who plants all things: and whatever he did not plant will be rooted up. "Every plant that My heavenly Father has not planted will be rooted up." And consequently, I said: I will water my garden of plants, and I will water abundantly the fruits of my meadow. For He waters by means of blood, with which He sprinkled the book and all the people; He also waters through the Holy Spirit flowing from Him. The Scripture has this flow and we find it there. Such are the trees beautiful to behold and sweet to feed upon because of the beauty and flavor of their fruits.
5. Est autem anima paradisus, in qua plantata est Scriptura, et habet mirabiles suavitates et decores. Unde in Cantico: Hortus conclusus, soror mea sponsa, hortus conclusus, fons signatus, emissiones tuae paradisus =|9|= . Anima est hortus, in qua sunt sacramentalia mysteria et spirituales intelligentiae, ubi scaturit fons spiritualium emissionum; sed conclusus est et fons signatus, quia non patet immundis, sed illis, de quibus: Novit Dominus qui sunt eius =|10|= . Hunc hortum sapientia aeterna diligit et circa eum versatur; unde in Ecclesiastico: Ego sicut fluvius dioryx exivi de paradiso =|n|= . Hunc hortum rigavit ille qui omnes plantat; quam enim plantationem non plantat, illa eradicabitur. Omnis plantatio, inquit, quam non plantavit Pater meus caelestis, eradicabitur =|12|= . Sequitur: Dixi: Rigabo hortum meum plantationum et inebriabo prati mei fructum =|13|= . -- Rigat autem sanguine =|14|= , quo aspersus est liber et omnis populus; rigat etiam affluentia Spiritus sancti manantis ab ipso, quam Scriptura habet, et quam invenimus in Scriptura. Haec sunt ergo ligna pulcra visu et ad vescendum suavia ratione fructuum pulcrorum et dulcium.


2. Intellectual Refreshment



6. Let us now speak of intellectual refreshment. As the body loses its strength, beauty and health in the absence of food, so the soul without the understanding of truth becomes dark and weak, distorted and unstable in all things; and so it needs to be fed. Hence, the unsettled mind, lacking food, wanders about and is unstable. And so, Jerusalem hath grievously sinned, therefore is she become unstable, and for that reason, having been expelled from paradise, she wanders about, and [her people] have given all their precious things for food to relieve the soul. And deep suffering follows upon this. Hence there is nothing healthier than that thoughts be stabilized, lest they wander into evil. Wherefore John Cassian went with many to a certain holy Father and complained about the instability of thoughts, and the fact that there was no object upon which the mind could attach itself. =|1|=  He answered [by asking] whether they had ever written verse, and whether at present they were concerned with such things. They replied that they had done it so much that they could not think of anything else, and that they even thought about it in their sleep. And he said it happened to them because of habit. Wherefore it is necessary to accustom oneself to anything, so that, when it comes into the mind, it be not evil.
6. De refectione intellectus dicendum. Sicut enim corpus sine cibo perdit virtutem, decorem et sanitatem; sic anima sine intelligentia veritatis tenebrescit et infirma, deformis et instabilis fit in omnibus; oportet ergo refici. Hinc est, quod mens vagabunda, non habens cibum discurrit et est instabilis. Unde: Peccatum peccavit Ierusalem; propterea instabilis facta est =|15|= ; et ideo, eiecta de paradiso, vagatur et dat pretiosa quaeque pro cibo ad refocillandam animam =|16|= . Unde haec est passio misera. Propter quod nihil sanius, nisi ut Agantur cogitationes, ne vagentur in malum. -- Unde Ioannes Cassianus venit cum multis ad quendam sanctum Patrem et conquestus est de ^stabilitate cogitationum, et quod in nullo poterat firmare intellectum. Et ille respondit: Si unquam versificati fuerant, et si tunc de illis cogitabant. Responderunt, quod in tantum, quod vix de aliquo alio cogitare poterant, immo etiam dormiendo cogitabant. Dixit ille, quod illud erat propter consuetudinem. Unde oportet assuescere circa rem aliquam, quae, cum in mentem venerit, non sit mala.


7. But such a thing is Scripture, wherein not one thing but many things are found, and in which there is spiritual delight. Thus we do not go out of the garden of Paradise: it is the soul insofar as it is tilling and keeping, =|2|=  and by doing so, it makes for itself a small but delicious garden in the mind. In this knowledge alone there is delight, and in no other. The Philosopher says it is a pleasure to know that the diameter is asymmetrical to the circumference. Let this pleasure be his: provided he savors it.
7. Haec autem est Scriptura, ubi non unum sed multa inveniuntur, in quibus est delectatio spiritualis; et sic non exibimus hortum paradisi, sed est anima ut operans et custodiens =|17|=  et facit sibi ex ea$hortum parvum in mente deliciosum. -- In hac sola scientia est delectatio, non in aliis. Philosophus dicit, quod magna delectatio est scire, quod diameter est asymeter costae; haec delectatio sit sua; modo comedat illam.


8. Now, out of Scripture there comes forth a certain light or illumination in the mind and also in the imagination, so that there seems to be no going out [of Paradise] for the wise when he considers twelve aspects: inside, outside and above; below, before and after; right and left; from the opposite and in a circle; from afar and from close by.
8. Egreditur autem de Scriptura quaedam lux seu illustratio in intellectum iunctum imaginationi, ut non pateat egressus sapienti, et hoc aspiciendo ad duodecim, scilicet intra, extra, supra; infra, ante, retro; dextrorsum, sinistrorsum; ex opposito, in gyro; e longinquo, e vicino.


3. Scripture Enlightens



9. Scripture enlightens from inside by the multiplication of internal spectacles: indeed, it proposes noble spiritual sights which are the particular roots of faith. From outside, [it enlightens] through extrinsic examples, of which all of Scripture is full. If you seek an example of patience, behold Job and Tobias; of magnanimity, behold David fighting Goliath, and Judas Macchabee. As an example of faith, behold Abraham and the glorious Virgin, whose faith surpasses that of Abraham. For Abraham believed that he could have a son from a sterile old woman, but Mary believed that although a virgin, she would conceive of the Holy Spirit: nor would she have conceived had she not believed. If [you seek] an example of love, behold Moses who said: "If You would only forgive their sin! If You will not, then strike me out of the hook that You have written!" If [you seek] an example of mercy, look in Ecclesiasticus: Yet these also were godly men whose virtues have not been forgotten. If [you are looking for] justice, fortitude, prudence, purity, [Scripture] proposes you becoming examples of every virtue. For virtue consists in concrete doings, wherefore interior guidelines are not enough unless they are accompanied by a concrete example. Hence Scripture gives both. As a rule against anger, it offers: A mild answer calms wrath? Consider Abigail who broke David's wrath.
9. Illustrat Scriptura suis pullulationibus ab intra per interna spectacula; proponit enim spiritualia spectacula nobilia, quae specialiter sunt radicalia fidei; ab extra, per exempla extrinseca, de quibus tota Scriptura est plena. Si vis exemplum patientiae, respice Iob et Tobiam; si magnanimitatis, respice David contra Goliam, et Iudam Machabaeum; si fidei exemplum, Abraham et Virginem gloriosam, cuius fides transcendit fidem Abrahae. Abraham enim credidit, posse se habere filium de sterili sene =|18|= ; sed Maria, quod Virgo conciperet de Spiritu sancto, credidit =|19|= ; neque concepisset, nisi credidisset. Si exemplum caritatis, vide Moysen, qui dixit: Aut dimitte eis hanc noxam, aut dele me de libro tuo, quem scripsisti =|20|= . Si exemplum misericordiae, in Ecclesiastico: Hi sunt viri misericordiae, quorum pietates non defuerunt =|21|= . Si de iustitia, fortitudine, prudentia, munditia, de omni virtute honesta proponit tibi exempla. Quia virtus consistit circa operationes particulares, ideo non sufficit regula interius directiva, nisi sit exemplum particulare; et ideo Scriptura utrumque ponit. Contra iram dedit regulam: Responsio mollis frangit iram =|22|=  ; vide exemplum de Abigail, quae fregit iram David =|23|= .


10. Again, Scripture enlightens from above by means of divine promises, for its teaching is concerned with things above. Hence the Apostle writes: For we know that if the earthly house in which we dwell be destroyed, we have a building from God, a house not made by human hands, eternal in the heavens. And: "In My Father's house there are many mansions," says the Lord. In the Psalms, it is said: The children of men take refuge in the shadow of Your wings. They have their fill of the prime gifts of Your house; from Your delightful stream You give them to drink. For with You is the fountain of life, and in Your light we see light. And in the Apocalypse: For the Lamb who is in the midst of the throne will shepherd them, and will guide them to the fountains of the waters of life. And in a Psalm: The delights at Your right hand forever. And so [Scripture] offers us the divine promises.
10. Item, illustrat a supra per divina promissa; docet enim Scriptura de his quae sunt supra. Unde Apostolus: Scimus, quoniam, si terrestris domus nostra huius habitationis dissolvatur, quod aedificationem ex Deo habemus, domum non manufactam, aeternam in caelis =|24|= ; et: In domo Patris mei mansiones multae sunt =|25|= , ait Salvator; in Psalmis dicitur: Filii hominum sub umbra alarum tuarum sperabunt. Inebriabuntur ab ubertate domus tuae, et torrente voluptatis tuae potabis eos, quoniam apud te est fons vitae; et in lumine tuo videbimus lumen =|26|=  ; et illud Apocalypsis: Agnus, qui in medio throni est, reget illos et deducet eos ad vitae fontes aquarum =|21|= ; et in Psalmo: Delectationes in dextera tua usque in finem =|28|= . Proponit ergo nobis divina promissa.


11. Likewise, [Scripture] enlightens from below by showing forth the torments of hell. In the Psalm: He rains upon the wicked fiery coals and brimstone; a burning blast is their allotted cup. In the Apocalypse: Their portion shall be in the pool that burns with fire and brimstone. —And the smoke of their torments goes up forever and ever. Scripture proposes this from the very beginning where it is said that darkness covered the abyss, until the end. And so [Scripture] offers internal spectacles, external examples, heavenly promises, and the tortures of hell.
11. Item, illustrat ab infra proponendo inferni tormenta. Psalmus: Pluet super peccatores laqueos; ignis et sulphur et spiritus procellarum$pars calicis eorum =|7|= *\ Apocalypsis: Et pars eorum in stagno ignis et sulphuris =|30|= . Et ascendet fumus tormentorum eorum in saecula saeculorum =|31|= . Haec proponit Scriptura a principio, ubi dictum est, quod tenebrae erant super faciem abyssi =|32|= , usque ad finem. -- Proponit ergo interna spectacula, extrinseca exempla, caelestia promissa, inferni supplicia.


12. If all this is not enough for you and you wish to go out and look somewhere else for intellectual food, [Scripture] gives you also other trees, other fruits by which you may be restored. It enlightens a priori by means of directive precepts, and a posteriori by means of strict judgments; from the right, by means of dangerous satisfactions,")" and from the left by means of sweet or benign punishments. It is fitting, then, to have light before oneself. For the bidding is a lamp, and the teaching a light; and this leads to heaven. Hence, "If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments." And to the commandments are added the counsels. And this is what Scripture teaches us everywhere. Wherefore the Psalm reads: Happy are they (whose way is) blameless. And: Instruct me, O Lord, in the way of Your statutes, etc. In every verse there is a reference to commands, indicated as law, or witnessing, or declarations, or some other equivalent name. Also, in the Hebrew, every verse of each octave begins with the same letter—which cannot be rendered in our language — so that the twenty- two letters correspond to the twenty-two octaves, and each octave contains eight verses. Augustine was moved by so great a correspondence: that there be here so much knowledge and so great a variety. For Augustine himself once saw a very beautiful tree that had twenty-two branches, and each one had eight twigs, and from these the most sweet drops were running. And he understood that this tree was the Psalm: Happy are they whose way is blameless. =|4|=  Hence, meditation on the Law is supremely necessary. The Psalm reads: Happy the man who follows not the counsel of the wicked,. . . but delights in the Law of the Lord.... He is like a tree planted near running water. And Ecclesiasticus: The things that God hath commanded thee, think on them always, and in many of His works be not curious.
12. Si ista tibi non sufficiunt, sed vis exire et alibi quaerere refectionem intellectus; adhuc dabit tibi alias arbores, alios fructus, in quibus potes refici. Illustrat antrorsum per praecepta directiva; retrorsum, per districta iudicia; dextrorsum, per severa solatia; sinistrorsum, per dulcia seu benigna fragella. -- Oportet enim lumen habere ante se. Mandatum enim lucerna est, et lex lux =|}}|= ; haec dirigit in caelum, unde: Si vis ad vitam ingredi, serva mandata =|34|= , quibus adduntur consilia =|35|= ; haec proponit nobis Scriptura ubique. Unde in illo Psalmo: Beati immaculati*, et: Legem pone mihi, Domine, viam iustificationum tuarum =|37|=  etc., in omni versu fit mentio de mandatis vel sub nomine legis, vel testimonii, vel eloquii, vel alicuius nominis aequivalentis. Unde etiam apud Hebraeos omnes versus unius octonarii ab eadem littera incipiunt; quod non potuit servari apud nos, ut viginti duae litterae respondeant viginti duobus octonariis; et quilibet habet octo versus. Unde etiam Augustinus turbatus fuit circa tantam identitatem; quod tamen est magna scientia et mira varietas. Nam et ipse Augustinus semel vidit unam arborem pulcherrimam, habentem viginti duos ramos, et quilibet habebat octo ramusculos, et de illis guttae dulcissimae rorabant. Et intellexit, quod illa arbor esset Psalmus: Beati immaculati in via. Unde meditatio legis summe necessaria est; Psalmus: Beatus vir, qui non abiit in consilio impiorum, sed in lege Domini fuit voluntas eius. Et erit tanquam lignum, quod plantatum est secus decursus aquarum =|38|= . In Ecclesiastico: In multis operibus eius ne fueris curiosus, sed quae praecepit tibi, illa cogita semper =|39|= .


13. [Scripture] enlightens also a posteriori through strict judgments. For God always imposes strict judgments upon transgressions of the precepts, as in the cases of Lucifer, Adam and his wife, the depraved upon whom came the flood, the prideful who built the tower [of Babel], the Chananeans and Israel. Likewise, the New Testament is full of judgments. Now, the judgment follows the act, while the command precedes it. The judgment is related to the command: if you transgress it, you shall be punished. Unless you follow the guiding light, a sword shall pierce you. Hence the Psalm: Unless they be converted, God will sharpen His sword; He will bend and aim His bow, prepare His deadly weapons against them, and use fiery darts for arrows. The bow is the judgment of Scripture; the hardness of the wood, the Old Testament; the cord that bends the wood, the New Testament; the judgments, light or harsh, are the arrows. =|5|=  Hence again in the Psalm: The Law of the Lord is perfect, refreshing the soul; the decree of the Lord is trustworthy, giving wisdom to the simple. . . . The ordinances of the Lord are true, all of them just.
13. Item, illustrat retrorsum per districta iudicia. Semper enim fecit Deus districta iudicia de transgressionibus praeceptorum, ut de Lucifero, de Adam, de uxore sua, de Cain, de luxuriosis, super quos diluvium venit, de superbis, qui aedificaverunt turrim, de Chananaeis, de Israel. Similiter novum testamentum plenum est iudiciis. Iudicium autem est retro, praeceptum ante. Iudicium respicit praeceptum; si transgredieris, punieris; nisi sequaris lucem dirigentem, gladius percutiet te; Psalmus: Nisi conversi fueritis, gladium suum vibrabit, arcum suum tetendit et paravit illum, et in eo paravit vasa mortis, sagittas suas$ardentibus effecit =|40|= . Arcus, iudicium Scripturae; duritia ligni, vetus testamentum; chorda, quae lignum flectit, novum testamentum; iudicia leviora et duriora, sagittae. Psalmus: Lex Domini immaculata convertens animas; testimonium Domini fidele, sapientiam praestans parvulis. Iudicia Domini vera, iustificata in semetipsa =|41|=  etc.


14. Again, [Scripture] enlightens from the right by means of dangerous satisfactions. Nor is it without reason that satisfactions are called dangerous and punishments benign, for satisfactions entail serious risk. Behold Adam, Saul, Solomon, the idolater Jeroboam, and the Prince of Angels, to all of whom temporal satisfactions and a state of high eminence were occasions of ruin. For they are occasions of ruin when they please. When they do not please, man is not taken up by them. Wherefore Christ did not want to have any temporal satisfaction, because a thousand fall at your side, ten thousand at your right. =|6|=  And one should always prefer to be on that side on which less are falling.!
14. Item, dextrorsum illustrat per severa solatia. Nec sine causa dicuntur solatia severa et flagella benigna, quia solatia sunt periculosa. Vide Adam, Saul, Salomonem, Ieroboam idololatrae! et primum angelum, quibus omnibus solatia temporalia et excellentiae fuerunt occasio ruinae. Sunt autem occasio ruinae, quando placent; quando autem non placent, non se ingerit homo. Unde Christus noluit habere solatium temporale, quia cadent a latere tuo mille, et decem millia a dextris tuis =|42 |= etc. Plus debet quis velle esse in ista parte, in qua pauciores cadunt.


15. Once more, [Scripture] enlightens from the left by means of benign punishments. Wherefore the Lord permitted the most just Abel to be murdered. Behold Noah who took a hundred years to build the Ark and placed in it everything he had: and the whole world was making fun of him. —And he added at this point of his speech that not even the King of France would ever be able to do such a thing, considering the actual volume measured in geometric cubits,  =|7|=  It is the same with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob who were pilgrims, and with Joseph who could not be exalted before having been sold, imprisoned and humiliated. See Moses, whom God was to place at the head of the whole world, how he was humbled: he tended the sheep of a priest for forty years. Likewise, David: as long as he suffered, he was very good, and he came to reign by means of sufferings. But later, living in prosperity, he committed many sins. Likewise, Ezechias in his weakness was very humble, but later he became proud at the time of the coming of the Babylonian envoys. Behold Elias, the poor little one who had nothing to eat but what the crow and the poor little widow brought to him: and who yet closed the heavens. Behold John the Baptist who stayed seven years in the desert and lay there on [a bed of] pebbles. Likewise, Paul says: They were stoned, they were sawed asunder, they were tempted, they were put to death by the sword. They went about in sheepskins, etc. Punishments, therefore, are most sweet. And so, either God punishes or He does not. For whom the Lord loves, He chastises. This is proved by particular instances. Hence it must be inferred [to apply] universally.
15. Item, sinistrorsum per benigna flagella illustrat. Unde Dominus permisit, Abel iustissimum interfici. Vide Noe, qui centum annis fabricavit arcam, et posuit ibi quidquid habebat; et totus mundus ipsum deridebat. -- Et addidit hic, quod rex Franciae non posset hodie talem facere, qui considerat eam secundum suam mensuram cubitorum geometricorum. -- De Abraham similiter, Isaac et Iacob, qui peregrinati fuerunt; et Ioseph, qui exaltari non poterat, nisi praecessisset venditio, incarceratio et humiliatio. Vide Moysen, quem Deus debebat praeponere toti mundo, quomodo fuit humiliatus; pascebat oves per quadraginta annos unius sacerdotis =|43|= . Similiter David =|44|= , quamdiu fuit in tribulatione, fuit optimus et ad regnum venit per tribulationes; et post, cum fuit in prosperitate, multa peccata commisit. Similiter Ezechias =|45|=  in infirmitate valde humilis fuit, sed postea superbus in adventu nuntiorum Babyloniorum. Vide Eliam =|46|=  pauperculum, qui non habebat ad comedendum, nisi quod corvus sibi ministrabat et illa paupercula vidua; qui tamen caelum claudebat. Vide Ioannem Baptistam =|47|= , qui septem annorum intravit desertum et ibi super lapillos iacebat. Similiter de Christo et de Apostolis. Similiter dicit Paulus: Lapidati sunt, secti sunt, tentati sunt, in occisione gladii mortui sunt, circuierunt in melotis =|48|=  etc. Flagella ergo sunt suavissima. Aut ergo Deus flagellat, aut non. Flagellat autem omnem filium, quem recipit =|49|= . Probata est haec per particularia; ergo debet inferri universaliter.


16. Now, Scripture also has trees for food. It enlightens by means of those things that are from the opposite side. For it shows us an endless army arrayed against us, either through the seven princes, through a single war, or through several wars. That war began on the day when Michael and his angels battled with the dragon. A threefold war is threatening us: domestic, civil, and military. The first is with the flesh, which has many troops. This servant-maid is ever- willing to give access, as did Eve. Hence, Against her who lies in your bosom guard the portals of your mouth.
16. Adhuc etiam habet Scriptura arbores ad reficiendum. Illustrat autem ex his quae sunt ex opposito. Ostendit enim nobis acies infi-$nitas contra nos, modo per septem duces =|50|= y modo unum bellum, modo multa. Istud bellum est ab illo die, quo Michael et Angeli eius praeliabantur cum dracone =|5l|= . Imminet autem nobis triplex bellum: bellum domesticum, bellum civile et campestre. -- Primum cum carne, quae habet multas acies; haec ancilla semper parata est aperire, sicut Eva. Unde: Ab ea quae dormit in sinu tuo, custodi claustra oris tui =|52|= .


17. Again, civil war is the temptation of the world. Indeed, every creature is a trap4 Hence the saying: Vanity of vanities! AH things are vanity! What profit has man from all the labor which he toils at under the sun? Vain and worthless is anything of which nothing remains to man after death: wherefore all things are vanity. The Psalms reads: Turn away my eyes from seeing what is vain.
17. Item, bellum civile est tentatio mundi. Omnis enim creatura est in muscipulam =|53|= y quia creaturae pulcritudo trahit homines. Unde: Vanitas, inquit, vanitatum, et omnia vanitas. Quid habet homo de universo labore suo, quo laborat sub sole? =|54|= . Vane et frustra fit de quo nihil relinquitur homini in morte, et ideo cuncta vanitas; in Psalmo: Averte oculos meosy ne videant vanitatem =|55|= .


18. Once more, there is military war, a conflict with demons which threaten by night and by day, at times by exaggerating so that we become presumptuous, at times by thoughts of knowledge, at times by thoughts of sanctity. At times they make a man angry, and thus devilish and filled with a spirit of malice; and they make him fall into sadness and despair, and it is the same with other means. Scripture teaches to flee from this. But what kind of knowledge teaches to flee from adverse powers? None!
18. Item, est bellum campestre, hostile cum daemonibus, qui die ac nocte infestant, modo magnificando, ut praesumamus, modo per considerationem scientiae, modo per considerationem sanctitatis; modo faciunt hominem iracundum, et sic diabolicum et adimpletum spiritu malignitatis; et faciunt eum cadere in tristitiam et desperationem, et sic de aliis. Haec docet fugere Scriptura. Quae enim scientia docet fugere contrarias potestates? Nulla.


19. Scripture, again, enlightens in a circle, as, for instance, [when it advises us] not to flee, because we have protection all around. For we have the Lord and angels about us, wherefore the Psalm: Mountains are round about Jerusalem; so the Lord is round about His people. To the servant of Eliseus who cried out because of the Syrian robbers who sought to capture him, Eliseus said: "Lord, open his eyes, that he may see." And the Lord opened the eyes of the servant, and he saw. And behold the mountain was full of horses, and chariots of fire round about Eliseus. Jacob too, afraid of his brother, saw the angels and said: "This is the encampment of God." Wherefore the Psalm says: The Lord is my light and my salvation; whom should I fear? And in another passage: Had not the Lord been with us, let Israel say, etc., until the end.
19. Item, illustrat in gyro, ut non esse fugiendum, quia undique praesidium habemus. Habemus enim ipsum Dominum et Angelos circa nos; unde in Psalmo: Montes in circuitu eius, et Dominus in circuitu populi sui =|56|= . Unde puero Elisaei clamante propter latrones Syriae, qui volebant eum capere, dixit Elisaeus: Domine, aperi oculos pueri huius, et aperuit Dominus. Et ecce mons plenus equorum et curruum igneorum in circuitu Elisaei =|51|= . Iacob etiam, timens fratrem suum, vidit Angelos, unde dixit: Castra Dei sunt haec =|58|= . Unde Psalmus dicit: Dominus illuminatio mea et salus mea, quem timebo? =|59|= . Et alibi: Nisi quia Dominus erat in nobis, dicat nunc Israel =|60|=  etc., usque in finem.


20. Again, [Scripture] enlightens from afar through the symbolism of figures: for it offers figures of all things. But all things existing in the world are reduced to twelve which Scripture mentions and which are distant symbols: heavenly forms, elementary natures, the natures of meteors and of minerals; vegetable natures, the natures of swimming beings, of birds and ambulating animals; the human organs, the human powers, the human works, and the human arts.
20. Item, illustrat e longinquo per figurarum signa; facit autem figuras de omnibus. Omnia autem, quae sunt in mundo, reducuntur ad duodecim, quibus utitur Scriptura, quae sunt signa longinqua: caelestes formae, elementares naturae, meteoricae naturae, minerales naturae; naturae germinum, natatilium, volatilium, gressibilium; humana organa, humanae vires, humana opera, humanae artes.


21. And so, first of all there is the heavenly form. For Scripture makes use of all the heavens and the stars. Hence the Psalm: The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament proclaims His handiwork. And Ecclesiasticus: The clear vault of the sky shines forth like heaven itself, a vision of glory.
21. Primum ergo est forma caelestis. Utitur enim Scriptura omnibus caelis et stellis; Psalmus: Caeli enarrant gloriam Dei, et opera$manuum eius annuntiat firmamentum =|61|=  ; et Ecclesiasticus: Altitudinis firmamentum pulcritudo eius, species caeli in visione gloriae =|62|= .


22. Now, the elementary forms, fire, air, water, earth: Scripture makes use of them all. The nature of meteors: clouds, rain, dew, snow, etc.; and lights over rivers and ponds: Scripture uses them all. Natures are also mineral, as in the seven principal metals =|8 |= and gems, for instance onyx. We read in Genesis: Bdellium and onyx are there. And in the same passage: (The land of Hevila) where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good. And the Apocalypse mentions twelve precious stones. There are also the vegetal natures, such as trees, herbs, plants, seeds: [Scripture] refers to oil, cereals, and other things produced from the soil.
22. Formae elementares: ignea, aerea, aquea, terrea; omnibus utitur Scriptura. -- Naturae meteoricae, ut nube, pluvia, rore, nive etc.; et luminibus apparentibus in caelo, fluminibus, stagnis, quibus omnibus utitur. -- Naturae etiam sunt minerales, ut septem metalla principalia et lapis pretiosus, ut lapis onychinus; in Genesi legitur: Ibi invenitur bdellium et lapis onychinus =|63|=  ; et ibidem: Ubi nascitur aurum; et aurum terrae illius optimum est =|64|= . Et in Apocalypsi duodecim lapides pretiosi. -- Sunt etiam naturae germinum, ut arborum, herbarum, plantarum, seminum; de olere, gramine aliisque tractat de terra nascentibus.


23. There are also the natures of swimming beings: [Scripture] considers the crocodile, the fishes and the whale. Again, there are the natures of birds: [Scripture] mentions the hawk, the eagle, the dove, the sparrow. And why only three species are offered as a sacrifice is a great mystery. There is also a reference to night-birds and day-birds. It is the same concerning progressing! animals, the serpent, the snake. Flee from sin as from a serpent. And so God permitted the temptation to come about through a serpent. Likewise [Scripture refers to] foxes, goats, swine, the hart, the mule, the bear, the oxen. Again, it is not without mystery that only three species of progressing animals were offered or sacrificed.
23. Sunt etiam naturae natatilium, ut tractat de leviathan =|65|= , de piscibus, de cetis. -- Sunt naturae volatilium, ut de accipitre, de aquila, de columba, de passere; et est magnum mysterium, quare tantum tria genera volatilium ponuntur in sacrificio =|66|= . Loquitur etiam de avibus lucifugis et de amatricibus lucis. -- Item, de animali gressibili, de serpente, de colubro: Quasi a facie colubri fuge peccatum =|67|= ; qualiter permisit Deus tentationem fieri per serpentem. Item, de vulpibus, de capra, de porcis, de cervo, de hinnulo, de urso, de bobus. Nec sine mysterio etiam tantum tria genera gressibilium offerebantur vel sacrificabantur.


24. Once more, the natures of man, whose parts are referred to in Scripture at times in relation to God and at other times, to the angels. Wherefore Dionysius shows the meaning of human limbs in the case of angels. =|9|=  There are also the vegetative, sensitive and rational powers of which Scripture makes use throughout. Again, human works, such as the building of houses and wells, farming and trading, and all the arts, both liberal and mechanical [are referred to in the same way]. The theologian makes use of these sometimes as a mathematician, at other times as an astronomer or a geometer. Sometimes you will see him as an orator, at other times as a physician.
24. Item, naturae hominis, de cuius partibus Scriptura tractat partim ad Deum translatis, partim ad Angelos. Unde Dionysius ostendit, quid significant membra humana in Angelis. -- Item, vires vegetabiles, vires sensibiles, rationales etc., quibus omnibus Scriptura per totum utitur. -- Item, de operibus humanis, ut constructione domorum, puteorum, agricultura, mercatura; et de omnibus artibus liberalibus et mechanicis. Theologus modo eis utitur ut arithmeticus, modo ut astrologus, modo ut geometer: modo videbis eum rhetorem, modo medicum.


a. It is Dangerous to Go Too Far Away from the House of Scripture



25. In this regard, there is a danger: for it is dangerous to go too far away from the house of Scripture. A child, indeed, never wants to go too far away from home. There is the same danger in the sciences, for people spread out so much through the consideration of their [own] knowledge that later they are unable to return to the house of Scripture, but enter the house of Daedalus, and cannot get out. =|10|=  For it is better to hold the truth than the figure. If I were to see your face, and ask you to bring a clear mirror in order to look at your face in it, such a request would be foolish. So it is with Scriptures and the figures of the other sciences.
25. In hac consideratione est periculum, quia periculum est nimis longe recedere a Scripturae domo; puer enim nunquam vult multum recedere a domo. Sic periculum est in scientiis, quod tantum diffundant se per considerationes harum scientiarum, ut postea ad domum Scripturae redire non possint, et quod intrent domum Daedali, ut exire non possint. Melius est enim tenere veritatem quam figuram. Si ego viderem faciem tuam et rogarem te, ut apportares mihi speculum$clarum, ut ibi viderem faciem tuam; stulta esset ista petitio. Sic est de Scripturis sanctis et figuris aliarum scientiarum.


26. Again [Scripture] enlightens from nearby by means of the gifts of graces which supplement what is lacking in [human] activity. For many scientists came as guests: they came to our house and to our activity. But in these matters, activity must reach a limit. Wherefore Scripture enlightens such matters from nearby. Hence it is not good to go far out for something that is close at hand. Indeed, Scripture describes the gifts of the Holy Spirit throughout. In John: Jesus therefore, wearied as He was from the journey, was sitting at the well And there follows: "Everyone who drinks of this water will thirst again. He, however, who drinks of the water that I will give him shall never thirst." And so, two kinds of water are distinguished. For one knowledge is described as being external, and the more one drinks of it, the more he thirsts; the other, as being internal, of which it is said: "He who believes in Me, as the Scripture says, 'From within Him there shall flow rivers of living water.' " He said this, however, of the Spirit whom they who believed in Him were to receive. =|11|=  And these are the waters from the fountain of salvation, that is, awareness of those graces that sustain souls.
26. Item, illutrat per gratiarum dona e vicino, quae supplent omnia, quae non habet industria. Multi enim venerunt hospites scientiae, scilicet ad domum nostram et ad nostram industriam; sed in his debet industria ponere terminum. Unde illustrat haec Scriptura e vicino; unde non oportet longe ire pro re, quae prope est. Describit enim Scriptura dona Spiritus sancti per totum; in Ioanne: Iesus fatigatus ex itinere sedebat super fontem =|68|=  ; sequitur: Omnis, qui bibit ex aqua hac, sitiet iterum; qui autem biberit ex aqua, quam ego dabo ei, fiet in eo fons aquae salientis in vitam aeternam =|69|= . -- Unde duplex aqua notatur; describitur enim notitia una exterior, de qua qui plus bibet plus sitit; alia interior, de qua: Qui credit in me, sicut dicit Scriptura, flumina de ventre eius fluent aquae vivae. Hoc autem dixit de Spiritu sancto, quem accepturi erant credentes in eum =|10|= . Istae sunt aquae de fontibus Salvatoris =|11|= , scilicet notitiae gratiarum reficientes animas.


27. Next to these mysteries are the mystery of the tree of life and the mystery of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. For he who seeks nothing but knowledge tastes of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. And this is pointed out in Isaias: Forasmuch as this people hath cast away the waters of Siloe, that go with silence, and hath rather taken Rasin and the son of Romelia: Therefore behold the Lord will bring upon them the waters of the river, strong and many. But as Jerome says, the waters of Siloe run with a great rumble: =|12|=  wherefore it is evident that the meaning here is different. The waters. .. that go with silence are Holy Scripture which cannot be learned except in silence: and in that there is enlightenment. As a sign of this, it is said to the blind: "Go, wash in the pool of Siloe (which is interpreted 'sent')" =|13|=  For these waters are [found] through revelation. But it is fitting first to anoint the eyes with clay made of spittle and dust. Spittle is wisdom. Dust is Christ's flesh. Clay is faith concerning the mystery of the incarnation. But those who have taken Rasin and the son of Romelia are those who seek external sciences. Wherefore the prince of the Assyrians shall have power over them: the Lord willed it. And here it should be noted that the sons of Israel despoiled the Egyptians of their silver vessels: and after that, the Lord never wanted them to be returned.
27. Iuxta haec mysteria est mysterium ligni vitae et mysterium ligni scientiae boni et mali =|12|= . Qui enim tantum quaerit notitiam gustat de ligno scientiae boni et mali. Et hoc significatum est in Isaia: Pro eo quod abiecit populus ille aquas Siloe, quae currunt cum silentio, et assumpsit magis Rasin et filium Romeliae; propter hoc, ecce Dominus adducet super eos aquas fluminis fortes et multas =|73|= . Ut dicit Hieronymus, aquae Siloe currunt cum magno murmure: ergo manifestum, quod intellectus alius est ibi. -- Aquae currentes cum silentio sunt sacra Scriptura, quae nisi in silentio addisci non potest; et ibi fit illuminatio. In signum huius dictum est caeco: Vade, lava in natatoria Siloe, quod interpretatur Missus =|14|= . Aquae enim istae per revelationem sunt. Sed oportet prius linire oculos luto ex sputo et pulvere facto =|75|= ; saliva est sapientia; pulvis, caro Christi; lutum, fides de mysterio incarnationis. -- Qui autem quaerunt Rasin et filium Romeliae sunt qui quaerunt exteriores scientias. Et ideo princeps Assyriorum dominabitur eis =|76|= ; Dominus voluit. Et hic notandum est, quod filii Israel furtive habuerunt vasa argentea Aegypti =|77|= ; sed postea nunquam voluit Dominus, quod reverterentur.


28. And He said: "Believe me, there shall come a time when gold and silver vessels will be worthless," meaning arguments: nor shall there be any defense through reason, but only through authority.")' And so, in reference to this, when the Saviour was tempted, He did not defend Himself through reason, but through authority, although He could have done it well through logical arguments. Thus did He indicate what His Mystical Body was to do in tribulations to come.
28. Et dixit: Credite mihi, quod adhuc erit tempus, quando nihil valebunt vasa aurea vel argentea, id est argumenta; nec erit defensio per rationem, sed solum per auctoritatem. Unde in signum huius Salvator, quando tentatus fuit, non defendit se per rationem, sed per auctoritates =|78|= , et tamen bene scivisset per rationes. Significavit enim, quid facturus est corpus suum mysticum in tribulatione futura.


XIX. Eighteenth Collation



A. Sixth Treatise on the Third Vision, Which is Concerned with the Theories of Scripture Signified by the Fruits, in Particular How They Sustain the Affective Dispositions.



1800 EIGHTEENTH COLLATION Sixth Treatise on the Third Vision, Which Is Concerned with the Theories of Scripture Signified by the Fruits, in Particular How They Sustain the Affective Dispositions.


1. Scripture Sustains the Affective Dispositions



1. THE earth brought forth vegetation, etc. It has been said above that these theories are reduced to a twofold consideration: to the consideration of times as they follow upon each other, and as they correspond to each other in the government of the world: and here they correspond to the seeds. They also consist in the consideration of saving observations or sustainments by which the soul is fed: and there they correspond to the fruits. And so, this fruit is beautiful in the measure in which the intellect is sustained by it, and it is tasty in the measure in which the affective dispositions are fed by it. But it has been said how the intellect is enlightened by these theories, in order that it may go on to the tasting of its fruit. And this is necessary. As Gregory says, "He who labors only to find out what to say and how, remains empty inside and is devoid of inner devotion," =|1|=  for as the Apostle says, he has become as sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal.
1. Protulit terra herbam virentem =|1|=  etc. Dictum est supra, quod istae theoriae reducuntur ad considerationem duplicem: ad considerationem succedentium temporum et sibi mutuo correspondentium in gubernatione mundi; et sic intelliguntur per semina. Consistunt etiam circa considerationem salutarium circumspectionum vel refectionum, quibus anima reficitur, et sic intelliguntur per fructus; et sic iste fructus est decorus, secundum quod ipso reficitur intellectus; et est sapidus, secundum quod ipso reficitur affectus. Sed haec refectio adhuc ad aliud ordinatur. -- Dictum est autem quomodo intellectus illustratur per has theorias, ut ultra procedatur ad degustandum eius fructum; et hoc necesse est. «Qui enim ad hoc tantum laborat, ut sciat, quid et quomodo loquatur; interius vacuus remanet, ut dicit Gregorius, ab interna devotione»; quia, secundum Apostolum, factus est velut aes sonans aut cymbalum tinniens =|2|= .


2. And so, the intellect is enlightened in twelve ways, as it has been said. But as regards the last four, they will be expressed better [than they had been before], so that what had been put in the eleventh place will now be in the twelfth.^ Wherefore those last [ways] used by Scripture and enlightening the soul, are four in number: assistance from the citizens [of heaven], that is, the hierarchized spirits, from the right; attacks from enemies, from the left, as is clearly the case with the three foes; the gifts of graces, from nearby; the symbolism of figures, from afar. This is the final enlightenment, for in this last one the preceding are included: within it, there is a concurrence of the heavenly forms, the elementary [forms, the natures^ of] meteors, of minerals; the natures of plants, of swimming beings, of birds, of progressing animals; the human limbs, the human powers, the human works, the human arts, out of all of which the soul rises in God's praise. And this act which straightens the intellect is an affective motion.
2. Illustratur ergo intellectus duodecim modis, ut dictum est; sed in quatuor modis ultimis melius dicetur, quam diceretur prius, ita ut id quod ponebatur in undecimo loco, ponatur in duodecimo. Illa ergo ultima, quibus utitur Scriptura, et illustratur anima, sunt quatuor, scilicet civium praesidia, qui sunt spiritus hierarchici, e directo; item, hostium certamina, ex obliquo, ut patet de tribus hostibus; gratiarum dona, e vicino; figurarum signa, e longinquo. Haec est illustratio ultima, quia in hanc ultimam praecedentes intrant; ad quam concurrunt formae caelestes, elementares, meteoricae, numerales; naturae germinum, natatilium, volatilium, gressibilium; humana membra, humanae vires, humana facta, humanae artes, ex quibus omnibus anima assurgit in laudem Dei. Et iste actus est affectus, qui habet rectificare intellectum.


2. Danger of Inquisitiveness, Knowledge Only



3. It is true that in this regard there comes the danger of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, so that, after dismissing the tree of life by reason of the sweetness of emotions, the soul may wander around other sciences and go so far that it can no longer come back but is excluded from the delights of paradise and loses the flavor of the tree of life. To eat of the tree of life by means of these enlightenments is to be sustained, so that a man seeks nothing but the intelligence of truth, the mood of piety, and the enjoyment of sweetness, that is, the solace of contemplation. But when a man forgets these things and delights in the pursuit of inquisitiveness, he only wants to know; and out of this is born the arrogance of vanity when he looks down upon other men. And upon this there follows the conflict of lawsuits, because he considers himself dishonored when someone stands up to him: and he is always ready to fight any opponent. And in such a way true life is taken away from man, as occurred with Adam, or rather, with the woman who was inquisitive and wanted to be like God. Therefore, they made themselves coverings and blamed another for their sin, Adam [blaming] God for having given him such a wife, and the woman [blaming] the serpent. Hence these enlightenments must enter the affective dispositions in order that the intellect be straightened.
3. Verum est, quod circa ista incidit periculum ligni scientiae boni et mali, ut, dimisso ligno vitae =|3|= , scilicet suavitate affectus, anima evagetur circa scientias alias et in tantum elongetur, ut non redire$possit et excludatur a deliciis paradisi et non gustet de ligno vitae. Edere de ligno vitae his illustrationibus est refici, ut homo nihil quaerat nisi intellectum veritatis, affectum pietatis, delectationem suavitatis sive solatium contemplationis. Sed quando homo horum obliviscitur et delectatur in studio curiositatis, vult scire tantum; et ex hoc nascitur supercilium vanitatis, cum alios despicit; ex quo sequitur litigium contentionis, quia reputat se despectum, quando quis respondet ei; et semper paratus est contra illos qui resistunt ei. Et per hoc aufertur homini vera vita; sicut Adam, vel potius mulier, quae curiosa fuit et voluit esse sicut Deus =|4|= ; et ideo consuerunt sibi perizomata =|5|=  et refuderunt culpam in alium, ut Adam in Deum, quia uxorem talem dederat sibi, mulier autem in serpentem =|6|= . Debent ergo istae illustrationes intrare in affectum, ut intellectus rectificetur.


4. In this garden, there is much walking about, for if one is not happy to remain in the first, he goes to the second, and likewise with the others. And so man is compassed about with apples. Hence, in the Canticle: Stay me up with flowers, compass me about with apples. And in the Psalm: His truth shall compass thee with a shield. And so, as the intellect is ordained toward the affective dispositions, and faith is the way to charity, so also these enlightenments must pass over into the affective dispositions, in order that the intellect pass from the speculative to the practical. =|2|=
4. In hoc horto multa deambulatio est, quia, si non placet stare in primo, vade ad secundum, et sic de aliis. Et sic homo stipatus est malis; unde in Cantico: Fulcite me floribus, stipate me malis =|1|= ; et in Psalmo: Scuto cincumdabit te veritas eius*. Sicut ergo intellectus ordinatur ad affectum, et fides est via ad caritatem; sic istae illustrationes transire debent in affectum, ut intellectus speculativus fiat practicus.


3. From These Twelve [enlightenments] a Threefold Fruit



5. Now, there arises from these twelve [enlightenments] a threefold fruit. From the first four comes forth the fruit of grace, from the intermediate [four], the fruit of righteousness, from the last [four], the fruit of wisdom. These fruits are referred to in Deuteronomy: To Joseph also he said: "Of the blessing of the Lord be his land, of the fruits of heaven, and of the dew, and of the deep that lieth beneath. Of the fruits brought forth by the sun and the moon. Of the tops of the ancient mountains, of the fruits of the everlasting hills, and of the fruits of the earth, and of the fullness thereof. It touches upon this threefold fruit, meaning these enlightenments, in the sense that they produce nourishing food, in that this threefold fruit is from Christ. Hence, in the Canticle: As an apple tree among the trees of the woods, so is my lover among men. I delight to rest in his shadow, and his fruit is sweet to my mouth.
5. Oritur autem ex his duodecim triplex fructus: ex primis quatuor oritur fructus gratiae, ex mediis fructus iustitiae, ex ultimis fructus sapientiae. De his fructibus in Deuteronomio: De benedictione Domini terra eius, dicitur de Ioseph, de pomis caeli et rore, atque abysso subiacente; de pomis fructuum solis et lunae} de vertice antiquorum montium, de pomis collium aeternorum et de frugibus terrae et de plenitudine eius =|9|= . Tangit istum triplicem fructum sive istas illustrationes, secundum quod generant poma refectiva, secundum quod iste triplex fructus est a Christo; unde in Cantico: Sicut malus inter ligna silvarum, sic dilectus meus inter filios. Sub umbra illius quem desiderabam, sedi, et fructus eius dulcis gutturi meo =|10|= .


a. Fruit of Grace



6. And so, concerning the fruit of grace, it is written in the Psalm: For the Lord will give goodness: and our earth shall yield her fruit. The fruit of justice is mentioned in the Canticle, the fruit of wisdom in Proverbs: Her fruit [is better than] the chief est and the purest [gold]. And so these fruits come forth from Christ, blessed by Joseph who produced fruit of heaven, and of the dew, and of the deep that lieth beneath, that is, the charismatic gifts of the graces, by means of dew on humble hearts.
6. De fructu igitur gratiae scriptum est in Psalmo: Dominus dabit benignitatem, et terra nostra dabit fructum suum =|n|= ; de fructu iustitiae in Cantico, de fructu sapientiae in Proverbiis: Primi et purissimi fructus eius =|12|= . Isti ergo fructus oriuntur a Christo, a Ioseph benedicto, qui producit poma de caelo et rore, atque abysso subiacente, scilicet charismata gratiarum per modum roris in corda humilia.


b. Righteousness



7. The fruits of the sun and the moon and the tops of the mountains refer to the exercise of perfect righteousness which consists in this, that man trains himself to fulfill God's commands, according to his condition of being a subject, a prelate, or a contemplative. The fruits of the sun refer to the merits of righteousness of one who presides, the fruits of the moon to the merits of righteousness of one who is a subject, the fruits and the tops of the mountains to the height of apostolic men who possess that life which God had given in paradise. If indeed man had not sinned, there would not have been a division of lands, but all would have been [owned] in common.
7. Per poma solis et lunae et verticem montium intelligitur exercitium perfectae iustitiae, quae est in hoc, quod homo se exerceat ad mandata Dei implenda, secundum statum subiectionis, praelationis,$contemplationis. -- De pomis solis intelligitur quantum ad merita iustitiae praesidentis; de pomis lunae, quantum ad meritum iustitiae subiacentis; de pomis et vertice montium, per hoc intelligitur sublimitas apostolicorum virorum, qui tenent vitam, quam Deus dedit in paradiso. Si enim homo non peccasset, nulla fuisset agrorum divisio, sed omnia communia.


c. Wisdom



8. By the fruits of the everlasting hills, wisdom is understood, or the fruit of wisdom, which consist in the contemplation of eternal reasons and the consideration of lofty heavenly spirits. Thou enlightenest wonderfully from the everlasting hills. All the foolish of heart were troubled. The fruits of the earth refer to the consideration of the divine condescensions in the orders of the Churches.  Their fullness is seen as the conjunction of both Churches, the militant and the triumphant. It is in this manner that God has granted peace in your borders; that is, as He shall declare, peace is like a river .
8. Per poma collium .aeternorum intelligitur sapientia vel fructus sapientiae, quae est in contemplatione aeternarum rationum et in consideratione caelestium spirituum sublimatorum; Psalmus: Illuminans tu mirabiliter a montibus aeternis, turbati sunt omnes insipientes corde =|13 |= etc. -- De frugibus terrae, quantum ad considerationem divinarum condescensionum in ordinibus Ecclesiarum. -- De plenitudine eius, quantum ad coniunctionem utriusque Ecclesiae militantis et triumphantis, quomodo Dominus posuit finem eius pacem =|14|= , scilicet, ut declarabit, sicut flumen pacem.


9. Hence this fruit comes from Christ in a threefold manner, because Jesus Christ is the Son of God. Because He is Jesus, from Him comes the fruit of grace; because He is Christ, from Him comes the fruit of righteousness; because He is the Son of God, from Him comes the fruit of wisdom. For all these considerations both proceed from Christ and lead back to Him. If you consider the inner spectacle of lights, they lead you back to Christ. If you come to exemplars, the supreme Exemplar of all virtues is in Christ. Compared to the patience of Job, the patience of Christ is greater. You have heard of the patience of Job, and you have seen the purpose of the Lord, says James. For stars are nothing when compared to the sun. If you come to the eternal rewards, these we shall not have except through Christ. John writes: Now this is everlasting life, that they may know Thee, the only true God, and Him whom Thou hast sent, Jesus Christ. If you turn to the eternal punishments, unless the hand of Christ hold you, you shall not be delivered [from them]. For a child afraid of falling into a chasm most fittingly holds on to its mother. Wherefore you cannot be saved unless you have been freed by the blood of Christ.
9. Sic igitur iste fructus est a Christo tripliciter, quia Iesus Christus est Filius Dei: quia Iesus, ab ipso fructus gratiae; quia Christus, fructus iustitiae; quia Filius Dei, fructus sapientiae. Omnes enim considerationes et a Christo sunt et ad Christum reducunt. -- Si consideras interna spectacula luminum, ad Christum te reducunt. -- Si venis ad exempla, summum exemplar omnium virtutum in Christo est. Si patientiam consideras Iob, maior est Christi patientia; patientiam Iob audistis et finem Domini vidistis =|15|= , dicit ille. Stellae enim nihil sunt in comparatione solis. -- Si venis ad praemia aeterna, haec non habebimus nisi per Christum; in Ioanne: Haec est vita aeterna, ut cognoscant te solum verum Deum, et quem misisti Iesum Christum =|16|= . -- Si ad tormenta perpetua; nisi manus Christi te teneat, non liberaberis. Puer enim, si timet cadere in praecipitium, optime se tenet ad matrem; nisi enim per sanguinem Christi liberatus fueris, non poteris salvari.


10. If you consider the commands, this is My commandment, that you love one another. If you are concerned with judgment, it is to Christ that the power of judgment pertains; and we should gladly choose to have Him as a judge, for He loves us. We should say to Him: "Lord, You must judge us; but make it so that Your blood atones for us."
10. Si consideras praecepta; hoc est praeceptum meum, ut diligatis invicem =|11|= . -- Si de iudicio; Christus iudicare habet; et hunc debemus libenter velle habere iudicem, quia nos diligit; unde debemus sibi dicere: Domine, debes nos iudicare; sed fac, ut sanguis tuus satisfaciat pro nobis.


d. All Considerations Return to Christ.



11. If you consider dangerous satisfactions,! they are not seen in Christ in the same manner as they are in others, but in another way: for to Him they were never dangerous, and He never enjoyed temporal consolations. He mixed bitterness with consolations, suffering with enjoyment. For His soul, which was always united to the Godhead, was in a state of supreme delectation. And yet He Himself mixed [with it] bitterness, poverty, crucifixion; and by contrast, He mixed consolations with the scourging in which He experienced supreme joy. Hence, taking Christ as an example, we should mix fear with consolation, and consolation with sadness, as did also Blessed Francis who, when an honor was offered to him, told his companion that they were not enriched by it in the least, but that when they received insults, then they were enriched. =|3|=
11. Si consideras solatia severa, in Christo non videntur per illum modum, sicut in aliis, sed per alium; quia sibi nunquam periculosa fuerunt, nec temporalia solatia habuit. -- Miscuit enim cum solatiis amaritudinem, cum fruitione poenam; anima enim eius, quae semper unita est Divinitati, summe delectabatur; et tamen ipse miscuit amari$tudinem, paupertatem, crucem, et e converso miscuit solatia in flagellis, in quibus summe delectabatur. Unde exemplo Christi in consolatione iungendus est timor, et in tristitia iungendum est solatium, exemplo etiam beati Francisci, qui, quando ei offerebatur honor, dicebat socio suo, quod ibi nihil erant lucrati; sed quando recipiebant vituperia, tunc lucrabantur.


12. If you take a straight look at the leaders of the city, the foremost chief is Christ. In terms of the fight, although the angels and the saints help—I lift up my eyes toward the mountains; whence shall help come to me — yet the principal contender is Christ. Hence, in the Psalm: I set the Lord ever before me; with Him at my right hand I shall not be disturbed. And again, in the Acts: "Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God." If you are concerned with grace, all such things proceed from the throne of God and of the Lamb. Behold, says John, a river coming forth from the throne of God and of the Lamb. If you consider the prophetic signs, all refer to Christ and are obscure unless their meaning is solved through Christ. Hence all considerations return to Christ.
12. Si consideras e directo ad civium praesidia, hierarcha principalis Christus est. -- Si de pugna; etsi Angeli et Sancti iuvant. -- Psalmus: Levavi oculos meos in montes, unde veniet auxilium mihi =|18|=  -- principalis tamen pugnator Christus est; unde in Psalmo: Providebam Dominum in conspectu meo semper, quoniam a dextris est mihi, ne commovear =|19|=  ; item, in Actibus: Video caelos apertos et Filium hominis stantem a dextris Dei =|20|= : -- Si gratiam consideras, haec omnia veniunt de sede Dei et Agni. Vidi, inquit Ioannes, fluvium procedentem de sede Dei et Agni =|21|= . -- Si consideras figurarum signa, omnia referuntur ad Christum et sunt obscura, nisi per Christum solvantur signacula =|22|= . -- Unde omnes considerationes remittunt ad Christum.


13. From Christ, indeed, is the fruit of grace. This fruit of grace is fourfold: it consists in steadying the soul through faith, blessing it through divine love, lifting it up through hope, curbing it through divine fear. The Apostle speaks of the first: It is good to make steadfast the heart by grace, not by foods. The Jews steadied themselves with foods. Peter speaks of the second: Therefore, having girded up the loins of your understanding, he sober and set your hope completely on that grace which is brought to you in the revelation of Jesus Christ. For sanctification consists in this, that virtues, which are the loins of the mind, are transformed in God. The third is mentioned in the Epistle to Titus: Justified by His grace, we are heirs in the hope of life everlasting. And in the First Epistle of Peter: Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to His great mercy hath regenerated us unto a lively hope. The fourth is indicated in Ecclesiasticus: The greater thou art, the more humble thyself in all things.
13. A Christo ergo est fructus gratiae. Est autem quadruplex fructus gratiae: stabilire animam per fidem, sanctificare per divinum amorem, sursum ferre per spem, inclinare per divinum timorem. -- De primo Apostolus: Optimum est gratia stabilire cor, non escis =|20|= . Iudaei stabiliebant se super escas. -- De secundo Petrus: Propter quod, succinti lumbos mentis vestrae, sobrii, perfecte sperate in eam quae offertur vobis gratiam, in revelationem Iesu Christi =|24|= . Sanctificatio enim est in eo, quod virtutes, quae sunt lumbi mentis, transferuntur in Deum. -- De tertio ad Titum: Iustificati gratia ipsius, heredes sumus secundum spem vitae aeternae =|75|= . Et prima Petri: Benedictus Deus et Pater Domini nostri Iesu Christi, qui secundum magnam misericordiam suam regeneravit nos in spem vivam =|26|= . De quarto Ecclesiasticus: Quanto maior es, humilia te in omnibus =|21|= .


14. Through the spectacle of lights, the soul is disposed toward the first act of grace. For the better Scripture is understood, the more faith is increased: and hence it is the one food of affective dispositions. The examples of the saints prepare for the sanctification of the soul, the second act of grace. Among all the things we read about Joseph, this one is particularly pleasing: that he served his master with such faithfulness in spite of his mistress' beauty and her threats. David, likewise, who did so many things worthy of imitation, is most pleasing in this, that while he could have killed Saul, he did not choose to do so, and yet, as Augustine says, he had nothing to fear from God or man: not from man, because sleep had invaded them all, nor from God, because this man was a reprobate, and David was truly king, and yet out of charity he let him go. =|4|=  The same charity was present in all the Fathers: if they sometimes fell, they made penance. Hence, as Jerome writes, if the case of David displeases you, may his penance please you. =|5|=  You have here an indication that no one should despair in his own case, nor should he be presumptuous about his own state.
14. Per luminum spectacula disponitur anima ad primum actum gratiae. Quanto enim plus intelligitur Scriptura, tanto augetur fides; et sic est una refectio affectus. -- Sanctorum exempla disponunt ad sanctificationem animae, ad secundum actum gratiae. Inter omnia, quae de Ioseph leguntur, placet illud, quod sic fidelitatem servavit domino suo; cum tamen domina sua pulcherrima erat et comminabatur sibi =|28|= . David similiter, cum multa fecerit, quae movent ad imitationem, illud potis-$sime placet, quod cum Saul posset interficere, noluit =|29|= ; qui tamen, ut dicit Augustinus, nec Deum nec hominem timebat: hominem non, quia sopor irruerat in omnes; Deum non, quia ille reprobatus erat, et David secundum veritatem rex erat, et tamen ex caritate dimisit. Et similiter in omnibus Patribus fuit haec caritas; qui tamen, si aliquando ceciderunt, poenituerunt. Unde si displicet tibi casus David, placeat tibi eius poenitentia, ut dicit Hieronymus, et habes in hoc, ut de casu suo nullus desperet, et de statu suo nullus praesumat.


15. But grace which lifts up is obtained through hope. The Psalm reads: For what have I in heaven? And besides Thee what do 1 desire upon earth? And elsewhere: I say, "You are my refuge, my portion in the land of the living," so that a man be kept whole in view of this fatherland. Therefore our present light affliction which is for the moment, prepares for us an eternal weight of glory. For the Lord rejoices in the right The delights at your right hand forever. At the left are passing riches, glories and consolations. We must indeed adhere to the right. As the Psalm says, Your right hand upholds me, Lord. Hence the rewards dispose towards the third act of grace. Likewise, the fourth consideration, that of the torments of hell, provides disposing grace. :
15. Gratia autem sursum agens habetur per spem. Psalmus: Quid enim mihi est in caelo, et a te quid volui super terram? Deus cordis mei, et pars mea Deus in aeternum =|30|= , et alibi: Dixi: tu es spes mea, portio mea in terra viventium =|31|= , ut totum reservetur in illam patriam. Ideo quod momentaneum est et leve tribulationis nostrae aeternum gloriae pondus operatur =|32|= . Dominus enim delectationes habet in dextera; Psalmus: Delectationes in dextera tua usque in finem =|33|= ; in sinistra habet divitias et glorias et consolationes temporales. Debemus autem adhaerere dexterae; Psalmus: Me suscepit dextera tua =|34|= , Domine. Ergo praemia disponunt ad tertium actum gratiae. -- Similiter gratiam inclinantem facit habere quarta consideratio, scilicet tormentorum infernalium.


16. In the same manner, there are four acts of justice: to do good, to flee evil, to beware of prosperity, and to withstand misfortune. Of the first two, the Psalm says: Turn from evil, and do good. . . . The Lord has eyes for the just. .. . The Lord confronts the evildoers. Of the third: Happy the man who is always on his guard when things go well with him. Hence the just is warned not to fall. If he does fall, he is advised to rise again. For the just man falls seven times and rises again. The fourth is referred to in Proverbs: The just man, like a lion, feels sure of himself. There is also this: Blessed are they who suffer persecution for justice' sake. And again: Strive for justice for thy soul, and even unto death fight for justice.
16. Similiter iustitiae quatuor actus sunt: facere bona, fugere mala, formidare prospera, ferre adversa. -- De primis duobus Psalmus: Declina a malo et fac bonum. Oculi Domini super iustos =|35|= ; et: Vultus autem Domini super facientes mala =|36|= . -- De tertio: Beatus homo, qui semper est pavidus =|31|=  in prosperitatibus. Unde iustus deprecatur, ne ruat, et si corruat, ut resurgat; quia septies cadet iustus et resurget =|3|= *. -- De quarto in Proverbiis: Iustus quasi leo confidens absque terrore erit =|39|= . Et: Beati, qui persecutionem patiuntur propter iustitiam =|40|= . Et: Pro iustitia agonizare pro anima tua, et usque ad mortem certa pro iustitia =|41|= .


17. These fruits arise from four manners of considering, a prior and a posterior, from the right and the left, in order that, according to Dionysius [the Pseudo-Areopagite], the soul be moved in a circular motion, in a straight line and in a roundabout way. =|6|=  And Richard [of Saint-Victor] says that some birds fly high, others low, some in a circle and others straight ahead. =|7|=  And so does the soul in these manners of thinking.
17. Isti fructus oriuntur ex quatuor mediis considerationibus, scilicet antrorsum, retrorsum, dextrorsum, sinistrorsum, ut, secundum Dionysium, anima moveatur circulariter, recte et circumflexe. Et dicit Richardus, quod quaedam aves sursum volant, quaedam deorsum, quaedam circulariter, quaedam ante etc. Sic anima per istas considerationes.


18. From the first consideration comes forth the first act, that is, doing good, under the guidance of the commandments. "If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments." Indeed this consideration of God's commandments leads to good deeds. The command of the Lord is right in itself, for righteousness is nothing else than rectitude. =|8 |= Within the law, rectitude exists through itself; in the one observing the law, rectitude exists through participation. =|9 |= It is fitting, therefore, to consider, accept, and love God's commandments. If Adam and Eve had done it, they would not have fallen. In this way you will be transformed through love.
18. Ex prima consideratione habetur primus actus, scilicet facere bonum, per directionem praeceptorum; si vis ad vitam ingredi, serva mandata =|42|= . Consideratio enim mandatorum Dei facit facere bonum. Praeceptum Domini rectum est in se; iustitia enim nihil aliud est, quam rectitudo; rectitudo autem per se est in lege, per participationem in servante. Oportet ergo praecepta divina considerare, acceptare, amare; si sic fecissent Adam et Eva, non cecidissent; et sic transformaris per amorem.


19. From the second consideration comes forth that fruit of justice which consists in fleeing evil, that is, by means of distinguishing judgments. As Ecclesiasticus says: Sow not in the furrows of injustice, lest you harvest it sevenfold. No one, indeed, wants to reap cockle or tares, for as it is said in Deuteronomy: According to the measure of the sin shall the measure also of the stripes he. Thus the consideration of the judgments will make one flee from evil.
19. Ex secunda consideratione oritur fructus iustitiae, scilicet fugere mala, scilicet per iudicia districta; Ecclesiasticus: Ne semines mala in sulcis iniustitiae, et non metes ea in septuplum =|43|= . Nullus enim vult metere zizaniam vel lolium, quia, ut dicitur in Deuteronomio, iuxta modum culpae erit et plagarum modus =|44|= . Consideratio igitur iudiciorum facit fugere mala.


20. From the third consideration, that is, through dangerous satisfactions, comes forth the fruit of righteousness which consists in being wary of prosperity. Once honors have been offered, a man flees because he fears to fall into sin, for in every grain there is a worm: in the grain of honor, pride; in the grain of wealth, avarice; in the grain of pleasure, concupiscence. There are indeed some kinds of fruits that immediately begin to have worms, as for instance cherries in Italy. Others seem excellent, and yet there is a worm inside. On the contrary, by means of sweet chastisements, the fourth fruit of righteousness is shown: the ability to bear misfortune with patience. See, for instance, Paul and Lawrence.
20. Ex tertia consideratione, scilicet per severa solatia, oritur fructus iustitiae, scilicet formidare prospera. Oblatis enim honoribus, fugit homo, quia timet in culpam incidere, quia in quolibet grano est vermis: in grano honoris, elatio; in grano divitiarum, avaritia; in grano deliciarum, concupiscentia. Fructus enim quidam sunt, qui statim incipiunt verminari, ut cerasa in Italia. Quidam sunt, qui apparent optimi, et tamen vermis est intus. -- Econtra, per dulcia flagella ostenditur fructus iustitiae quartus, scilicet patienter ferre adversa; vide Paulum, Laurentium.


21. Likewise, the fruit of wisdom is bora of the last four by contrast. Corresponding to this fruit, there are four acts, for wisdom is comforting, struggling, contemplating, and extolling. It comforts the good. Wisdom is a better defense for the wise man than would be ten princes in the city. It is also struggling, against evil: Better is wisdom than weapons of war. Again, [Wisdom] gave him a strong conflict, that he might overcome and know that wisdom is mightier than all. It is also contemplating the Supreme Good: For she is fairer than the sun. Wisdom makes the soul taste [the Supreme Good] and be united [to it]. It is also extolling God on account of all things. This fruit is united with glory: this is the work, this is the reward, this is the fruit, that we shall see, love, and praise. =|10|=
21. Similiter sapientiae fructus ex quatuor ultimis antithetis nascitur. Huius sunt quatuor actus: sapientia enim est confortans, collatam, contemplans, collaudans. -- Confortans in bono; Ecclesiastes: Sapientia confortabit sapientem super decem principes civitatis =|45|= . -- Est etiam colluctans contra malum; unde Ecclesiastes: Melior est sapientia quam arma bellica =|46|= ; et in Sapientia: Certamen forte dedit illi, ut vinceret et sciret, quoniam omnium potentior est sapientia =|41|= . -- Est etiam contemplans summum bonum; in Sapientia: Est enim haec speciosior sole =|48|= . Facit enim animam gustare et uniri. -- Est etiam collaudans ex omnibus Deum. Hic fructus est coniunctus gloriae; hoc opus, hoc munus, hic fructus: videbimus, amabimus, laudabimus.


22. These four fruits come forth in an orderly manner. Consideration in a direct line through the help of the citizens [of heaven] disposes toward the first act of wisdom, [seen to be] as awe-inspiring as bannered troops and the companies of the camps.
22. Hi quatuor fructus per ordinem oriuntur. Consideratio e directo per civium praesidia disponit ad primum actum sapientiae, in acie terribili, ordinata et in choris castrorum =|49|= .


23. Secondly, the second fruit comes forth in opposition:]; through contending with foes. It consists in the struggle against enemies. For when a man has enemies, he behaves wisely, and an imminent war makes him judicious, strong, and knowing. Likewise, prisoners find many avenues of escape. Therefore imminent temptation makes a man stronger in an indirect way, as a ray of light coming upon an opaque, dense, and solid body, and then reflected, gives forth increased light and heat, as is evident in a steel mirror.  Likewise, a man becomes all the more chaste as his enemy attempts more strenuously to drag him into immorality. As [Francis] tells, there was a woman who had a devil who spoke within her and declared that Francis was doing much harm to them, and that there were gathered against him a good five thousand [devils], planning his downfall. And the friar who heard it told it to blessed Francis: and he got up and said that perhaps he had become stronger [because of it]. =|11|=
23. Secundo, per hostium certamina ex adverso oritur secundus fructus, scilicet colluctari contra hostes; quia homo, quando habet hostes, tunc valde sagaciter se gerit, et imminens bellum facit hominem sagacem, fortem et sapientem; sicut inclusi multas inveniunt vias ad evadendum; unde tentatio imminens quasi ex obliquo fortiorem reddit, sicut radius veniens super corpus opacum, densum, solidum, postea reflexus, maius lumen et calorem generat, ut patet in speculo ferreo. Similiter magis castus quis efficitur, cum inimicus fortiter vult trahere ad luxuriam. -- Sicut enim dixit, mulier habebat daemonem, qui in illa loquebatur et dixit, quod Franciscus magnum malum eis faciebat, et quod bene erant contra ipsum congregati quinque millia ad ipsum deiiciendum; et frater, qui audivit, dixit beato Francisco; tunc ipse surrexit et dixit, quod modo fortior esset.


e. From Charity, There are the Twelve Charismatic Gifts



24. The third fruit of wisdom consists in contemplating the supreme good which arises from a close consideration of the gifts of grace. For grace can be so great that a man living in it would be existing as it were in paradise. He would have an insight into his inner self, like blessed Paul who says: Wisdom, however, we speak among those who are mature. And later: But to us God has revealed them through His Spirit. ... For who among men knows the things of a man save the spirit of the man which is in him? Even so, the things of God we do not know, unless the Spirit of God goes into us.
24. Tertius fructus sapientiae est contemplari summum bonum, quod oritur ex consideratione e vicino per gratiarum dona. Tanta enim posset esse gratia, quod existens hic esset quasi in paradiso. Videret enim in intimis suis, sicut beatus Paulus, qui dicit: Sapientiam loquimur inter perfectos; et post: Nobis autem revelavit Deus per Spiritum sanctum. Sicut enim nemo scit quae sunt hominis, nisi spiritus, qui in illo est; ita et quae Dei sunt =|50|=  nescimus, nisi Spiritus Dei intret in nos.


25. In the fourth place, that is, from afar, there is born in us the praise of God in all things. For all creatures declare God. What shall I do? I shall sing with them all. The thick cord in the zither does not give forth a pleasant sound if struck alone, but there is harmony in consonance with others. Symbolic figures are received by all creatures in the Scriptures for the sake of praising God, as is evident in the Psalms: Praise the Lord from the heavens, and Bless the Lord, all you works of the Lord, from above and below. So does the man who sees God in all things, who tastes God in them through his three powers. Pleasing to Him be my theme; I will be glad in the Lord. And elsewhere: For you make me glad, O Lord, by Your deeds. Again: I will glorify Him with thanksgiving. In all things there is taste and restoration for the intellective and the affective powers. Out of all these fruits there arises the fruit of love and charity which covers them all. For all of Scripture is ordained towards charity. These twelve fruits rise towards charity in an orderly manner.
25. Ex quarto, scilicet e longinquo, nobis innascitur collaudatio Dei in omnibus. Omnes enim creaturae effantur Deum. Quid ego faciam? Cantabo cum omnibus. Grossa chorda in cithara per se non bene sonat, sed cum aliis est consonantia. Figurarum signa ab omnibus creaturis accipiuntur in Scriptura ad laudandum Deum, ut patet in Psalmo: Laudate Dominum de caelis =|31|=  \ et in: Benedicite omnia opera Domini Domino =|52|= , a summo usque deorsum; sic homo Deum videns in omnibus, Deum gustans in omnibus tribus viribus suis. Psalmus: Iucundum sit ei eloquium meum, ego vero delectabor in Domino =|53|= ; et alibi: Delectasti me, Domine, in factura tua =|54|= ; et: Magnificabo eum in laude =|55|= . Sic in omnibus habet gustum et refectionem intellectus et affectus. -- Ex his omnibus fructibus surgunt fructus amoris et caritatis, quae intenditur in omnibus. Omnis enim Scriptura ordinatur ad caritatem. Hi duodecim fructus ordinate ascendunt ad caritatem.


26. Now, flowing down from charity, there are the twelve charismatic gifts, the fruits which the Apostle enumerates [in his Epistle] to the Galatians: But the fruit of the Spirit is charity, joy, peace, patience, benignity, goodness, longanimity, mildness, faith, modesty, continency, chastity. For grace and righteousness and wisdom cannot exist without charity. Indeed, fruit comes from [the Latin] frui which means "to cleave to something because of its intrinsic value." =|12|=  Wherefore neither acts of justice nor miracles nor the understanding of mysteries are of any use without charity. And this is the opinion of all the doctors and saints. And so for instance, a little old woman who owns a small garden, if she has nothing but charity, will bring forth a better fruit than a great master who owns an enormous garden and knows the mysteries and natures of things.
26. Descendendo autem a caritate fluunt charismata duodecim, quae sunt fructus, quos ponit Apostolus ad Galatas quinto: Fructus autem spiritus est caritas, gaudium, pax, patientia, longanimitas, bonitas, benignitas, mansuetudo, fides, modestia, continentia, castitas =|56|= . Gratia$enim et iustitia et sapientia non possunt esse sine caritate =|57|= . Nam fructus dicitur a frui; «frui autem est inhaerere alicui rei propter se ipsam». Unde nec iustitia nec miracula nec scire mysteria sine caritate prosunt. Et hoc sentiunt omnes doctores et Sancti. Sic ecce, quod una vetula, quae habet modicum hortum, quia solam caritatem habet, meliorem fructum habet quam unus magnus magister, qui habet maximum hortum et scit mysteria et naturas rerum.


27. That these twelve fruits are sufficient may be understood in this way. According to Augustine, the disciple of Paul, four things must be loved with charity, and to them "we must cleave because of their intrinsic value." They are =|13|=  God, myself in God, my neighbor in God, and my body in God. I cleave to God when I experience supreme repose, delight and union with God: repose through love, delight through joy, union through peace. And these three are set in order, for wherever there is peace, there must also be joy, and wherever there is joy, there must be repose.
27. Sufficientia autem horum duodecim fructuum surgitur per hunc modum. Secundum Augustinum, filium Pauli, quatuor sunt diligenda ex caritate, quibus fruimur: Deo, me ipso in Deo, proximo in Deo, corpore meo in Deo. -- Deo autem fruor, quando summe in Deo conquiesco, delector, unior: conquiesco per amoretti, delector per gaudium, unior per pacem. Et haec tria ordinata sunt; quia, ubi est pax, necesse est, ut sit gaudium; et ubi gaudium, necesse est, ut sit quies.


28. In the second place, I cleave to myself in God. But I cleave to my soul when I possess it: for if a thing passes to the possession of another, I do not have its fruit. Now, I possess [my soul] when I can face adversity with patience. By your patience you will win your souls. But the patient toleration of adversity must not be casual, nor result from mere chance: it must come from an inner vision of mercy4 And that consists in looking forward to mercy. Thirdly, it consists in forgiving the trespasser for his offense. And these three result from patience, longanimity and goodness. Patience consists in tolerating adversity; longanimity, in expecting the reward that will come from all tribulations; and goodness, in forgiving generously. Hence, if charity is patient, long-suffering and good, then it shall suck as milk the abundance of the sea. In this way did Lawrence rejoice over the glowing embers as if they had been flowers. These fruits are in the spirit, not in the flesh. Hence in James: Esteem it all joy, my brethren, when you fall into various trials.
28. Secundo fruor me ipso in Deo. Anima autem mea fruor, quando illam possideo; quia, si transit res in possessionem alterius, fructum non habeo. Tunc autem possideo, quando patienter possum ferre adversa; in patientia vestra possidebitis animas vestras =|58|= ; patienter autem ferre adversa non debet esse a casu, vel fortuna, sed intuitu mercedis; et hoc est expectare mercedem; tertium est condonare iniurianti offensam. Et haec tria sunt per patientiam, longanimitatem, bonitatem. Patientia est adversa tolerando; longanimitas, exspectando mercedem ex omnibus tribulationibus; bonitas, liberaliter condonando. Unde si caritas patiens, longanimis, bona; tunc inundationes maris quasi lac sugit =|59|= , sicut Laurentius carbonibus quasi floribus laetabatur. Hi fructus sunt in spiritu, non in carne. Unde Iacobus: Omne gaudium existimate, fratres mei, cum in tentationes varias incideritis =|60|= .


29. In the third place, we cleave to the neighbor in God when we practice charity towards him, and this in a threefold way: kindly, in heart or spirit; considerately, in fellowship; faithfully, in word or appearance. I have a kind heart when I see any good that befalls my neighbor as befalling myself. Likewise, considerateness is [the virtue] which makes man gregarious and sociable. Some men are actually quite good, and yet they appear to be so hard that no one dares approach them. But when a man makes himself easy to approach, then he is considerate. Likewise, faithfulness makes a man greatly lovable. And this procures greater confidence in a man's word than in his heart, for affections may change.
29. Tertio, proximo fruimur in Deo, quando habemus caritatem ad proximum; et hoc tripliciter: benigne in corde vel animo; mansuete in contubernio; fideliter in verbo vel signo. Cor benignum habeo, quando quidquid boni habet proximus in meum bonum refundo. Similiter mansuetudo est, quae hominem facit gregalem et socialem. Aliqui homines sunt valde boni, et tamen sunt ita duri in signis, quod homo non audet eis appropinquare; sed quando homo familiarem se reddit, tunc est mansuetus. Similiter fidelitas multum facit amabilem; et haec facit confidere de homine magis in verbo quam in corde, quia affectus est variabilis.


30. In the fourth place, I cleave to my body in God when I keep my body clean. This I do when I remain moderate in the use of taste, continent in the use of touch, and chaste in all the senses. Moderation is characteristic of taste. The bodies of the lustful, the greedy, the incontinent are not buried in peace.
30. Quarto, fruor corpore meo in Deo, quando mundum servo corpus meum, et hoc, quando servatur modestia in gustu, continentia in tactu, castitas in omnibus sensibus. In gustu principaliter notatur modestia. Corpora luxuriosorum, gulosorum, incontinentium non sunt in pace sepulta =|61|= .


31. And so, in descending order, out of charity which is an ointment flowing from the head over the beard upon the the collar of the robe, there is the cleaving to God, to self, to the neighbor and to one's body. Hence, as there are twelve fruits in the twelve examples of ascent towards charity, so also there are twelve fruits in the descent. And this is what is said in the Apocalypse: On both sides of the river, was the tree of life, bearing twelve fruits, yielding its fruit according to each month. On the one side of the river, the intellectual fruits; on the other, the affective; or on the one side the ascending fruits, and on the other the descending.
31. Sic ergo descendendo, ex caritate, quae est unguentum fluens a capite ad barbam usque ad oram vestimenti =|62|= , est fruitio Dei, mei, proximi, corporis. Sicut ergo sunt duodecim fructus ex duodecim illustrationibus ascendendo ad caritatem, sic sunt duodecim fructus descendendo. Et hoc est illud quod in Apocalypsi dicitur, ex utraque parte fluminis esse lignum vitae, afferens fructus duodecim per duodecim menses =|63|=  : ab una parte fluminis fructus intellectuales, ab altera affectuales; vel ab una parte fructus ascendentes, ab altera descendentes.


32. This indeed is the fruit of Scripture: charity. It is for its sake that there are mysteries, interpretations, and theories. Hence towards the end of the Apocalypse: Blessed are those who wash their robes that... by the gates they may enter into the city. And he said: I imagine those twelve first examples as going up which flow from God and end in God and run through all of Scripture. I imagine as it were twelve circles, so that whatever circle the soul enters, it finds a forest and the amenity of trees and an abundance of fruits.
32. Iste ergo est fructus Scripturarum, scilicet caritas. Propter hanc sunt mysteria, intelligentiae, theoriae. Unde in fine Apocalypsis: Beati, qui lavant vestimenta sua, ut intrent per portam civitatis =|64|= . -- Et dicebat: Imaginor illas duodecim illustrationes primas sive ascendentes, quae fluunt a Deo et ad Deum terminantur et currunt per totam Scripturam; imaginor sicut duodecim circulos, ut in quemcumque anima intret, inveniat silvam et arborum amoenitatem ac fructuum ubertatem.


XX. Nineteenth Collation



A. Seventh and Last Treatise on the Third Vision, Which is Concerned with the Right Way and the Right Reason by Which the Fruit of Scripture is Perceived, That Is, How Wisdom is Attained Through Knowledge and Holiness.



1900 NINETEENTH COLLATION Seventh and Last Treatise on the Third Vision, Which Is Concerned With the Right Way and the Right Reason by Which the Fruit of Scripture Is Perceived, That Is, How Wisdom Is Attained Through Knowledge and Holiness.


1. How Wisdom is Attained Through Knowledge and Holiness



1. THE earth brought forth vegetation, etc. We have spoken of the fruits of Holy Scripture. It is to these fruits that Holy Wisdom invites us. I bud forth delights like the vine, My blossoms become fruit fair and rich. Come to Me, all you that yearn for Me, and be filled with My fruits. If we want to come over, we must be the sons of Israel who passed over from Egypt. But the Egyptians did not pass over: they were drowned. Those alone come over who focus their whole attention on how to pass from vanity to the country of truth. Adam passed over from truth to vanity. Hence in the Psalm: A phantom only, man goes his ways; like vapor only are his restless pursuits; he heaps up stores, and knows not who will use them. — The next morning they are like the changing grass, which at dawn springs up anew, but by evening wilts and fades. For as long as vain, transitory, passing good is loved, man is "passing over." And such passing over Wisdom reproves. This passing over is the cause of every evil. In this way Lucifer passed over, to whom it was said: Down to the nether world you go, to the recesses of the pit! He was thrown first by sin, then by the judgment. Adam did the same: after he had given up the tree of life, he hid. Indeed, he saw himself denuded of all good habits. Wherefore he was thrown out of Paradise.
1. Protulit terra herbam virentem =|1|=  etc. Dictum est de fructibus sacrae Scripturae; et ad hos fructus invitat nos Sapientia aeterna; in Ecclesiastico: Ego quasi vitis fructificavi suavitatem odoris, et flores mei fructus honoris et gratiae. Transite ad me omnes, qui concupiscitis me, et a generationibus meis implemini =|2|= . Si volumus transire, oportet, nos esse filios Israel, qui transierunt Aegyptum; sed Aegyptii non transierunt, sed submersi sunt =|3|= . Illi autem transeunt, qui totum suum studium ponunt, qualiter a vanitatibus transeant in regionem veritatis. A veritate in vanitatem transivit Adam, unde in Psalmo: Verumtamen in imagine pertransit homo, sed et frustra conturbatur. Thesaurizat et ignorat, cui congregabit ea =|4|= . Mane sicut herba transeat, mane floreat et transeat, vespere decidat, induret et arescatQuando ergo amatur commutabile bonum, transitorium, vanum; tunc homo transit; et hunc transitum reprobat Sapientia. Hic transitus facit omne malum. Sic transivit lucifer, cui dictum est: Verumtamen ad infernum detraheris =|6|= . Primo proiectus est per culpam, secundo per iudicium. Sic etiam fecit Adam; postquam dimisit lignum vitae, abscondit se. Vidit enim se nudum ab omnibus habitibus bonis; propter quod abiectus est de paradiso =|7|= .


2. Hence, wisdom and love are the principal fruits. And that which is most opposed to them is vanity. For this reason, the Canticle speaks of a loving wisdom. No one, indeed, can say that the words of the Canticle are without wisdom and love, nor that they are not far removed from vanity. Wherefore before this book there comes Ecclesiastes where vanity is shown in these words: Vanity of vanities! All things are vanity! This proposition is true and is proved by the whole book. It is fitting, then, to pass over from all things into truth, so that there be no other pleasure than in God.
2. Sapientia ergo et caritas sunt principales fructus; quibus principaliter est contraria vanitas. Unde in Cantico exprimitur sapientia amorosa. Non enim potest quis dicere verba Cantici sine sapientia et amore, nec nisi elongatus a vanitate. Et ideo Ecclesiastes praecedit hunc librum; ubi ostendit vanitatem cum dicit: Vanitas vanitatum, et omnia vanitas =|8|= . Haec propositio vera est et probatur in toto libro. Oportet ergo transire ab omnibus ad veritatem, ut non sit delectatio nisi in Deo.


3. But how is one to pass over? All men want to be wise and knowing. Yet, soon it happens that the woman deceives the man. But wisdom is the higher, being noble, while knowing is the lower: yet she seems beautiful to man, and he seeks to be joined to her, and his spirit tends to the things that can be known and experienced, and he wills to know them, and to experience the things he knows, and consequently to be united to them. And in this way he is weakened like Solomon who sought to know all things, and he treated about trees from the cedar that is in Libanus, unto hyssop. And he forgets about the most important, and thus turns to the vain. Therefore passing from knowing to wisdom is not assured: a means must be placed in between, that is, holiness. But passing over is an endeavor: the endeavor to pass from the study of the sciences to the study of holiness")' and from the study of holiness to that of wisdom. It is said of this in the Psalm: Teach me goodness and discipline and knowledge. [The endeavor] begins from the top because it wants to taste and see how good the Lord is. But it is not possible to reach wisdom except through discipline, nor discipline except through knowledge — wherefore the last should not be placed before the first. It would be a poor merchant who would prefer tin to gold. The man who chooses knowledge over holiness will never prosper.
3. Quomodo autem transeundum est? Volunt omnes esse sapientes et scientes. Sed cito accidit, quod mulier decipit virum =|9|= . Sapientia autem est supra tanquam nobilis; sed scientia infra, at videtur homini pulcra, et ideo vult sibi coniungi, et inclinatur anima ad scibilia et sensibilia et vult ea cognoscere et cognita experiri et per consequens eis uniri. Et ita enervatur, ut Salomon, qui voluit omnia scire et disputavit super lignis a cedro, quae est in Libano, usque ad hyssopum =|10|= ; et oblitus est principalis, et ideo est factus vanus. Non est$ergo securus transitus a scientia ad sapientiam; oportet ergo medium ponere, scilicet sanctitatem. Transitus autem est exercitium: exercitatio a studio scientiae ad studium sanctitatis, et a studio sanctitatis ad studium sapientiae; de quibus in Psalmo: Bonitatem et disciplinam et scientiam doce me =|n|= . Incipit a summo, quia vellet gustare, quam bonus et suavis est Dominus =|12|= ; ad sapientiam autem perveniri non potest nisi per disciplinam, nec ad disciplinam nisi per scientiam: non est ergo praeferendum ultimum primo. Malus esset mercator, qui stannum praeeligeret auro. Qui enim praefert scientiam sanctitati nunquam prosperabitur.


4. Augustine =|1|=  writes in "The City of God" that the good angels or spirits bear the name "angel," meaning "messenger," because they enjoy being humble, while the evil spirits are called "demons," meaning "those who know," because they seek to be known for their exalted position.}: But one should consider with fear what Job says of Behemoth - Leviathan: He shall strew gold under him like mire. Through knowledge, temptation easily leads to ruin. You will be like God, knowing good and evil. Wherefore some men want to search beyond the way of nature, that is, beyond contingent matters. Concerning the levels of pride, blessed Bernard =|2 |= says that the primary vice is inquisitiveness which brought about the fall of Lucifer. By this, too, Adam fell. The hunger for knowledge must be changed: wisdom and holiness must be preferred to it.
4. Augustinus, De civitate Dei, dicit, quod Angeli boni sive spiritus habent nomen Angeli, scilicet nuntii, quia de humilitate gaudent; spiritus nequam vocantur daemones, scilicet scientes, quia ab illius fastu volunt nominari. Sed verendum est quod dicit Iob de behemoth-leviathan: Sternet sibi aurum quasi lutum =|13|= . Per scientiam enim est tentatio facilis ad ruinam. Unde: Eritis sicut dii, scientes bonum et malum =|14|= . Unde quidam super viam naturae volunt perscrutari, sicut de contingentibus. Beatus Bernardus dicit de gradibus superbiae, quod primum vitium est curiositas, per quod lucifer cecidit; per hoc etiam Adam cecidit. Appetitus scientiae modificandus est, et praeferenda est ei sapientia et sanctitas.


5. How, then, should one strive for knowledge, wisdom and holiness? It is good to know in order to obtain the fruits of wisdom, in order that we may enter through the city doors. As Ecclesiastes writes, the labor of fools shall afflict them that know not how to go to the city, that is, who do not know how to direct their endeavors properly. In Genesis it is said that the Lord God took the man and placed him in the garden of Eden to till it and to keep it. It is fitting to work within sacred Scripture and to train the mind. As Seneca =|3|=  says, "Many have I found who trained their body, but few their mind." Such a training is a spiritual disposition towards devotedness. Hence, in Proverbs: I passed by the field of the sluggard, by the vineyard of the man without sense; and behold! it was all overgrown with thistles; its surface was covered with nettles, and its stone wall broken down. This happens when a man has good intentions but does not fulfill them: then it is that the thistles of malice and the nettles of cupidity come to grow. The stone wall of the virtues is destroyed because of the dissipation of thoughts. Hence, in the same text: complete your outdoor tasks, and arrange your work in the field.
5. Qualiter ergo studendum est scientiae et sanctitati et sapientiae? Oportet scire, ut de fructibus sapientiae habeatur, et per portas civitatis possimus introire; Ecclesiastes: Labor stultorum perdet eos qui nesciunt in urbem pergere =|15|= , hoc est, qui nesciunt studere in quibus oportet. In Genesi dicitur, quod tulit Dominus Deus hominem et posuit in paradiso, ut operaretur et custodiret illum =|16|= . -- Oportet operari in sacra Scriptura et exercitare intellectum. Seneca: «Multos inveni exercitantes corpus, paucos ingenium». Haec exercitatio est spiritus ad pietatem; unde in Proverbiis: Per agrum hominis pigri transivi 4 et per vineam viri stulti. Et ecce, totum repleverant urticae, et operuerant superficiem eius spinae, et maceria lapidum destructa erat =|11|= . Hoc fit, quando homo habet bonam dispositionem et non exercet eam, sed crescunt ibi urticae malignitatis, spinae cupiditatis. Maceria lapidum virtutum destruitur propter dissipationem cogitationum; unde ibidem: Praepara foris opus tuum, et diligenter exerce agrum tuum =|1|= *.


2. Order



6. Now, the right endeavor must fill four conditions: order, assiduity, satisfaction, and due proportion. Order is proposed in different ways by different authors, and yet it is important to proceed in orderly fashion so as not to put the first thing last. There are indeed four kinds of books in reference to which order must be exercised. The first are Holy Scripture: in the Old Testament, according to Jerome, =|4 |= twenty-two books, and in the New, eight. The second are the original writings of the saints. The third are the opinions of the Masters. The fourth are the worldly teachings, that is, [the doctrines] of the philosophers.
6. Modus studendi debet habere quatuor conditiones: ordinem, assiduitatem, complacentiam, commensurationem. -- Ordo diversimode traditur a diversis: sed oportet ordinate procedere, ne de primo faciant$posterius. Sunt ergo quatuor genera Scripturarum, circa quae oportet ordinate exerceri. Primi libri sunt sacrae Scripturae. In testamento veteri secundum Hieronymum viginti duo libri, in novo testamento octo sunt. Secundi libri sunt originalia Sanctorum; tertii, Sententiae magistrorum; quarti, doctrinarum mundialium sive philosophorum.


7. He, therefore, who desires to learn seeks knowledge at the well-spring, that is, in Holy Scripture, for with the philosophers there is no knowledge leading to the remission of sins. Nor is there any in the Summas of the masters, since they drew from the original writings [of the saints], who in turn used Scripture as their source. That is why Augustine =|5 |= says that he and others could be in error, but there [in Scripture] there is so much faith that there cannot be any error. And Dionysius =|6|=  [the Pseudo-Areopagite] says this in his book on the Divine Names: "Nothing is to be taken for granted except what has been expressed to us in divine form by means of sacred sayings." The follower of Christ must concentrate on Sacred Scripture as children first learn their A, B, C, and then make syllables, and learn to read, and finally understand the meaning of the parts [of speech]. Likewise, in reference to Sacred Scripture, one must study the text, and have it at the tip of one's fingers, and then understand "what is said by the words," =|7|=  and this, not as a Jew who always gives attention to the literal meaning. The whole of Scripture is like a single zither, and the lesser string does not produce harmony by itself, but only in combination with the others. Likewise, any single passage of Scripture depends upon some other, or rather, any single passage is related to a thousand others.
7. Qui ergo vult discere quaerat scientiam in fonte, scilicet in sacra Scriptura, quia apud philosophos non est scientia ad dandam remissionem peccatorum; nec apud Summas magistrorum, quia illi ab originalibus traxerunt, originalia autem a sacra Scriptura. Unde dicit Augustinus, quod ipse decipi potest et alii; sed ibi est fides tanta, ubi non potest esse deceptio. Et hoc dicit Dionysius, De divinis Nominibus, quod «nihil assumendum est, nisi quod ex eloquiis sacris divinitus nobis est expressum». -- Studere debet Christi discipulus in sacra Scriptura, sicut pueri primo addiscunt a, b, c, d etc., et postea syllabicare et postea legere et postea quid significet pars. Similiter in sacra Scriptura primo debet quis studere in textu et ipsum habere in promptu et intelligere, «quid dicitur per nomen», non solum sicut Iudaeus, qui semper intendit ad litteralem sensum. Tota Scriptura est quasi una cithara, et inferior chorda per se non facit harmoniam, sed cum aliis; similiter unus locus Scripturae dependet ab alio, immo unum locum respiciunt mille loca.


a. Begin with Capacity to Understand, with Literal Sense of Ss



8. Note that when Christ performed the miracle of changing water into wine, he did not say from the very first: "Let there be wine." Nor did He produce it out of nothing: as Gregory comments, He asked the servants to fill the water jars. It is impossible to explain what He did in a literal sense, but a reason may be given in terms of spiritual understanding: The Holy Spirit does not give spiritual understanding unless man provide the jar, that is, his capacity, and the water, that is, the understanding of the literal sense. Then does God change the water of the literal understanding into the wine of the spiritual. Paul was great because of the fact that he was teaching the Law at the feet of Gamaliel. He, then, who possesses Scripture is powerful in his speech and also in a becoming sermon. Blessed Bernard, for instance, knew little. Yet, because he had studied Scripture intensely, he was able to speak with elegance.
8. Notandum, quod quando Christus fecit miraculum de conversione aquae in vinum, non statim dixit: fiat vinum, nec fecit de nihilo; sed voluit, quod ministri implerent hydrias aqua, ut dicit Gregorius. Ad litteram, quare sic fecit, ratio reddi non potest; sed secundum spiritualem intelligentiam reddi potest ratio: quia Spiritus sanctus non dat spiritualem intelligentiam, nisi homo impleat hydriam, scilicet capacitatem suam, aqua, scilicet notitia litteralis sensus, et post convertit Deus aquam sensus litteralis in vinum spiritualis intelligentiae. -- Propter hoc Paulus fuit altus, quia ipse didicerat Legem ad pedes Gamalielis =|19|= . Unde qui Scripturam habet potens est in eloquiis et etiam in venusto sermone. Unde beatus Bernardus parum sciebat, sed quia in Scriptura multum studuit; ideo locutus est elegantissime.


9. The first thing, then, is that a man possess Scripture, not like a Jew who is content with the rind. For instance, a certain Jew was reading one day this passage from Isaias: Who would believe what we have heard? He was reading it literally and was quite unable to relate it to anything nor to make any sense of it, and therefore he cast the book on the ground, begging loudly that God confound Isaias, because it seemed to him that what he said could not stand.
9. Primum igitur est, quod homo habeat Scripturam non sicut Iudaeus, qui solum vult corticem. Unde quidam Iudaeus semel legebat illud capitulum Isaiae: Domine, quis credidit auditui nostro =|20|=  etc.; et legebat ad litteram et non potuit habere concordantiam nec sensum, et ideo proiecit librum ad terram, imprecans, ut Deus confunderet Isaiam, quia, ut sibi videbatur, non poterat stare quod dicebat.


b. Danger in Original Writings [of the Saints]: a Beauty Which Scripture Does Not Have



10. Man cannot attain the understanding of such things by his own power, but only through those men to whom God revealed [them], that is, through the original writings of the saints such as Augustine, Jerome and others. It is fitting, then, to have recourse to those original writings: but they are difficult. Therefore there is need for the summas of the masters in which the difficulties are elucidated. But one must beware of an over-abundance of writings. Yet, since the philosophers quote these same writings, it is necessary for a man to know them or to take them into consideration. There is, then, a danger in coming down to the original writings [of the saints], for they are marked by the beauty of their expression: a beauty which Scripture does not have. That is why Augustine says it is not good to abandon Scripture for the study of the books concerned with it. Nor is it good [to come down to] Paul, in reference to those who were baptized in the name of Paul. Sacred Scriptures are to be held in great reverence.
10. Ad hanc autem intelligentiam non potest homo pervenire per se, nisi per illos quibus Deus revelavit, scilicet per originalia Sanctorum, ut Augustini, Hieronymi et aliorum. Oportet ergo recurrere ad originalia Sanctorum; sed ista sunt difficilia; ideo necessariae sunt Summae magistrorum, in quibus elucidantur illae difficultates. Sed cavendum est de multitudine scriptorum. Sed quia ista scripta adducunt philosophorum verba, necesse est, quod homo sciat vel supponat ipsa. -- Est ergo periculum descendere ad originalia, quia pulcher sermo est originatum; Scriptura autem non habet sermonem ita pulcrum. Unde Augustinus, si tu dimittas Scripturam et in libris suis studeas, pro bono non habet; sicut nec Paulus de illis qui in nomine Pauli baptizabantur =|21|= . Sacra Scriptura in magna reverentia habenda est.


c. Still Greater Danger in Going Down to the Summas of the Masters



11. But there is still greater danger in going down to the summas of the masters, because error is sometimes found in them. They believe they understand the original [writings of the saints], but they do not understand them: they even contradict them. Hence, as a man would be foolish always to deal with commentaries without ever going up to an [original] text, so would he be also in dealing with the summas of masters. Yet, in these matters he should be careful always to follow the more common opinion.
11. Maius autem periculum est descendere ad Summas magistrorum, quia aliquando est in eis error; et credunt, se intelligere originalia, et non intelligunt, immo eis contradicunt. Unde sicut fatuus esset qui vellet semper immorari circa tractatus et nunquam ascendere ad textum; sic est de Summis magistrorum. In his autem homo debet cavere, ut semper adhaereat viae magis communi.


d. Philosophy Implies the Greatest Danger



12. But going down to philosophy implies the greatest danger. Isaias says: Because this people has refected the waters of Siloe that flow gently, and melts with fear before the loftiness of Rasin and Romelia's son, therefore the Lord raises against them the waters of the River, great and mighty [the king of Assyria,] etc. We should no longer return to Egypt. Note that Jerome, =|8|=  after studying Cicero, no longer had any taste for the Prophetical Books. Wherefore he was chastised before the tribunal. Now this happened for our sake. Let the masters beware, then, not to commend or appreciate too highly the sayings of the philosophers, lest the people take it as a pretext to return to Egypt, or dismiss because of their example the waters of Siloe in which is supreme perfection, and go to the waters of the philosophers in which there is eternal deceit.
12. Descendere autem ad philosophiam est maximum periculum; unde Isaias: Pro eo, quod abiecit populus ille aquas Siloe, quae currunt cum silentio, et assumpsit magis Rasin et filium Romeliae; propter hoc, ecce, Dominus adducet super eos aquas fluminis fortes et multas, regem Assyriorum =|11|=  etc. Non amplius revertendum est in Aegyptum. -- Notandum de Hieronymo, qui post studium Ciceronis non habebat saporem in propheticis libris; ideo flagellatus fuit ante tribunal. Hoc autem propter nos factum est; unde magistri cavere debent, ne nimis commendent et appretientur dicta philosophorum, ne hac occasione populus revertatur in Aegyptum, vel exemplo eorum dimittat aquas Siloe, in quibus est summa perfectio, et vadant ad aquas philosophorum, in quibus est aeterna deceptio.


13. This was marked in the case of Gedeon =|9|=  where those who were tested by the water, that is, those who lapped it like dogs, fought the battle and won, while those who bent their knee to drink were turned away. And those who had won [the test] were given trumpets and pitchers and lanterns, and they obtained the victory by means of blaring horns and clanging vessels. These are the preachers of the Church who in their preaching make a blaring of horns. The vessels are the bodies, the lanterns are the miracles. Indeed, every time they died for the sake of truth, they repelled and overcame the enemy by means of miracles. But those who drink by lapping with their tongues like dogs, who draw only a little water with their tongues, are those who take little from philosophy; while those who bent their knee to drink are those who inclined themselves totally to it: and the same are inclined to an infinite number of errors, and that is how the leaven of error is warmed. As Osee writes, the city rested a little from the mingling of the leaven, till the whole was leavened. They warm the eggs of asps, so that what has been warmed breaks out into a serpent.
13. Signatum fuit hoc in Gedeone, ubi illi qui probati fuerunt ad aquas, qui scilicet lambuerunt sicut canes, pugnaverunt et vicerunt; et illi qui flexo poplite incurvati biberunt, reversi sunt; et vincentibus datae sunt tubae, lagenae et laternae, et per clangorem buccinae et complosionem lagenarum vicerunt =|23|= . Isti sunt Ecclesiae praedicatores, qui clangunt in praedicatione buccina. Lagenae sunt corpora, lampades sunt miracula. Quando enim pro veritate mortui sunt, miraculis coru-$scaverunt et superaverunt hostes. Isti autem, qui bibunt lingua attrahendo sicut canes, qui parum aquae lingua hauriunt, sunt qui de philosophia parum sumunt; sed illi qui flexo poplite bibunt, sunt qui totaliter se ibi incusant; et illi curvantur ad errores infinitos, et inde fovetur fermentum erroris; Osee: Quievit paululum civitas a commixtione fermenti, donec fermentaretur totum =|14|= ; et fovent ova aspidum, ut quod confotum fuerit erumpat in regulum =|25|= .


14. Consider blessed Francis =|10|=  when he was preaching to the Sultan. The Sultan said to him that he (Francis) should engage in a disputation with his (the Sultan's) priests. But Francis answered that according to reason it was impossible to argue about faith, since it was above reason. Nor [was it possible to argue] by means of Scripture, since they did not accept it. But he asked that a fire be prepared, and that he and they go into it. Indeed, not so much of the water of philosophy should be mixed with the wine of Sacred Scripture that it turn from wine into water. This would be the worst of miracles. We read that Christ turned water into wine, not the reverse. From this it is evident that for believers faith cannot be proved by means of reason, but by means of Scripture and miracles. Furthermore, in the primitive Church, [the faithful] burned philosophy books. For it is not fitting that loaves of bread be turned into stones.
14. Nota de beato Francisco, qui praedicabat Soldano. Cui dixit Soldanus, quod disputaret cum sacerdotibus suis. Et ille dixit, quod secundum rationem de fide disputari non poterat, quia supra rationem est, nec per Scripturam, quia ipsam non reciperent illi; sed rogabat, ut fieret ignis, et ipse et illi intrarent. -- Non igitur tantum miscendum est de aqua philosophiae in vinum sacrae Scripturae, quod de vino fiat aqua; hoc pessimum miraculum esset; et legimus, quod Christus de aqua fecit vinum =|26|= , non e converso. -- Ex hoc patet, quod credentibus fides non per rationem, sed per Scripturam et miracula probari potest. In Ecclesia etiam primitiva libros philosophiae comburebant =|27|= . Non enim panes mutari debent in lapides =|28|= .


15. There is therefore a [right] order; man should study first Sacred Scripture, in the letter and the spirit; then the original [writings of the saints], giving priority to Sacred Scripture over them. It is the same with the writings of the masters and those of the philosophers: one should scan them stealthily as if it were not good to tarry. How much was Rachel enriched for having stolen her father's household idols? The only thing she gained was to have lied and to have simulated weakness after having put them in the camel's saddle and sat on them. The same thing happens when the notebooks of the philosophers are concealed. Our waters should not go down to the Dead Sea, but [up] to their first point of origin.
15. Est ergo ordo, ut prius Studeat homo in sacra Scriptura quantum ad litteram et spiritum, post in originalibus, et illa subiiciat sacrae Scripturae; similiter in scriptis magistrorum et in scriptis philosophorum, sed transeundo et furando, quasi ibi non sit permanendum. Quid lucrata fuit Rachel, quod furata fuit idola patris sui =|29|= ? Tantum fuit lucrata, quod mentita fuit et simulavit infirmitatem et abscondit ea subter stramenta cameli, et sedit desuper =|30|= ; sic, quando quaterni philosophorum absconduntur. Aquae nostrae non debent descendere ad mare mortuum =|31|= , sed in suam primam originem =|32|= .


3. Assiduity



4. Satisfaction



16. In the second place, it is fitting that there be assiduity. Haphazard reading, reading first one author then another, like planting first here then there, is a very serious obstacle. External wandering is a sign of a wandering mind. Such reading cannot be profitable, for it is not fixed in the memory. Gregory =|11|=  provides an example of this when he says that when a man sees another's face but once, he cannot know it perfectly after [this single experience]. But when a man has seen another's face frequently, he knows it after that. And so it is with Sacred Scripture: at first, it has a face that is obscure, but after it has been often seen, it becomes familiar.
16. Secundo oportet habere assiduitatem. Impedimentum enim est maximum lectio vagabunda, quasi plantans modo hic, modo ibi; modo legere unum, modo alium. Vagatio exterior signum est vagationis animae; et ideo talis non potest proficere, quia non figitur in memoria; sicut ponit exemplum Gregorius, quod quando homo videt semel faciem hominis, non ita perfecte postea cognoscit, sed quando frequenter videt, postea cognoscet. Sic de sacra Scriptura: quia primo faciem obscuram habet, postea, quando frequenter videtur, efficitur familiaris.


17. In the third place, there is need for satisfaction. As indeed God proportioned taste and food, in that He gave flavor to food and the power of discrimination to taste, and from these two [attributes] it follows that food is assimilated by the body, so also it is fitting first to take in Scripture, then to chew it, and finally to assimilate it. What does it serve a man to drink dirty water? And now what hast thou to do in the way of Egypt, to drink the troubled water? Drink instead healthy water, that is, wisdom.
17. Tertio oportet habere complacentiam. Sicut enim Deus proportionavit gustum et cibum, quia cibo dedit saporem, gustui autem$discretionem; et ex his duobus cibus incorporatur: sic primo oportet sumere Scripturam postea masticare, demum incorporare. Ad quid homo bibet aquam turbidam? Ieremias: Quid tibi vis in via Aegypti, ut bibas aquam turbidam ? =|33|= . Sed bibe aquam salutarem, scilicet sapientiae.


5. Good Measure



18. Note that an animal that does not ruminate is impure. Now, rumination consists in this, that an animal has two stomachs. It brings food to its mouth, then ruminates it, then makes it pass into the second stomach. The Psalm reads: How sweet to my palate are your promises, sweeter than honey to my mouth! Do not love the harlot and dismiss your wife: Her I loved and sought after from my youth. Do not take in the acorns and pods of the swine, lest with Absalom =|12|=  you be hung by the hair, that is, by your dispositions.! The teachings of the ages  are like the oak: lofty, noble, inflexible. Do not choose to eat the pumpkins of Egypt and the leeks and the garlic, but bread from heaven. And do not be disgusted with that food, do not be carnal as were the sons of Israel. For these found but one flavor, while others, spiritual men, found the sweetness of every taste. =|13|=
18. Nota, quod animal, quod non ruminat, immundum est. Ruminatio enim fit eo, quod animal habet duos ventres; attrahit cibum ad os et totum ruminat et proiicit in alterum ventrem ulteriorem. -- In Psalmo: Quam dulcia faucibus meis eloquia tua, super mel ori meo! =|34|= . Non diligas meretricem et dimittas sponsam tuam; in Sapientia: Hanc amavi et exquisivi a iuventute mea =|35|= . Non accipias glandes et siliquas porcorum =|36|= , ut suspendaris cum Absalon per capillos =|37|= , scilicet affectus tuos. Doctrinae saeculares sunt sicut quercus altae, proceres, inflexibiles. Noli comedere pepones Aegypti et porros et allia, sed manna de caelo =|38|= ; et non nauseas super cibo isto, non sis carnalis, sicut filii Israel; et hi non inveniebant nisi unum saporem, sed alii homines spirituales inveniebant omnis saporis suavitatem =|39|= .


6. Anyone Who Wishes to Obtain Advantages from His Studies Should Be Holy and Should Work



a. Reverent



19. The fourth need is good measure, so that a man seek not to savor beyond his means, but that he do so according to moderation. Hence, the Wise Man says: If you find honey, eat only what you need, lest you become glutted with it and vomit it up. Do not extend yourself beyond the point your intelligence can reach; but neither remain short of it. Wherefore, in order to make this point, as Dionysius =|14 |= [the Pseudo-Areopagite] says, the Seraphim flew with their intermediate wings, [showing] that man should not remain short of his possibilities nor rise beyond them. Likewise, those who sing beyond their range never produce harmony. And Augustine =|15|=  says that those who do not order their studies properly are like colts gamboling hither and thither, while the mare with a steady step goes just where it is good for her to go. This example may be applied to a man of slow intelligence who is able to organize his studies well, as opposed to a man of brilliant intelligence who studies in a disorderly manner.
19. Quartum est commensuratio, ut non velit sapere super vires, sed sapere ad sobrietatem =|40|= . Unde ait Sapiens: Mel invenisti, comede quod tibi sufficit, ne forte satiatus evomas illud =|41|= . Non plus te extendas, quam ingenium tuum potest ascendere, nec infra maneas. Unde in designationem huius, ut dicit Dionysius, Seraphim mediis volabant alis, ut nec sistat homo citra id quod potest, nec ascendat ultra id quod potest; sicut illi qui cantant ultra vires, nunquam bonam faciunt harmoniam. -- Et dicit Augustinus, quod illi qui non ordinant studium, sunt sicut pulli equorum, qui modo currunt huc, modo illuc; sed iumentum plano passu tantum vadit, eo quod aeque proficit; sic unus durus, dummodo ordinare sciat studium suum, sicut ingeniosus inordinate studens.


b. Religious



c. Pure



20. Anyone who wishes to obtain advantages from his studies should be holy and should work for a life that is reverent, pure, religious, and edifying. Now the reverent life of the saints consists in this, that in anything they do, they be always in a state of fear, whether going to Mass or to table, whether walking or standing still, for in anything there is a possibility of sin. Then 1 am in dread of all my pains; I know that you will not hold me innocent. The best sign is fear, and the worst, temerity, for such is never corrected.
20. Qui autem vult proficere in hoc studio, oportet, quod habeat sanctitatem et possit studere ad vitam timoratam, impollutam, religiosam, aedificatoriam. -- Haec est vita Sanctorum timorata, ut in his quae agit, semper timeat, sive vadens ad Missam, sive ad mensam, sive stans, sive ambulans, quia in omnibus potest esse peccatum; Iob: Verebar omnia opera mea, sciens, quod non parceres delinquenti =|42|= . Op-$timum signum est timor, et pessimum signum est audacia, quia talis nunquam corrigitur.


d. Edify



21. In the second place, [a saint's] life must be pure, that is, everything must be done out of love for God, and not out of love for something else, since all love is suspect if it is not addressed to God. That is why Augustine =|16|=  — and also Bernard =|17|=  in a letter to a certain monk —write that the apostles' love for the bodily Christ prevented the coming of the Spirit^ What of other forms of love addressed to creatures? My soul refuses comfort, etc. Keep me as the apple of your eye. The apple of the eye is not kept clean when there is mist or dust or liquid on it.
21. Secundo, vita impolluta, quod totum faciat propter amorem Dei, non propter amorem alicuius rei, quia omnis amor suspectus est nisi Dei. Unde dicit Augustinus, et beatus Bernardus in quadam epistola ad quendam monachum, quod dilectio Apostolorum ad carnem Christi impediebat adventum Spiritus sancti. Quid de alio amore creaturarum? Psalmus: Renuit consolari anima mea =|43|=  etc. Custodi me, Domine, ut pupillam oculi =|44|= . Pupilla non bene custoditur munda, quando est vapor, vel pulvis, vel humor in ea.


22. In the third place, it must be religious, closed as a vineyard wall. And so, it is good that a man restrain his taste, his tongue and his other senses: for if anyone thinks himself to be religious, not restraining his tongue but deceiving his own heart, that man's religion is vain. Hedge in thy ears with thorns. Our life must not be given to discourse, but to tears.
22. Tertio, quod sit vita religiosa, clausa sicut maceria vineae =|45|= ; sic oportet, quod homo faciat sibi restrictionem gustus, linguae et sensuum ceterorum: quia, si quis putat, se religiosum esse, non refrenans linguam suam, sed seducens cor suum; huius vana est religio =|46|= . Sepi aures tuas spinis =|41|= . Vita nostra non debet esse data loquelis, sed lacrymis.


23. In the fourth place, (the life of a saint) must edify both nearby and afar, being prepared to lift all men up and to lament if it be a cause of scandal to anyone. And it must beware of inflicting damage upon others: for if I alone have eaten well and others have starved, an evil would have been done. And this is the fruit of the others.
23. Quarto, quod sit vita aedificatoria proximi et remoti, ut sit paratus omnes aedificare et doleat, si quis ex ipso scandalizatur; et debet cavere damna alterius; quia, si ego solus bene comederem, et alii ieiunarent, male factum esset. Et iste est fructus aliorum.


7. Fruit of Wisdom or Zeal



a. Recognition of One's Inner Defects



24. Again, after these things we have spoken of— knowledge and sanctity — there follows the fruit of wisdom or zeal, which consists in four necessary things, that is, recognition of one's inner defects. Wherefore the following inscription appeared on the temple of Apollo: =|18|=  "Know yourself." Without this, it is impossible to attain wisdom. And so, the more a wise man advances, the more he despises himself; and it is a poor merchant who deceives himself: and that is what a man does who has a higher opinion of himself than he deserves. Instead, he should appreciate others and despise himself, and this is the foremost expression of the zeal for wisdom, that a man persuade himself of his own defects and become humble in his own eyes.
24. Item sequitur ex his praedictis, scilicet scientia et sanctitate, fructus sapientiae vel studium, quod consistit in quatuor, quae sunt necessaria, scilicet recognitio internorum propriorum defectuum. Unde in fronte Apollinis scriptum erat: «Recognosce te ipsum»; sine hoc impossibile est venire ad sapientiam. Unde quanto sapiens plus proficit, tanto plus se despicit. Unde malus mercator est qui se ipsum decipit; quod facit qui se appretiatur plus quam valet; sed debet alios appretiari et se despicere; et hoc est principalissimum studium sapientiae, ut sibi ipsi persuadeat homo suos defectus et fiat humilis in oculis suis.


b. Control of the Passions



25. The second aspect of the zeal of wisdom is control of the passions, which are the seven affective dispositions of the soul —four principal and three consequent: fear, sorrow, hope and joy; =|19|=  shame and hatred. It is characteristic of these that they go to excess in all matters. But when a child clamors too loudly, he is restrained. Likewise, a man should dominate and restrain these passions with a kind of judicial censure, so that when sorrow comes, he say to himself, "Remain in peace." And the same with the others. And get rid of this childishness and of these infantile dispositions. For children are the pursuers of passions: accursed is the child who is a hundred years oldlf =|20|=
25. Secundum studium sapientiae est castigatio passionum, quae sunt septem affectiones animae, quatuor principales et tres annexae: timor, dolor, spes, gaudium; desiderium, verecundia, odium. Etiam in omnibus his contingit excedere. Puer autem, quando nimis clamat, compescitur; sic homo censura quadam iudiciali debet domare et restringere huiusmodi passiones, ut, quando venit dolor, dicatur sibi: sta in pace, et sic de aliis; et praescinde istas puerilitates et pueriles affec-$tiones. Pueri enim insecutores sunt passionum; maledictus puer centum annorum =|48|= .


c. Ordaining of Thoughts



26. The third aspect of the zeal of wisdom is the ordaining of thoughts. A fool will peep through the window into the house. And in this regard, there is great difficulty in containing our imagination so well that in church we think of nothing but the office, and likewise in other circumstances. And it is necessary to ordain such thoughts so that the Holy Spirit be able to enter in the form of wisdom, for the holy spirit of discipline flees deceit and withdraws from senseless counsel. Hence, there is need for us to use clearly defined materials with which we can be properly concerned.
26. Tertium studium sapientiae est ordinatio cogitationum; unde: Stultus per fenestram prospicit in domum proximi =|49|= . Et hic est magna difficultas ordinare phantasmata nostra, ut, quando sumus in Ecclesia, nihil cogitemus nisi de officio, et sic de aliis; et necessario oportet ordinare has cogitationes ad hoc, quod Spiritus sanctus intret per sapientiam, quia Spiritus sanctus disciplinae effugiet fictum et auferet se a cogitationibus, quae sunt sine intellectu =|50|= . Et ideo oportet habere certas materias, circa quas nos exerceamus.


d. Elevation of Desire



27. The fourth aspect of the zeal of wisdom is the elevation of desire. This gives worth to other endeavors, so that forgetting what is behind, we strain forward to what is before. The wise man has eyes in his head. — The heart of a wise man is in his right hand. Now, the zeal of wisdom consists in this, that our endeavor be directed toward nothing but God who is all delight. These four are difficult, unless they are preceded by a fourfold effort: then they are easy. Hence, it is then easy to obtain dominion over the passions, as it is said of a certain philosopher =|21|=  who told his servant: "How severely would I have punished you, had I not been angry!"
27. Quartum studium sapientiae est desiderii sursumactio; hoc facit alia studia valere, ut posteriora obliti extendamus nos ad ea quae sunt priora =|51|= . Sapientis oculi in capite eius =|52|= . Cor sapientis in dextera eius =|53|= . Hoc est sapientis studium, ut non declinet studium nostrum nisi ad Deum, qui est totus desiderabilis =|54|= . -- Haec quatuor sunt difficilia, nisi habeantur prima studia, et cum his sunt facilia. Unde facile est tunc habere dominium supra passiones, ut dicitur de quodam philosopho, qui dixit servo suo: «Quantum te affligerem, si non essem iratus».


XXI. Twentieth Collation



A. First Treatise on the Fourth Vision, That of Understanding Suspended Through Contemplation, the Threefold Object of This Contemplation, That Is, with the Contemplation of the Heavenly Hierarchy, the Church Militant



2000 TWENTIETH COLLATION First Treatise on the Fourth Vision, That of Understanding Suspended Through Contemplation, Which Is Concerned in General with the Threefold Object of This Contemplation, That Is, with the Contemplation of the Heavenly Hierarchy, the Church Militant, and the Hierarchized Human Mind.


1. AND God said, "Let there he lights in the firmament of the heavens to separate day from night; let them serve as signs and for the fixing of seasons, days and years.... God made the two great lights, the greater light to rule the day and the smaller one to rule the night, and He made the stars. God set them in the firmament of the heavens to shed light upon the earth. . . . God saw that it was good. And there was evening and morning, the fourth day. It has been said above that God gave ... to Daniel the understanding of all visions. And, in this regard, there has been made a distinction of six visions corresponding to the works of the six days. Now, we must speak about the fourth, that is, [the vision] of understanding suspended through contemplation. However, it should be understood that no one has it, save the man of desires, nor can he have it save through intense desires. Hence, the Psalm: Taste and see how good the Lord is. "Taste" is said first, for there can be no sweet taste unless there come first an appetite for something tasty, or for receiving something tasty.
1. Dixit autem Deus: fiant luminaria in firmamento caeli et dividant diem ac noctem; et sint Hn signa et tempora et dies et annos. Et fecit Deus duo magna luminaria: luminare maius, ut praeesset diei, et luminare minus, ut praeesset nocti, et stellas. Et posuit eas in firmamento caeli, ut lucerent super terram; et vidit Deus, quod esset bonum. Et factum est vespere et mane, dies quartusDictum est supra, quod Deus dedit Danieli intelligentiam omnium visionum =|2|= ; et occasione eius distinctae sunt sex visiones correspondentes operibus sex dierum. -- Nunc dicendum est de quarta, scilicet intelligentiae per contemplationem suspensae. -- Sed intelligendum, quod hanc visionem nullus habet, nisi sit vir desideriorum =|3|= , nec potest eam habere nisi per magnum desiderium. Unde Psalmus: Gustate et videte, quoniam suavis est Dominus =|4|= . Primo dicit gustate. Gustus enim suavis non est, nisi praecedat appetitus gustabilis vel ad gustabile suscipiendum.


B. Only That Soul Can Be Suspended in Contemplation Which Has the Sun and the Moon and the Stars in its Firmament.



2. But this understanding suspended through contemplation may be understood through the work of the fourth day, when the lights were made. For only that soul can be suspended in contemplation which has the sun and the moon and the stars in its firmament. Consider what the world would have been, had there been no sun, moon or stars in the firmament. It would have been nothing but a kind of dark mass, for even with the light of the stars, the night is dark and horrible. It is the same with the soul: one deprived of the grace of contemplation is like a firmament without lights; but one which has it is like a firmament adorned with lights. And as a heaven deprived of these lights is different from another that has them, so is the soul that does not have [this grace] different from another that has it. Hence, it differs like the angel and the beast. For a man who lacks it is beast-like, with his face bent down to the earth, like an animal. But the man full of lights is fully angelic. =|1|=
2. Haec autem intelligentia per contemplationem suspensa datur intelligi per opus quartae diei, in qua luminaria facta sunt. Anima autem illa sola per contemplationem suspensa est, quae habet solem et lunam et stellas in firmamento suo. Considera, modo si non esset sol et luna et stellae in firmamento, quid esset mundus? Non esset nisi quaedam massa tenebrosa, quia etiam nox cum lumine siderum adhuc tenebrosa et horribilis est. Sic est de anima. Quae enim non habet gratiam contemplationis est sicut firmamentum sine luminaribus; sed quae habet est firmamentum ornatum luminibus. Et sicut differt caelum non habens haec luminaria a caelo habente, sic anima non habens, ab anima disposita ad hoc; unde differt sicut Angelus a bestia. Bestialis est homo carens his et habens faciem inclinatam ad terram sicut animal; sed plenus luminibus est totus angelicus.


3. On the fourth day, God made the sun and the moon and the stars, wherefore this vision is principally concerned with three things: the splendid consideration of the heavenly hierarchy; the splendid consideration of the Church Militant; and the splendid consideration of the hierarchized human mind. For unless [the soul] beholds the monarchy from above and sees at the same time the descent from it of the Church Militant, together with its hierarchical adornment,! it will never be contemplative. But if it does, it will have light — from the sun, the moon and the stars. The first consideration is compared to the light of the sun, the second to the light of the moon, and the third to the light of the stars. And happy is the soul that sees itself adorned and conformed to that Jerusalem, to the enlightened hierarchy, the angelic, and to the enlightening hierarchy, the divine sovereignty of the Persons.
3. In quarto die fecit Deus solem et lunam et stellas, quia haec visio est principaliter circa tria: circa luculentam considerationem caelestis hierarchiae, circa luculentam considerationem militantis Ecclesiae, circa luculentam considerationem mentis humanae hierarchizatae. Nisi, enim speculetur supernam monarchiam et contueatur descensum Ecclesiae militantis ab ea et suam ipsius hierarchicam adornationem, nunquam erit contemplativa; sed tunc habebit lucem solarem, lunarem et stellarem. Prima consideratio comparatur luci solari, secunda luci lunari, tertia luci stellari. Haec anima est felix, quae se contuetur ornatam et conformem illi Ierusalem, et hierarchiam illustratam, scilicet Angelicam, et hierarchiam illustrantem, scilicet divinum principatum personarum.


1. Splendid Consideration of the Heavenly Monarchy



4. And so, the splendid consideration of the heavenly monarchy^ is likened to the light of the sun, and this, for a threefold reason: because of the resplendence of its singular purity, because of the resplendence of its outstanding limpidity, and because of the resplendence of its life- giving fire. Such are the three aspects under which this consideration may be seen.
4. Luculenta ergo consideratio caelestis monarchiae assimilatur luci solari propter triplicem rationem: propter fulgorem puritatis praecipuae, propter fulgorem limpiditatis praeclarae, propter fulgorem inflammationis vivificae. Haec tria habet illa consideratio.


2. Purity



a. In Eternal Wisdom There is a Principle of Fecundity Tending to the Conceiving, the Bearing and the Bringing Forth



5. By reason of the first, it is a matter of supreme dignity that [the consideration of the heavenly Hierarchy] have purity and be far away from any filth of corruption. Concerning such purity. Ecclesiasticus writes: As the sun when it riseth ... in the high places of God, so is the beauty of a good wife for the ornament of her house. These words fit eternal wisdom and the mind enlightened by such wisdom. For it is like the sun in the high places, not on account of its position since the sun is not the highest of the planets, but the sun is called the highest by reason of its supreme purity, actuality and luminosity. Hence, it is, according to Isidore, =|2 |= "as it were, the only one to shine."}: This is eternal wisdom which reaches everywhere because of its purity. [The same consideration] is compared also to a good woman, not that there is in it anything female or effeminate, but because in eternal wisdom there is a principle of fecundity tending to the conceiving, the bearing and the bringing forth of everything that pertains to the universality of the laws. For all the exemplar reasons!  =|are|=  conceived from all eternity in the womb or uterus of eternal wisdom. [This is true] most of all [of the exemplary reason] of predestination. And so, because [the heavenly Hierarchy] conceived the principles of predestination from all eternity, it cannot fail to love us. And as it conceived them from all eternity, so also it produced [them] or bore [them] in time, and later, gave birth [to them] by suffering in the flesh. And the intelligence is able to understand this and in so doing, it has attained the highest contemplation.
5. Ratione primi est summae dignitatis et excellentiae, quae habet puritatem et est elongata ab omni faece corruptionis. De ista puritate Ecclesiasticus: Sicut sol oriens in altissimis Dei, sic mulieris bonae species in ornamentum domus suae =|5|= . Haec verba conveniunt aeternae sapientiae et menti aeterna sapientia illustratae. Est enim sicut sol in altissimis, non propter positionem, quia sol non est altior omnibus planetis, sed sol dicitur altissimus ratione altissimae puritatis, actualitatis et luminositatis; unde est secundum Isidorum «quasi solus lucens». Haec est sapientia aeterna, quae ubique attingit propter suam munditiam =|6|= . -- Comparatur autem mulieri bonae, non propter aliquod femineum vel effeminatum, quod sit in ipso; sed quia in sapientia aeterna est ratio fecunditatis ad concipiendum, producendum et pariendum quidquid est de universitate legum. Omnes enim rationes exemplares concipiuntur ab aeterno in vulva aeternae sapientiae seu utero, et maxime praedestinationis. Unde quia ab aeterno rationes praedestinationis concepit, non potest nos non diligere; et sicut ab aeterno concepit, sic in tempore produxit sive peperit, et postea in carne patiendo parturivit. Et potest hoc intelligere intellectus et habet altissimam contemplationem.


6. There is, then, a way of considering this utterly pure being: utterly pure because utterly simple, utterly simple because supremely one. It is said to Israel, the contemplative: "Hear, O Israel! The Lord is our God, the Lord alone!" Likewise, the contemplative soul is represented by a woman, and contemplative souls are called the daughters of Jerusalem, because they are beautiful and fruitful. And beauty is fruitfulness, for the more light they conceive, the more beautiful they are. Hence, blessed are the clean of heart, for they shall see God. Wherefore it is fitting to enter contemplation, not through reason, but through purity. Wherefore His communication is with the simple, who have pure minds, not blinded by overwhelming malice. That is why the souls that are beautiful and fruitful are called the daughters of Jerusalem and are represented by the sun because of its beauty, and by the woman because of her fruitfulness.
6. Est ergo haec consideratio illius esse purissimi; purissimum autem, quia simplicissimum, simplicissimum autem, quia summe unum.$Ideo dicitur Israel, viro contemplativo: Audi Israel, Dominus Deus tuus unus est =|1|= . -- Similiter anima contemplativa intelligitur per mulierem illam; et dicuntur animae contemplativae filiae Ierusalem =|8|= , quia formosae et fecundae. Et formositas est fecunditas, quia, quanto plus concipiunt lumina, tanto formosiores sunt; unde: Beati mundo corde} quoniam ipsi Deum videbunt =|9|= . Unde per puritatem, non per rationem, oportet introire in contemplationem. Et ideo cum simplicibus sermocinatio eius =|10|= ; qui habent mentes puras, non excaecatas propter malitiam supervenientem. Animae ergo, quae sunt formosae et fecundae, dicuntur filiae Ierusalem et intelliguntur per solem ratione formositatis, et per mulierem ratione fecunditatis.


b. Contemplative Souls are Called the Daughters of Jerusalem, Because They are Beautiful and Fruitful



7. In the second place [this same consideration] is compared to the sun because of the resplendence of its outstanding limpidity: for the greater the resplendence, the greater the clarity and limpidity. Hence, in Ecclesiasticus: As the rising sun is clear to all, so the glory of the Lord shines upon all His works. And Gregory =|3|=  writes: "How is it that they do not see, who see the One who sees all?" The soul of blessed Benedict was truly contemplative, for he saw the whole world in a single sunray. He had not studied much, nor did he own many books, for he had left the world when he was thirty-one and lived hidden in the forest with wild animals, as one of them, so much so that shepherds mistook him for one. And, as Gregory =|4|=  explains, the world was not narrowed to a single sunray, but his soul was expanded, for he saw all things in the One in relation to whom all creatures are narrow and small and limited in extent. Hence, in Wisdom: Before you the whole universe is as a grain from a balance, or a drop of morning dew come down upon the earth. And this outstanding clarity is referred to in [the same] book of Wisdom: For she is fairer than the 1 sun and surpasses every constellation of the stars. Compared to light, she takes precedence.
7. Secundo comparatur soli propter fulgorem limpiditatis praeclarae; ubi maior fulgor, ibi maior claritas et limpiditas; unde Ecclesiasticus: Sol illuminans per omnia respexit, et gloria Domini plenum est opus eius =|11|= . Unde Gregorius: «Quid est, quod non videant qui videntem omnia vident?». -- Anima beati Benedicti bene fuit contemplativa, quae totum mundum vidit in uno radio solis. Non multum studuerat ipse nec libros habebat, quia decimo tertio anno mundum dimiserat et latitabat inter fruteta cum bestiis, sicut una fera; unde etiam pastores crediderunt eum feram. Et ut dicit Gregorius, mundus non fuit coangustatus in uno radio solis, sed eius animus fuit dilatatus, qui vidit omnia in illo cuius magnitudine omnis creatura angusta est et parva et modica. Unde in Sapientia: Quasi momentum staterae est ante te orbis terrarum et sicut gutta roris antelucani =|12|= . De hac praeclaritate in libro Sapientiae: Est enim speciosior sole et super omnem dispositionem stellarum, luci comparata invenitur prior =|13|= .


8. Consider that in the contemplative soul the sphere of the universe is described, and a certain heavenly spirit that has inscribed within it the whole sphere. There is also described in it the supersubstantial radiation}: =|5|=  which contains both the sphere of the universe and the universe of the spirits. Wherefore within the contemplative soul there are marvelous lights and a marvelous beauty. And so, as the world, beautiful from top to bottom, from beginning to end, described in the soul produces a mirror; and any spirit is a mirror: so also in the soul there is a marvelous multiplicity, supreme order, and supreme proportionality. Beautiful, then, is the universe of the spirit, for as often as there is reflected in the soul the disposition of the earthly sphere, and of the spirits of the blessed, and of the supersubstantial radiation, so often is there within it a marvelous refulgence: and because of this, it is more beautiful than the sun. Again, the radiation which contains every disposition and represents every theory exists within the soul, and the soul is absorbed in it through a transformation of the mind in God: wherefore the soul is above any disposition of the stars.
8. Considera, quod in anima contemplativa describitur universus orbis et quilibet spiritus caelestis, qui in se habet descriptum totum orbem; describitur etiam radius supersubstantialis, qui et universum orbem et universum spiritum continet. Ergo in anima contemplativa mira sunt lumina et mira pulcritudo. Sic ergo mundus, pulcher a summo ad imum, ab initio ad finem, descriptus in anima facit speculum; et quilibet spiritus est speculum: et sic in anima est mira numerositas, summus ordo, summa proportionalitas. Pulcra ergo est universitas spirituum, quia, quoties in anima sic relucet dispositio orbis terrarum et spirituum beatorum et radii supersubstantialis, toties in ea est mira refulgentia; et ex hoc est speciosior sole. Rursus, radius, qui continet omnem dispositionem et repraesentat omnes theorias, est in$anima, et in illo anima absorbetur per mentis transformationem in Deum; et ideo est anima super omnem dispositionem stellarum.


3. Brilliance of a Life-giving Fire



9. In the third place, this consideration [of the heavenly Hierarchy] is compared to sunlight because of the brilliance of a life-giving fire. Indeed, the radiation of the sun serves to give life, not to consume it except by accident or by reason of some [defective] disposition. Speaking of this inflaming heat, Ecclesiasticus says: The sun, resplendent at its rising: what a wonderful work of the Lord it is! At noon it scorches the surface of the earth, and who can hear its fiery heat? Like a blazing furnace for melting metal, the sun in its course sets the mountains aflame; by its fiery darts the land is consumed; the eyes are dazzled by its light. He wants to say that when the sun itself is gazed upon, this same sun so announces what is about it and within it, and rises on the hemisphere of our mind in such a way, that at noon it scorches the surface of the earth, and who can bear its fiery heat? For the souls that are not lifted up are as it were in winter; those lifted up to a mediocre level of contemplation are as it were in spring, while those lifted up to ecstatic raptures are as it were in summer, tasting the fruits of autumn, for they are in repose. Then indeed, in autumn, do they gather the fruit; and they make feasts and celebrate them in autumn. But where does [the sun] scorch at noon? Where it exists in the totality of its power, that is, in heaven.
9. Tertio, haec consideratio comparatur luci solari propter fulgorem inflammationis vivificae. Est enim radius solis ad vivificandum, non ad consumendum nisi per accidens et ratione alicuius dispositionis. De hoc calore inflammante Ecclesiasticus: Sol in aspectu annuntians in exitu, vas admirabile opus Excelsi. In meridiano exurit terram, et in conspectu ardoris eius quis poterit sustinere? Tripliciter sol exurens montes, radios igneos exsufflans et refulgens radiis suis excaecat oculos =|14|= . -- Vult dicere, quod quando ille sol aspicitur, quod ipse sol sic annuntiat quae sunt apud se et in se, et oritur super hemisphaerium mentis nostrae, quod in meridiano exurit, et in conspectu ardoris eius non poterit aliquis sustinere. -- Animae enim non sublevatae sunt quasi in hieme; sed quae sunt elevatae ad mediocrem contemplationem sunt quasi in vere; sed quae elevatae sunt ad excessus ecstaticos sunt sicut in aestate et percipiunt fructus autumnales, quia quiescunt. Tunc enim in autumno colligunt fructus et faciunt et celebrant solemnitates in autumno =|15|= . Sed ubi exurit in meridie? Quando in maxima virtute est, hoc est in caelo.


10. This, indeed, is perfect contemplation. And no one can explain these inflammations and ardors which that Sun sends out to souls that enjoy spiritual raptures. If, indeed, according to the Apostle, the groanings with which the Spirit pleads for us are unutterable, what then of the raptures, what of the ardors? Hence, Who of us can live with the consuming fire? And truly the sun scorches in a threefold manner, because the eternal Sun irradiates and inflames this hierarchical earth and this human earth with a triple or threefold love and it lifts up both to God: the former, through tending, vision and fruition; the latter, through charity, from a pure heart and a good conscience and faith unfeigned. =|6|=  I refer to the heavenly Hierarchy disposed according to the three hierarchies.
10. Haec enim est perfecta Contemplatio; et illas inflammationes et ardores, quos emittit ille sol in animas illas, quae habent excessus mentales, nullus potest explicare. Si enim secundum Apostolum gemitus sunt inenarrabili quibus postulat pro nobis Spiritus =|16|= , quid sunt excessus? quid ardores? Unde: Quis ex vobis poterit habitare cum ardoribus sempiternis? =|11|= . -- Et vere sol exurit tripliciter, quia sol aeternus terram illam hierarchicam et istam humanam irradiat et inflammat triplici vel triformi amore et sursum agit in Deum utramque: illam per tentionem, visionem et fruitionem; hanc per caritatem de corde puro, conscientia bona, fide non ficta =|18|= ; hierarchiam, dico, caelestem secundum trinas hierarchias collocatam.


a. Intellect is in Darkness, for It is Unable to Seek Since the Matter Transcends Every Power of Search



11. But how is it that this radiation blinds when it should have enlightened? This blinding, in fact, is supreme illumination, because it occurs in the loftiest part of the mind, beyond the range of investigation of the human intellect.